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Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1202251, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245521
Children (Basel) ; 9(1)2021 Dec 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244824


Introduction: COVID-19 infections resulting in pathological kidney manifestations have frequently been reported in adults since the onset of the global COVID-19 pandemic in December 2019. Gradually, there have been an increased number of COVID-19-associated intrinsic kidney pathologies in children and adolescents reported as well. The pathophysiological mechanisms between COVID-19 and the onset of kidney pathology are not fully known in children; it remains a challenge to distinguish between intrinsic kidney pathologies that were caused directly by COVID-19 viral invasion, and cases which occurred as a result of multisystem inflammatory syndrome due to the infection. This challenge is made more difficult in children, due to the ethical limitations of performing kidney biopsies to reach a biopsy-proven diagnosis. Although previous systematic reviews have summarized the various pathological kidney manifestations that have occurred in adults following acute COVID-19 infection, such reviews have not yet been published for children and adolescents. We describe the results of a systematic review for intrinsic kidney pathology following COVID-19 infection in children and adolescents. Methods: A systematic literature search of published data up until 31 October was completed through the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Research articles reporting new-onset or relapsed intrinsic kidney pathology in children or adolescents (≤18 years) following acute COVID-19 infection were included for qualitative review. COVID-19 infection status was defined by a positive result from a RT-PCR, or nuclear antibody testing. Only full-text articles published in the English language were selected for review. Results: Twenty-nine cases from fifteen articles were included in the qualitative synthesis of this systematic review. Nephrotic syndrome, as an umbrella condition, appeared as the most frequently observed presentation (20 cases) with disease remission noted in all cases with steroid treatment. Other cases included numerous glomerulonephritides, such as acute necrotizing glomerulonephritis, MPO vasculitis and collapsing glomerulopathy, and thrombotic microangiopathies, such as aHUS. For patients with transplanted kidneys, T-cell-mediated rejection and mild tubular interstitial infiltration were noted following testing positive for COVID-19. There were no mortalities reported in any of the included cases, although two patients remained dialysis dependent at hospital discharge. Conclusion: This systematic review highlights the various intrinsic pathological kidney manifestations in children and adolescents as a result of acute COVID-19 infection. The clinical timeline and presentation of these cases support the mechanistic hypothesis between COVID-19 infection and the onset of intrinsic kidney pathologies within this context. The progressive introduction of vaccination programs for children and adolescents may hopefully reduce the severity of COVID-19-associated illnesses, and pathological kidney manifestations in this population.

Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(3): 458-466, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242956


OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the spectrum, characteristics and outcomes of neurologic manifestations associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre retrospective study during the French coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in March-April 2020. All COVID-19 patients with de novo neurologic manifestations were eligible. RESULTS: We included 222 COVID-19 patients with neurologic manifestations from 46 centres in France. Median (interquartile range, IQR) age was 65 (53-72) years and 136 patients (61.3%) were male. COVID-19 was severe or critical in 102 patients (45.2%). The most common neurologic diseases were COVID-19-associated encephalopathy (67/222, 30.2%), acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome (57/222, 25.7%), encephalitis (21/222, 9.5%) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (15/222, 6.8%). Neurologic manifestations appeared after the first COVID-19 symptoms with a median (IQR) delay of 6 (3-8) days in COVID-19-associated encephalopathy, 7 (5-10) days in encephalitis, 12 (7-18) days in acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome and 18 (15-28) days in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Brain imaging was performed in 192 patients (86.5%), including 157 magnetic resonance imaging (70.7%). Among patients with acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome, 13 (22.8%) of 57 had multiterritory ischaemic strokes, with large vessel thrombosis in 16 (28.1%) of 57. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of encephalitis patients showed heterogeneous acute nonvascular lesions in 14 (66.7%) of 21. Cerebrospinal fluid of 97 patients (43.7%) was analysed, with pleocytosis found in 18 patients (18.6%) and a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result in two patients with encephalitis. The median (IQR) follow-up was 24 (17-34) days with a high short-term mortality rate (28/222, 12.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical spectrum and outcomes of neurologic manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were broad and heterogeneous, suggesting different underlying pathogenic processes.

