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1.
Technol Health Care ; 30(6): 1287-1298, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089738

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic broke out in 2019 and rapidly spread across the globe. Most of the severe and dead cases are middle-aged and elderly patients with chronic systemic diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the association between fasting blood glucose (FPG) and body mass index (BMI) levels in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) under different conditions. METHODS: Experimental-related information (age, gender, BMI, and FPG on the second day of admission) from 86 COVID-19 cases (47 males and 39 females) with an average age of (39 ± 17) years was collected in April and November 2020. These cases were divided into three groups according to the most severe classification of each case determined by the clinical early warning indicators of severe-critically illness, the degree of progression, and the treatment plan shown in the diagnosis and treatment plan of COVID-19 pneumonia. Statistical models were used to analyze the differences in the levels of FPG and BMI, age, and gender among the three groups. RESULTS: 1. Experimental group: 21 patients with asymptomatic or and mild symptoms (group A), 45 patients with common non-progression (group B), and 20 patients with common progression and severe symptoms (group C). 2. The age differences among the three groups were statistically significant and elderly patients had a higher risk of severe disease (t= 4.1404, 3.3933, 9.2123, P= 0.0001, 0.0012, 0.0000). There was a higher proportion of females than males in the normal progression and severe disease cases (χ2= 5.512, P= 0.019). 3. The level of FPG was significantly higher in group C than in group A (t= 3.1655, P= 0.0030) and B (t= 2.0212, P= 0.0475). The number of diabetes or IFG in group C was significantly higher than in group A (χ2= 5.979, P= 0.014) and group B (χ2= 6.088, P= 0.014). 4. BMI was significantly higher in group C than in groups A (t= 3.8839, P= 0.0004) and B (t= 3.8188, P= 0.0003). The number of overweight or obese patients in group C was significantly higher than in groups A (χ2= 8.838, P= 0.003) and B (χ2= 10.794, P= 0.001). 5. Patients' age, gender, and FPG were independent risk factors for COVID-19 disease progression (ß= 0.380, 0.191, 0.186; P= 0.000, 0.034, 0.045). CONCLUSION: The levels of FPG and BMI were significantly increased in the population with common progressive and severe COVID-19. FPG and age are independent risk factors for the progression of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiología , Glucemia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Ayuno , Pandemias
2.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071662

RESUMEN

The unpredictable nature of new variants of coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-highly transmissible and some with vaccine-resistance, have led to an increased need for feasible lifestyle modifications as complementary therapies. Systemic inflammation is the common hallmark of communicable diseases like severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes mellitus, and cancers, all for which mitigation of severe outcomes is of paramount importance. Dietary quality is associated with NCDs, and intermittent fasting (IF) has been suggested as an effective approach for treatment and prevention of some NCDs, similar to that of caloric restriction. There is a paucity of high-quality data from randomized controlled trials regarding the impact of IF and the intake of specific nutrients on inflammation and post-infection outcomes in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The current review of recent literature was performed to explore the immunomodulatory roles of IF regimens and supplements involving the intake of specific nutrients including vitamins (A, B, C, D, and E), zinc, and nutraceuticals (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, quercetin, and probiotics) on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, with consideration of how they may be related to SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Ayuno , Quercetina , Inflamación , Vitaminas , Estrés Oxidativo , Zinc , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados
3.
Nat Metab ; 4(10): 1229-1231, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050559

Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Ayuno , Humanos
4.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274327, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043205

