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Adv Rheumatol ; 60(1): 32, 2020 06 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591986


Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, also known as antimalarial drugs, are widely used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases and have recently become the focus of attention because of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Rheumatologists have been using antimalarials to manage patients with chronic immune-mediated inflammatory rheumatic diseases for decades. It is an appropriate time to review their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms impact on disease activity and survival of systemic lupus erythematosus patient, including antiplatelet effect, metabolic and lipid benefits. We also discuss possible adverse effects, adding a practical and comprehensive approach to monitoring rheumatic patients during treatment with these drugs.

Antimaláricos/farmacología , Artritis Reumatoide/tratamiento farmacológico , Cloroquina/farmacología , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacología , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome Antifosfolípido/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome Antifosfolípido/inmunología , Antirreumáticos/uso terapéutico , Artritis Reumatoide/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Erupciones por Medicamentos/etiología , Interacciones Farmacológicas , Femenino , Glucosa/metabolismo , Cardiopatías/inducido químicamente , Humanos , Lípidos/sangre , Lupus Eritematoso Cutáneo/tratamiento farmacológico , Lupus Eritematoso Cutáneo/inmunología , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/inmunología , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/mortalidad , Masculino , Pandemias , Agregación Plaquetaria/efectos de los fármacos , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Embarazo , Insuficiencia Renal/prevención & control , Enfermedades de la Retina/inducido químicamente , Síndrome de Sjögren/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Sjögren/inmunología
In Vivo ; 34(3 Suppl): 1619-1628, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-529160


The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in China in the city of Wuhan in December of 2019 and since then more than 5,000,000 people have been infected, with approximately 338,000 deaths worldwide. The virus causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is characterized by fever, myalgia and cough, with severe acute respiratory syndrome being the most fearsome complication. Nevertheless, the vast majority of cases present mild symptoms or none. Central nervous system and cardiovascular manifestations have been reported. The range of ocular manifestations, either as a result of the infection or as a result of the treatment, has not yet been discussed. In this study, a systematic review of current literature relevant to COVID-19 was performed with focus on modes of transmission, ocular manifestations related to infection and medications, as well as the control of infection in ophthalmic practice.

Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Oftalmopatías/etiología , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Enfermedades del Nervio Abducens/etiología , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Biomarcadores , China , Enfermedades de la Conjuntiva/sangre , Enfermedades de la Conjuntiva/etiología , Lentes de Contacto/efectos adversos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Contaminación de Equipos , Oftalmopatías/prevención & control , Humanos , Hiperemia/sangre , Hiperemia/etiología , Inmunización Pasiva/efectos adversos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Queratoconjuntivitis/etiología , Enfermedades del Aparato Lagrimal/sangre , Enfermedades del Aparato Lagrimal/etiología , Recuento de Leucocitos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Enfermedades de la Retina/inducido químicamente , Estudios Retrospectivos
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 9(2): 85-87, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-157679


The proposed doses of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for treatment of COVID-19 (1000 mg/day for 10 days, CQ; 800 mg first day then 400 mg/day for 5 days, HCQ) in many guidelines worldwide, are considerably higher than the maximum recommended daily safe doses of both agents (≤2.3 mg/kg/day, CQ; ≤5.0 mg/kg/day, HCQ) for development of retinal toxicity. Irreversible retinal damage can occur if the exposure to the safe doses is >5 years. It is not known whether exposure to high doses over a short period of time can also cause the damage. We recommend that before prescribing CQ or HCQ, history of ocular disease should be obtained to avoid the prescription if appropriate. If either agent is to be used, routine baseline ocular examination is not absolutely necessary. Patients who do not have ocular disease should also be informed about the potential risk of retinal toxicity. Both agents, however, have not yet been proven to be beneficial to COVID-19.

Cloroquina/toxicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/toxicidad , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Retina/efectos de los fármacos , Betacoronavirus , Cloroquina/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administración & dosificación , Pandemias , Retina/patología , Enfermedades de la Retina/inducido químicamente , Factores de Riesgo