COVID-19/complicaciones , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/etiología , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/patología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/diagnóstico , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/epidemiología , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
Hum Fertil (Camb) ; : 1-6, 2021 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242660


Men show higher vulnerability to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19) and present with depleted testosterone levels. Reports pertaining to high luteinizing hormone (LH), while diminished levels of in COVID-19 patients negate the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis mediated lowering of testosterone. Although not evidenced, high testicular expression of angiotensin-converting enzymes-2 (ACE2), that aids viral entry into cells, may suggest direct viral-testicular invasion. However, secondary inflammation and oxidative stress (OS), owing to SARS-CoV-2 infection, are more likely to impair steroidogenesis. Moreover, blockage of ACE2 aided angiotensin II into angiotensin (1-7) conversion may also affect testosterone synthesis. SARS-CoV-2, by mimicking adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) hormones, may trigger host antibodies against the ACTH molecules to suppress host stress response. This commentary concisely presents the possible mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect testosterone levels, which possibly result in compromised male reproductive health.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 69: 102489, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241733


BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) imaging data is dispersed in numerous publications. A cohesive literature review is to be assembled. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the existing literature on Covid-19 pneumonia imaging including precautionary measures for radiology departments, Chest CT's role in diagnosis and management, imaging findings of Covid-19 patients including children and pregnant women, artificial intelligence applications and practical recommendations. METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed/med line electronic databases. RESULTS: The radiology department's staff is on the front line of the novel coronavirus outbreak. Strict adherence to precautionary measures is the main defense against infection's spread. Although nucleic acid testing is Covid-19's pneumonia diagnosis gold standard; kits shortage and low sensitivity led to the implementation of the highly sensitive chest computed tomography amidst initial diagnostic tools. Initial Covid-19 CT features comprise bilateral, peripheral or posterior, multilobar ground-glass opacities, predominantly in the lower lobes. Consolidations superimposed on ground-glass opacifications are found in few cases, preponderantly in the elderly. In later disease stages, GGO transformation into multifocal consolidations, thickened interlobular and intralobular lines, crazy paving, traction bronchiectasis, pleural thickening, and subpleural bands are reported. Standardized CT reporting is recommended to guide radiologists. While lung ultrasound, pulmonary MRI, and PET CT are not Covid-19 pneumonia's first-line investigative diagnostic modalities, their characteristic findings and clinical value are outlined. Artificial intelligence's role in strengthening available imaging tools is discussed. CONCLUSION: This review offers an exhaustive analysis of the current literature on imaging role and findings in COVID-19 pneumonia.

Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12: 100875, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240557
Int J Fertil Steril ; 15(4): 241-245, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240355


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic struck global health systems with overgrowing demands in many fields of health care; yet, reproductive care, particularly pregnancy care remains a special focus of interest. Pregnancy is a major physiologic change that alters temporarily normal function of many organs, and specifically the immune system. Therefore, pregnant women are more susceptible to respiratory pathogens compared to the others. The current pandemic may have serious consequences on pregnancy whether directly or indirectly. In the present review, direct and indirect possible adverse effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on female reproductive system by focusing on pregnancy and delivery has been discussed in details. In addition, the pregnancy consequences and whether maternal infection can affect infants were deliberated. The adverse impact of luck down and related psychological complications and obesity on pregnant women were discussed as well. Finally, the effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination on maternal health and pregnancy outcome was analyzed.