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the eating behaviours of many people, especially Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients. This study aimed to determine the level of mindful eating and its associated factors among T2DM patients at a primary care clinic near Kuala Lumpur. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 18th December 2020 to 5th March 2021 during the movement control order in Malaysia. Respondents were recruited using systematic random sampling via an electronic appointment system. They completed a questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic, clinical profiles, and a Malay-translated Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ-M). Their blood pressure and body mass index were taken during the appointment day while the remaining clinical profiles such as fasting blood sugar (FBS) were obtained from the medical record. Two hundred respondents were recruited with a mean (SD) age of 57.0 (10.90) years. More than half of them were female (54%). Two-thirds of them had uncontrolled diabetes based on elevated FBS of >7 mmol/L (61.5%) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of >7% (67%), respectively. The mean (SD) score for mindful eating was 2.9 (0.25). Multiple logistic regression revealed that older respondents had a higher level of mindful eating [(AOR = 1.05, p-value 0.01, 95% CI = 1.01-1.09)]. In addition, elevated FBS level was also associated with a greater level of mindful eating [(AOR = 2.55, p-value 0.01, 95% CI = 1.28-5.07)]. Therefore, healthcare providers should promote mindful eating during the consultation, especially among younger patients. Blood glucose monitoring is also recommended to instil awareness of the importance of healthy eating habits.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glucemia , Automonitorización de la Glucosa Sanguínea , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Ayuno , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias
5.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(9): 953-962, 2022 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041186

RESUMEN

Importance: It is unclear how effective intermittent fasting is for losing weight and body fat, and the effects may depend on the timing of the eating window. This randomized trial compared time-restricted eating (TRE) with eating over a period of 12 or more hours while matching weight-loss counseling across groups. Objective: To determine whether practicing TRE by eating early in the day (eTRE) is more effective for weight loss, fat loss, and cardiometabolic health than eating over a period of 12 or more hours. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was a 14-week, parallel-arm, randomized clinical trial conducted between August 2018 and April 2020. Participants were adults aged 25 to 75 years with obesity and who received weight-loss treatment through the Weight Loss Medicine Clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital. Interventions: All participants received weight-loss treatment (energy restriction [ER]) and were randomized to eTRE plus ER (8-hour eating window from 7:00 to 15:00) or control eating (CON) plus ER (≥12-hour window). Main Outcomes and Measures: The co-primary outcomes were weight loss and fat loss. Secondary outcomes included blood pressure, heart rate, glucose levels, insulin levels, and plasma lipid levels. Results: Ninety participants were enrolled (mean [SD] body mass index, 39.6 [6.7]; age, 43 [11] years; 72 [80%] female). The eTRE+ER group adhered 6.0 (0.8) days per week. The eTRE+ER intervention was more effective for losing weight (-2.3 kg; 95% CI, -3.7 to -0.9 kg; P = .002) but did not affect body fat (-1.4 kg; 95% CI, -2.9 to 0.2 kg; P = .09) or the ratio of fat loss to weight loss (-4.2%; 95% CI, -14.9 to 6.5%; P = .43). The effects of eTRE+ER were equivalent to reducing calorie intake by an additional 214 kcal/d. The eTRE+ER intervention also improved diastolic blood pressure (-4 mm Hg; 95% CI, -8 to 0 mm Hg; P = .04) and mood disturbances, including fatigue-inertia, vigor-activity, and depression-dejection. All other cardiometabolic risk factors, food intake, physical activity, and sleep outcomes were similar between groups. In a secondary analysis of 59 completers, eTRE+ER was also more effective for losing body fat and trunk fat than CON+ER. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, eTRE was more effective for losing weight and improving diastolic blood pressure and mood than eating over a window of 12 or more hours at 14 weeks. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03459703.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Pérdida de Peso , Tejido Adiposo , Adulto , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Ayuno , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad/terapia , Pérdida de Peso/fisiología
6.
Virol J ; 19(1): 148, 2022 09 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029723