Cytometry A ; 2021 Jun 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238863


In symptomatic patients with acute Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), lymphocytopenia is one of the most prominent laboratory findings. However, to date age and gender have not been considered in assessment of COVID-19-related cell count alterations. In this study, the impact of COVID-19 as well as age and gender on a large variety of lymphocyte subsets was analyzed in 33 COVID-19 patients and compared with cell counts in 50 healthy humans. We confirm that cell counts of total lymphocytes, B, NK, cytotoxic and helper T cells are reduced in patients with severe COVID-19, and this tendency was observed in patients with moderate COVID-19. Decreased cell counts were also found in all subsets of these cell types, except for CD4+ and CD8+ effector memory RA+ (EMRA) and terminal effector CD8+ cells. In multivariate analysis however, we show that in addition to COVID-19, there is an age-dependent reduction of total, central memory (CM), and early CD8+ cell subsets, as well as naïve, CM, and regulatory CD4+ cell subsets. Remarkably, reduced naïve CD8+ cell counts could be attributed to age alone, and not to COVID-19. By contrast, decreases in other subsets could be largely attributed to COVID-19, and only partly to age. In addition to COVID-19, male gender was a major factor influencing lower counts of CD3+ and CD4+ lymphocyte numbers. Our study confirms that cell counts of lymphocytes and their subsets are reduced in patients with COVID-19, but that age and gender must be considered when interpreting the altered cell counts.

Braz J Anesthesiol ; 2021 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238718


The prone position is extensively used to improve oxygenation in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Occasionally, these patients exhibit cardiac and respiratory functions so severely compromised they cannot tolerate lying in the supine position, not even for the time required to insert a central venous catheter. The authors describe three cases of successful ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein cannulation in prone position. The alternative approach here described enables greater safety and well-being for the patient, reduces the number of episodes of decompensation, and risk of tracheal extubation and loss of in-situ vascular lines.

Am Surg ; : 31348211023416, 2021 May 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237873


COVID-19 refers to viral respiratory infections and is the predisposing factor for the development of venous and arterial thrombotic events due to a pronounced inflammatory response, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and stasis. Recent studies have confirmed a high incidence of thromboembolic events, especially in the group of patients with severe coronavirus pneumonia. There have been an increasing number of reports of peripheral arterial thrombosis as well. Most cases of arterial thrombosis are noted in critical ill patients in intensive care setting. However, an increase of adverse arterial events was also noted in cases of asymptomatic or mild forms of COVID-19. Herein, we report a case of patient with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, who developed a threatening lower limb ischemia. Our own clinical observation suggests that COVID-19-associated arterial thrombosis can be successfully treated by embolectomy, administration of in-hospital parenteral anticoagulation, and continuation of antithrombotic therapy with a "vascular" dose of rivaroxaban after discharge.

Singapore Med J ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237404


INTRODUCTION: We aimed to describe the extrapulmonary manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, including their frequency, onset with respect to respiratory symptoms, pathogenesis and association with disease severity. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE and Embase databases for SARS-CoV-2-related studies. Meta-analysis, observational studies, case series and case reports published in English or Chinese between 1 January and 1 May 2020 were included. Reports with only paediatric or obstetric cases were excluded. RESULTS: 169 articles were included. Early manifestations (preceding respiratory symptoms until Day 6 of onset) included olfactory and gustatory disturbance (self-reported in up to 68% and 85% of cases, respectively), gastrointestinal symptoms (up to 65.9%) and rash (up to 20.4%). From Day 7 onwards, hypercytokinaemia, paralleled multi-organ complications including acute cardiac injury (pooled incidence of 17.7% in 1,412 patients, mostly with severe disease and 17.4% mortality), kidney and liver injury (up to 17% and 33%, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (up to 30%). Hypercoagulability resulted in venous thromboembolic events in up to 31% of all patients. Uncommon disease presentation and complications comprised Guillain-Barré syndrome, rhabdomyolysis, otitis media, meningoencephalitis and spontaneous pneumomediastinum. CONCLUSION: Although the systemic manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection are variegated, they are deeply interwoven by shared mechanisms. Two phases of extrapulmonary disease were identified: (a) an early phase with possible gastrointestinal, ocular and cutaneous involvement and (b) a late phase characterised by multiorgan dysfunction and clinical deterioration. A clear, multidisciplinary consensus to define and approach thromboinflammation and cytokine release syndrome in SARS-CoV-2 is needed.