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) is a dominant variant worldwide. However, the risk factors for Omicron variant clearance are yet unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the risk factors for early viral clearance of Omicron variant in patients with a history of inactivated vaccine injection. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and epidemiological data from 187 patients were collected retrospectively during the Omicron variant wave. RESULTS: 73/187 and 114/187 patients were administered two and three doses of vaccine, respectively. The median duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity was 9 days, and the difference between patients with two and three vaccine injections was insignificant (P = 0.722). Fever was the most common symptom (125/187), and most patients (98.4%) had a fever for < 7 days. The RNA was undetectable in 65/187 patients on day 7. Univariable logistic analysis showed that baseline glucose, uric acid, lymphocytes count, platelet count, and CD4+ T lymphocyte count were associated with SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positivity on day 7. Multivariable analysis showed that glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/L and CD4+T lymphocytes count were independent risk factors for RNA positivity on day 7. 163/187 patients had an undetectable RNA test on day 14, and uric acid was the only independent risk factor for RNA positivity. Moreover, baseline glucose was negatively correlated with uric acid and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell count, while uric acid was positively correlated with CD4+ and CD8+ T cell count. CONCLUSIONS: Omicron variant clearance was delayed in breakthrough cases with elevated fasting blood glucose, irrespective of the doses of inactivated vaccine.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas Virales , Glucemia , Ayuno , Humanos , ARN Viral/genética , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Ácido Úrico , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados
7.
Nutrients ; 14(16)2022 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997729

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, different non-validated tests were proposed to simplify the diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM). AIM: To analyse the effects of replacing the two-step approach for Early-GDM and GDM diagnosis, with a fasting plasma glucose test. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a cohort study consisting of 3200 pregnant women: 400 with Early-GDM, 800 with GDM and 2000 with Non-GDM diagnosed using the two-step approach. Using fasting plasma glucose for Early-GDM and GDM diagnosis, according to the recommendations of Spain, Australia, Italy and the UK during the pandemic, the rates of missed and new Early-GDM and GDM were calculated and perinatal outcomes were analysed. RESULTS: Using fasting plasma glucose in the first trimester >100 mg/dL for Early-GDM diagnosis, the rates of post-COVID missed and new Early-GDM were 79.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Using fasting plasma glucose at 24-28 weeks <84 or >92, 95 or 100 mg/dL for GDM diagnosis, the rates of missed GDM were 50.4%, 78%, 82.6% and 92.4%, respectively, and 8.6%, 5.6% and 2.3% women with Non-GDM were diagnosed with new GDM. CONCLUSION: Fasting plasma glucose is not a good test for the diagnosis of GDM either in the first trimester or at 24-28 weeks.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Gestacional , Glucemia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Prueba de COVID-19 , Estudios de Cohortes , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiología , Ayuno , Femenino , Glucosa , Prueba de Tolerancia a la Glucosa , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Embarazo
8.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(8): 102566, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996115

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is a large body of research focused on various aspects related to Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) and human health and disease. This study aimed to quantify the bibliometric data of RIF medical research over the past seven decades and explore these variables qualitatively via text mining analysis. METHODS: We used the Scopus search engine to identify published articles related to RIF from inception to December 31, 2021. All types of research articles were included. Scientometric and bibliometric measures were determined using Excel, Biblioshiny, and VOSviewer. This study proposed a bibliometric and text mining method to qualitatively and quantitatively recognize the RIF research trend. RESULTS: The Scopus search returned 1915 relevant articles. Most citations pertained to publications from the last two decades, and most publications were original research articles. These publications had received around 27,000 citations, and the 20 most prolific publishing journals had an average h-index of 112.25. More than one-third of all medical publications were in open-access journals. There was a 13-fold increase in medical research on RIF over the past few decades. We identified the 10 most prolific publishing countries, institutes, journals, and authors. We also identified five scientific hotspots of RIF scientific literature, which were: diabetes, metabolic health, public health, physiology, and maternity. CONCLUSION: This is the first comprehensive bibliometric analysis of medical research related to RIF. The research gaps identified will shape future research directions and foster collaborative research activities toward enhanced medical nutrition research revolving around RIF.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Diabetes Mellitus , Bibliometría , Ayuno , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Publicaciones
9.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272515, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974327