Adv Nutr ; 2021 Dec 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237313


The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has warranted the need to investigate potential therapies or prophylaxis against this infectious respiratory disease. There is emerging evidence about the potential role of nutrients on COVID-19 in addition to using medications such as hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. This scoping review aims to explore the literature evaluating the effect of immunomodulatory nutrients on the outcomes including hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, oxygen requirement, and mortality in COVID-19 patients. A literature search of databases including Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane, Scopus, and PubMed, as well as hand-searching in Google Scholar (up to 10 February 2021) was conducted. All human studies with different study designs and without limitation on publication year were included except for non-English-language and review articles. Overall, out of 4412 studies, 19 met our inclusion criteria. Four studies examined the impact of supplementation with vitamin C, 4 studies - zinc, 8 studies - vitamin D, and 3 studies investigated the combination of 2 (zinc and vitamin C) or 3 (vitamin D, vitamin B-12, and magnesium) nutrients. Although limited data exist, available evidence demonstrated that supplementation with immune-supportive micronutrients such as vitamins D and C and zinc may modulate immunity and alleviate the severity and risk of infection. The effectiveness of vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc on COVID-19 was different based on baseline nutrient status, the duration and dosage of nutrient therapy, time of administration, and severity of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease. This review indicated that supplementation with high-dose vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc may alleviate the complications caused by COVID-19, including inflammatory markers, oxygen therapy, length of hospitalization, and mortality; however, studies were mixed regarding these effects. Further randomized clinical trials are necessary to identify the most effective nutrients and the safe dosage to combat SARS-CoV-2.

Brain Hemorrhages ; 2(2): 88-90, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236619


BACKGROUND: Covid-19 pandemic has been manifested mainly as respiratory and constitutional symptoms. Though, it may demonstrate the involvement of other systems i.e. cardiovascular system (CVS), central nervous system (CNS) or gastrointestinal system (GI). DISCUSSION: Systemic manifestation of Covid-19 requires further research. Recent surveys revealed a few alarming facts about Covid-19, that, when it hits the brain, can cause some serious complications like; psychosis, stroke and dementia. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, the case is about two patients, having PCR confirmed Covid-19 and radiographic evidence of stroke, who eventually died during hospital stay. Data collection was done after informed consent and in retrospective manner.

Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211005113, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236460


We describe a cost-effective solution to limit aerosol transmission to the surgeon and other personnel in the operating room during otologic surgery.

Hosp Top ; : 1-8, 2021 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235382


INTRODUCTION: The possibility of surface transmission in hospitals with high density of COVID- 19 patients is unneglectable. The aim of this study is to determine the extent of surface contamination in coronavirus central hospital of Ilam province in western Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, 205 samples were taken from environmental surfaces in hospital. SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected by Real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: 121 out of 205 (50.02%) samples were positive. The most contaminated objects were toilet sites (5/5,100% ICU; 5/5, 100% isolation wards). CONCLUSION: High surface contamination with SARS-CoV-2 proposes the surface as a potential route of transmission.

Med. lab ; 26(3): 237-259, 2022. Tabs, ilus, Grafs
Artículo en Español | WHO COVID, LILACS (Américas) | ID: covidwho-20239968


La enfermedad COVID­19 es causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2, descrito por primera vez en diciembre del 2019 en Wuhan, China, y declarada en marzo del 2020 como una pandemia mundial. Actualmente existen diversos métodos diagnósticos para COVID-19, siendo el estándar de oro la detección del material genético mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), en su variante, la RT-PCR, que detecta el material genético de tipo ARN presente en el virus. Sin embargo, es necesario disponer de pruebas rápidas con alta sensibilidad y precisión para realizarlas a gran escala y brindar un diagnóstico oportuno. Adicionalmente, se debe disponer de otras herramientas que, si bien no van a establecer un diagnóstico, le van a permitir al profesional brindar un mejor manejo clínico y epidemiológico que ayuden a predecir el agravamiento del paciente y su posible ingreso a UCI, destacando entre estas los niveles de dímero D, linfocitos, ferritina, urea y creatinina, entre otras. En esta revisión se evalúa la utilidad y limitaciones de los diferentes métodos diagnósticos para COVID-19, al igual que las características, fisiopatología y respuesta inmune al SARS-CoV-2, así como algunos aspectos preanalíticos de importancia que ayudan a minimizar errores en el diagnóstico como consecuencia de procedimientos incorrectos en la toma, transporte y conservación de la muestra, y que permiten al profesional emitir resultados veraces y confiables. Lo anterior se realizó basado en artículos originales, revisiones y guías clínicas