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To understand the utility of glycated haemoglobin (HBA1C) in screening for diabetes and Abnormal Glucose Regulation (AGR) in primary care, we compared its performance to that of the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test. METHODS: This was a prospective diagnostic accuracy study conducted in eastern Uganda. Patients eligible for inclusion were consecutive adults, 30-75 years, receiving care at the outpatient department of a general hospital in eastern Uganda. We determined the sensitivity, specificity and optimum cut-off points for HBA1C and FPG tests using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as a clinical reference standard. RESULTS: A total of 1659 participants underwent FPG testing of whom 310 were also HBA1C and OGTT tested. A total of 113 tested positive for diabetes and 168 for AGR on the OGTT. At recommended cut-off points for diabetes, the HBA1C and FPG tests had comparable sensitivity [69.8% (95% CI 46.3-86.1) versus 62.6% (95% CI 41.5-79.8), respectively] and specificity [98.6% (95% CI 95.4-99.6) versus 99.4% (95% CI 98.9-99.7), respectively]. Similarly, the sensitivity of HBA1C and the FPG tests for Abnormal Glucose Regulation (AGR) at ADA cut-offs were comparable [58.9% (95% CI 46.7-70.2) vs 47.7% (95% CI 37.3-58.4), respectively]; however, the HBA1C test had lower specificity [70.7% (95% CI 65.1-75.8)] than the FPG test [93.5% (95% CI 88.6-96.4)]. At the optimum cut-offs points for diabetes [45.0 mmol/mol (6.3%) for HBA1C and 6.4 mmol/L (115.2 mg/dl) for FPG], HBA1C and FPG sensitivity [71.2% (95% CI 46.9-87.8) versus 72.7% (95% CI 49.5-87.8), respectively] and specificity [95.1% (95% CI91.8 97.2) versus 98.7% (95% CI 98.0 99.2), respectively] were comparable. Similarly, at the optimum cut-off points for AGR [42.0 mmol/mol (6.0%) for the HBA1C and 5.5 mmol/l (99.0 mg/dl) for the FPG test], HBA1C and FPG sensitivity [42.3% (95% CI 31.8-53.6) and 53.2 (95% CI 43.1-63.1), respectively] and specificity [89.1% (95% CI 84.1 92.7) and 92.7% (95% CI 91.0 94.1), respectively] were comparable. DISCUSSION: HBA1C is a viable alternative diabetes screening and confirmatory test to the FPG test; however, the utility of both tests in screening for prediabetes in this outpatient population is limited.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Ayuno , Adulto , Anciano , Glucemia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Estudios Prospectivos , Uganda
10.
Clin Chim Acta ; 532: 188-192, 2022 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944409

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To examine glycaemic status, and the impact of at-admission HbA1c levels on outcome, in a large group of participants hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: We inclued 515 participants with confirmed COVID-19 infection, with or without known diabetes, who met the following additional criteria: 1) age > 18 years, 2) HbA1c was determined at admission; 3) fasting plasma glucose was determined in the week of admission, and 4) discharge or death was reached before the end of the study. We examined attributes of participants at admission and 3-6 months post-discharge. To assess the associations of pre-admission attributes with in-hospital mortality, logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Mean age was 70 years, 98.8% were of white race, 49% were female, 31% had known diabetes (KD), an additional 7% met the HbA1c criterion for diabetes, and 13.6% died. In participants with KD, FPG and HbA1c levels were not associated with mortality in adjusted analyses; however, in participants without KD, whereas FPG showed direct association with mortality, HbA1c showed slight inverse association. CONCLUSIONS: There was a very high prevalence of people without KD with HbA1c levels above normal at-admission. This alteration does not seem to have been related to blood glucose levels.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Cuidados Posteriores , Anciano , Glucemia/análisis , Ayuno , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Alta del Paciente
11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(8): 102567, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936311