COVID­19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, first described in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and declared a global pandemic in March 2020. Currently there are various diagnostic methods for COVID-19, the gold standard is the detection of genetic material through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in its variant, RT-PCR, which detects RNA-type genetic material present in the virus. However, it is necessary to have rapid tests with high sensitivity and precision to be performed on a large scale and provide timely diagnosis. Furthermore, other tools must be available, and although they will not establish the diagnosis, will allow the professional to provide better clinical and epidemiological management that will help predict the worsening of the patient and possible admission to the ICU. Among these, levels of D-dimer, lymphocytes, ferritin, urea and creatinine. In this review, the usefulness and limitations of the different diagnostic methods for COVID-19 are evaluated, as well as the characteristics, pathophysiology and immune response to SARS-CoV-2, and some important preanalytical aspects that allow minimizing diagnostic errors as a consequence of incorrect procedures in the collection, transport and conservation of the sample, that allow the professional to yield accurate and reliable results. This article was completed based on original articles, reviews and clinical guidelines

SARS-CoV-2 , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Mediadores de Inflamación , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos , Diagnóstico , Ferritinas , COVID-19 , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa , Métodos
Pensar Prát. (Online) ; 26Fev. 2023.
Artículo en Portugués | WHO COVID, LILACS (Américas) | ID: covidwho-20238717


Este artigo objetivou analisar campanhas e ações em prol do futebol de mulheres desencadeadas durante a pandemia da covid-19. As análises apresentadas são fruto de um recorte de pesquisa que tomou os sites de notícias como local de produção de dados. Utilizando o buscador do Google, produzimos um levantamento de notícias a partir do termo "futebol feminino" no período entre fevereiro a dezembro de 2020 e realizamos a categorização temática para proceder com as análises. A partir dos conceitos de acontecimento (FOUCAULT, 2014) e bio(necro)política (GALLO, 2021), analisamos a emergência de uma rede de solidariedade como estratégia de apoio ao futebol praticado por mulheres através de campanhas e ações que visaram auxiliar a modalidade a mitigar os efeitos da pandemia da covid-19 (AU).

This article aimed to analyze social enterprises and ac-tions that were triggered by the covid-19 pandemic, and supported women's football during the health crisis. The analyses discussed here are the outcome of a data analysis that considered relevant news websites as a place of data production. Using the Google sear-ch engine, we produced a news survey based on the term "futebol feminino" in the period between February and December 2020 and carried out the thematic categorization to proceed with the analyses. We employed the concepts of event (FOUCAULT, 2014) and bio(necro)politics (GALLO, 2021) to discuss the emergence of these networks, in order to help the sport to mitigate the effects of the covid-19 pandemic (AU).

Este artículo tuvo como objetivo analizar las campañas y acciones de apoyo al fútbol femenino desencadenadas durante la pandemia del covid-19. Los análisis presentados son el resul-tado de un recorte de investigación que tuvo como lugar de pro-ducción de datos los sitios web de noticias. Utilizando el busca-dor de Google, elaboramos una encuesta de noticias en base al término "futebol feminino" en el período comprendido entre fe-brero y diciembre de 2020 y realizamos la categorización temática para proceder con los análisis. A partir de los conceptos de evento (FOUCAULT, 2014) y bio(necro)política (GALLO, 2021) analizamos el surgimiento de una red solidaria como estrategia de apoyo al fútbol practicado por mujeres a través de campañas y acciones que pretendían ayudar a la modalidad a mitigar los efectos de la pandemia del covid-19. La movilización y el compromiso alrededor a estas campañas contribuyeron a mantener el deporte visible y vivo en la escena brasileña en medio de la crisis (AU).

Humanos , Femenino , Fútbol , Apoyo Social , Atletas , Solidaridad , COVID-19 , Mujeres , Estrategias de Salud