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are advised to have a "pre-Ramadan" visit to receive the assessment and education needed to safely fast during the holy month of Ramadan. The COVID-19 lockdown has interrupted this standard of care in Muslim-majority countries where telemedicine is not well-established. Here, we examined the impact of virtual"pre-Ramadan" visits, as an alternative option to the traditional (in-person) visits, on fasting experience and glycemic control during Ramadan in people with T1D. METHOD: 151 individuals with T1D were categorized into 3 groups according to the type of"pre-Ramadan" visit that they attended in 2020: virtual (n = 50), in-person (n = 56), and no visit (n = 45). Number of days fast was broken and CGM metrics were retrospectively compared across the groups. RESULT: Patients who had a virtual"pre-Ramadan" visit were more likely to use continuous glucose monitors (CGM) than those who had no visit (61.7% and 38.6%, respectively, p < 0.05). Attending a virtual"pre-Ramadan" visit was associated with the least number of days fast was broken compared to those who had no visit (p < 0.01) or in-person visit (p = 0.02). CGM time in range (TIR) during Ramadan was the highest in those who had virtual "Pre-Ramadan" visits compared to those who had no visit or in-person visits (59%, 44%, and 47%,respectively). After adjusting for age, gender, pre-Ramadan A1c, and CGM use, the odds of fasting most days of Ramadan were highest in the virtual group [OR (CI): 9.13 (1.43, 58.22)] followed by the in-person group [3.02 (0.54,16.68)] compared to the no visit group. CONCLUSION: Virtual"pre-Ramadan" visits are effective alternative to in-person visits when managing people with T1D who plan to fast during Ramadan.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Telemedicina , Glucemia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Ayuno , Control Glucémico , Humanos , Islamismo , Estudios Retrospectivos
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e060520, 2022 04 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886766

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Shift workers are at an increased risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes. Eating and sleeping out of synchronisation with endogenous circadian rhythms causes weight gain, hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. Interventions that promote weight loss and reduce the metabolic consequences of eating at night are needed for night shift workers. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of three weight loss strategies on weight loss and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in night shift workers. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A multisite 18-month, three-arm randomised controlled trial comparing three weight loss strategies; continuous energy restriction; and two intermittent fasting strategies whereby participants will fast for 2 days per week (5:2); either during the day (5:2D) or during the night shift (5:2N). Participants will be randomised to a weight loss strategy for 24 weeks (weight loss phase) and followed up 12 months later (maintenance phase). The primary outcomes are weight loss and a change in HOMA-IR. Secondary outcomes include changes in glucose, insulin, blood lipids, body composition, waist circumference, physical activity and quality of life. Assessments will be conducted at baseline, 24 weeks (primary endpoint) and 18 months (12-month follow-up). The intervention will be delivered by research dietitians via a combination of face-to-face and telehealth consultations. Mixed-effect models will be used to identify changes in dependent outcomes (weight and HOMA-IR) with predictor variables of outcomes of group, time and group-time interaction, following an intention-to-treat approach. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by Monash Health Human Research Ethics Committee (RES 19-0000-462A) and registered with Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee. Ethical approval has also been obtained from the University of South Australia (HREC ID: 202379) and Ambulance Victoria Research Committee (R19-037). Results from this trial will be disseminated via conference presentations, peer-reviewed journals and student theses. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN-12619001035112).


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistencia a la Insulina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevención & control , Ayuno , Humanos , Obesidad/terapia , Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Victoria , Pérdida de Peso
13.
J Investig Med ; 70(7): 1481-1487, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874631

RESUMEN

COVID-19 infection is known to increase mortality in patients with diabetes. We aim to demonstrate the differences in disease course and clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 regarding the presence of impaired fasting glucose, pre-existing diabetes mellitus (DM) or new-onset DM. 236 patients with positive reverse transcription-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 were included in this single-center, retrospective observational study between March 2020 and May 2021. Laboratory results, comorbidities, medications and imaging findings were noted. Logistic regression was used to estimate associated factors for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). 43 patients with normal glucose, 53 with impaired fasting glucose, 60 with newly diagnosed DM, and 80 with pre-existing DM were classified. Patients with pre-existing DM had higher fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin than the other groups (p<0.001 for all). Patients with newly diagnosed DM were more likely to need dexamethasone 6 mg (p=0.001). In both newly diagnosed diabetes and impaired fasting glucose groups, 250 mg methylprednisolone was needed at higher rates (p=0.002). Newly diagnosed DM had higher rates of intubation (21.6%) and more mortality (20.0%) (p=0.045 and p=0.028, respectively). Mortality and hospitalization in the ICU were lower in the group receiving antidiabetic treatment. The risk of ICU attendance was higher in patients with impaired fasting glucose (HR=1.71, 95% CI: 0.48 to 6.08) and newly diagnosed DM (HR=1.88, 95% CI: 0.57 to 6.17), compared with pre-existing DM and non-diabetics. Newly diagnosed DM and impaired fasting glucose are associated with increased mortality and intubation in inpatients with COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Estado Prediabético , Glucemia/análisis , COVID-19/complicaciones , Dexametasona , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Ayuno , Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes , Metilprednisolona , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 285-294, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867239

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the dose-response relationship of admission fasting glucose (FBG) with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality and to further evaluate potential interactions of hyperglycemia with inflammation and hypercoagulation on COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective study included 2555 consecutively hospitalized patients with COVID-19, until death or discharge, in Wuhan Union hospital between January 1 and April 9, 2020. The poor early outcomes included admission to intensive care unit, intubation, and deaths occurring within 28 days. We used splines nested in Cox regression to visualize dose-response associations and generalized additive models to fit three-dimensional (3D) trend plots for joint effects of FBG with markers of inflammation and coagulation. RESULTS: J-shaped associations existed between hospitalized mortality or poor early outcomes and FBG with a nadir at 5 mmol/L, which were more evident in women. 3D plots demonstrated significant joint effect trends, and patients with hyperglycemia and high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, d-dimer, and interleukin-6 had 7.4-25.3-fold risks; the proportions of joint associations attributed to additive interactions reached 30% to 54%. CONCLUSIONS: FBG was associated with hospitalized mortality and poor early outcomes in a J-shaped manner, and a combination of hyperglycemia, inflammation, hypercoagulation, and cytokines conferred a dramatically higher risk.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Hiperglucemia , Glucemia/metabolismo , COVID-19/complicaciones , Citocinas , Ayuno , Femenino , Glucosa , Humanos , Hiperglucemia/complicaciones , Inflamación/complicaciones , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(5): 732-734, 2022 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863260
16.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3240-3250, 2022 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850119

RESUMEN

To observe the predictive effect of fasting blood glucose (FBG) level on the prognosis, clinical sequelae, and pulmonary absorption in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with and without a history of diabetes, respectively, and to evaluate the correlation between the dynamic changes of FBG and poor prognosis. In this bidirectional cohort study, we enrolled 2545 hospitalized COVID-19 patients (439 diabetics and 2106 without a diabetic history) and followed up for 1 year. The patients were divided according to the level of admission FBG. The dynamic changes of FBG were compared between the survival and the death cases. The prediction effect of FBG on 1-year mortality and sequelae was analyzed. The 1-year all cause mortality rate and in-hospital mortality rate of COVID-19 patients were J-curve correlated with FBG (p < 0.001 for both in the nondiabetic history group, p = 0.004 and p = 0.01 in the diabetic history group). FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L had a higher risk of developing sequelae (p = 0.025) and have slower recovery of abnormal lung scans (p < 0.001) in patients who denied a history of diabetes. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L was an independent risk factor for the mortality of COVID-19 regardless of the presence or deny a history of diabetes (hazard atio [HR] = 10.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.15-15.83, p < 0.001; HR = 3.9, 95% CI: 1.56-9.77, p = 0.004, respectively). Our study shows that FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L can be a predictive factor of 1-year all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients, independent of diabetes history. FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L has an advantage in predicting the severity, clinical sequelae, and pulmonary absorption in COVID-19 patients without a history of diabetes. Early detection, timely treatment, and strict control of blood glucose when finding hyperglycemia in COVID-19 patients (with or without diabetes) are critical for their prognosis.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Glucemia/análisis , COVID-19/complicaciones , Estudios de Cohortes , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Ayuno , Humanos , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
17.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 37(4): 2489-2493, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802262

RESUMEN

Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar in which it is compulsory for Muslims to abstain from eating and drinking during the daytime. The COVID-19 pandemic posed additional challenges for Muslims as the crowded religious gatherings could give a new breath to the spread of the virus. Similar measures were adopted during Ramadan in 2021. The initiation of COVID-19 vaccination across the globe in combination with the need to maintain personal protective measures against COVID-19, result in new needs and challenges. At this juncture, Ramadan 2022 offers a growing opportunity to unite a global voice for solidarity, equal distribution of COVID-19 vaccines, and tackling the challenge of vaccine hesitancy.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Ayuno , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Confianza , Vacunación
18.
19.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 16(4): 581-587, 2022 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768439

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Elderly patients have higher risks for complications during Ramadan fasting. Educating patients is essential for fasting safely. AIM: To evaluate the impact of pre-Ramadan education in reducing risk of hypoglycemia and achieving glycemic control in elderly. METHODS: A prospective study carried out in outpatients clinics of Internal Medicine department in Assiut university hospital. It included 316 type 2 diabetic patients who intended to fast. They were grouped into 2 groups; < 65 years and ≥ 65 years patients. The patients received pre-Ramadan individual education sessions. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data to stratify the risk of fasting. The study was carried out in 3 phases. Assessment of hypoglycemia and biochemical parameters after the education was the primary outcome. RESULTS: Fasting blood glucose decreased during and after Ramadan in elderly significantly (p = 0.0001). The patients who achieved fasting blood glucose less than 8 mmol/L increased from 29.3% to 46.6% after Ramadan in elderly patients. HbA1c decreased significantly after Ramadan (p = 0.001). The main cause of breaking fast was hypoglycemia in both groups; 9% vs.7.7% in patients < 65 and ≥ 65 years respectively. The waist circumference showed significant decrease in patient with 65 years old or more (p = 0.05). Total cholesterol and LDL increased with no statistical significance in patients ≥ 65 years (p = 0.512, 0.470). Both groups showed improvement of HDL cholesterol during and after Ramadan (P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Pre-fasting education had positive impact on decreasing the risk of symptomatic hypoglycemia in elderly diabetic patients.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglucemia , Anciano , Glucemia , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Ayuno , Control Glucémico , Humanos , Hipoglucemia/inducido químicamente , Hipoglucemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglucemia/prevención & control , Hipoglucemiantes/efectos adversos , Islamismo , Estudios Prospectivos
20.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 186: 109812, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739664

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Muslim people with T1DM should be actively discouraged from fasting during the COVID-19 pandemic, as diabetes has emerged as a significant risk factor for adverse outcomes of COVID-19 infection. We report the experience of young patients with type 1, type 2 and other types diabetes who fasted during Ramadan 2020 at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic time lockdown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A Post- Ramadan survey was designed for young patients who fasted during Ramadan in 2020 during COVID pandemic time. The study was conducted to compared the basal characteristics and other parameters in children and adolescents (<18 years), with young adults (≥18 years) with diabetes at Paediatric Diabetes Center in BIRDEM in Bangladesh. RESULTS: Among the study participants, a significantly higher number of participants were in older age group who fasted for more than 15 days (p = 0.045). A considerable proportion (30.7%) of patients developed mild hypoglycaemia, and only eight patients (2.6%) developed moderate to severe hypoglycemia. There was significant reduction of post Ramadan basal insulin dose in both groups (p = 0.001). Although increased bolus insulin dose requirements were observed in older age group, but decreased requirement was observed in younger age group during Ramadan (p = 0.001). Post Ramadan median HbA1C in both groups was increased with marked increase in older age group compared to younger age group though it did not reach the statistical significance. (p = 0.239) CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic had minor impact on fasting during Ramadan in our cohort, they could fast safely with less complications during Ramadan. Our data supports Ramadan focused diabetes education with ample self-care, young people with diabetes can fast safely during Ramadan.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hipoglucemia , Adolescente , Anciano , Bangladesh/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Niño , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiología , Ayuno/efectos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Humanos , Hipoglucemia/epidemiología , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Insulina/uso terapéutico , Islamismo , Pandemias , Adulto Joven
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