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2.
Bioanalysis ; 12(13): 919-935, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656243

RESUMEN

Aim: Evaluation of a novel microsampling device for its use in clinical sample collection and biomarker analysis. Methodology: Matching samples were collected from 16 healthy donors (ten females, six males; age 42 ± 20) via K2EDTA touch activated phlebotomy (TAP) device and phlebotomy. The protein profile differences between sampling groups was evaluated using aptamer-based proteomic assay SomaScan and selected ELISA. Conclusion: Somascan signal concordance between phlebotomy- and TAP-generated samples was studied and comparability of protein abundances between these blood sample collection methods was demonstrated. Statistically significant correlation in selected ELISA assays also confirmed the TAP device applicability to the quantitative analysis of protein biomarkers in clinical trials.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Sanguíneas/análisis , Flebotomía/instrumentación , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Hemólisis , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Proteómica/instrumentación , Adulto Joven
4.
Vaccine ; 38(34): 5418-5423, 2020 07 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752766

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 disease as a pandemic requiring a rapid response. Through online search, direct communication with network members and an internal survey, engagements of developing countries' vaccine manufacturers' network members in the research and development of COVID-19 vaccines and their capacities in the manufacturing, fill-finish and distribution of vaccines were assessed. Currently, 19 network members engaged in research and development of COVID-19 vaccines, using six principal technology platforms. In addition, an internal survey showed that the number of vaccines supplied collectively by 37 members, in 2018-19, was about 3.5 billion doses annually. Almost a third of network members having vaccines prequalified by the World Health Organization comply with international regulations and mechanisms to distribute vaccines across borders. The use of existing manufacturing, fill-finish and distribution capabilities can support an efficient roll-out of vaccines against COVID-19, while maintaining supply security of existing vaccines for on-going immunization programmes.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Industria Farmacéutica/organización & administración , Cooperación Internacional , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Vacunas Virales/provisión & distribución , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Organización Mundial de la Salud
7.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732658

RESUMEN

COVID-19 emerged in late 2019 and has rapidly spread through many countries globally. The causative SARS-CoV-2 virus was not known until recently, and there is little or no natural immunity in human populations. There is an urgent need for vaccines and drugs to combat this new pandemic. In just a few months, huge efforts and resources by government, academia, and industry have been thrown into the race to develop a vaccine. This brief review summarizes and discusses the array of technologies being applied to vaccine development, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vacunas Virales , Betacoronavirus , China , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Humanos , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus
8.
Cell Transplant ; 29: 963689720952089, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729480

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, originating from Wuhan, China, is known to cause severe acute respiratory symptoms. The occurrence of a cytokine storm in the lungs is a critical step in the disease pathogenesis, as it causes pathological lesions, pulmonary edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, potentially resulting in death. Currently, there is no effective treatment that targets the cytokine storm and helps regenerate the damaged tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to act as anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory candidates and activate endogenous regeneration. As a result, MSC therapy is a potential treatment approach for COVID-19. Intravenous injection of clinical-grade MSCs into COVID-19 patients can induce an immunomodulatory response along with improved lung function. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are considered a potential source of MSCs for immunomodulation, tissue regeneration, and clinical application. Although some current clinical trials have treated COVID-19 patients with DPSCs, this therapy has not been approved. Here, we review the potential use of DPSCs and their significance in the development of a therapy for COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Pulpa Dental/citología , Inmunomodulación , Trasplante de Células Madre Mesenquimatosas , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Citocinas/inmunología , Pulpa Dental/inmunología , Humanos , Inmunoterapia/métodos , Inflamación/inmunología , Inflamación/terapia , Pulmón/inmunología , Pulmón/fisiología , Lesión Pulmonar/inmunología , Lesión Pulmonar/terapia , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/citología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Regeneración
9.
Cell Transplant ; 29: 963689720940719, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729479

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19 is highly infectious, which can lead to acute and chronic debilitating symptoms, as well as mortality. The advent of safe and effective vaccines or antiviral drugs remains distant in the future. Practical public health measures, such as social distancing, hand washing, and wearing a face mask, are the current recommended guidelines by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for limiting the spread of the virus. Weakened immune system and aberrant inflammation represent a major pathological symptom of COVID-19 patients. Based on the unique immunomodulatory properties of both convalescent plasma and stem cells, we discuss here their potential use for treating COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Trasplante de Células Madre Mesenquimatosas , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Humanos , Inmunización Pasiva/métodos , Trasplante de Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/métodos , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/inmunología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Práctica de Salud Pública , Carga Viral
12.
Crit Care Nurs Q ; 43(4): 381-389, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729218

RESUMEN

COVID-19, a symptom complex of respiratory failure induced by a highly infectious pathogen, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been classified as a pandemic. As of April 15, 2020, there have been 2 million people diagnosed with the viral infection and 130 000 deaths globally. It is highly likely that the number of infections is underrepresented secondary to variations in testing and reporting strategies globally. In this short review, we aim to summarize the current understanding of SARS-CoV-2 as it pertains to cardiovascular disease. We discuss the basis of cardiac pathophysiology and address some of the clinical scenarios that cardiovascular physicians may face. We introduce the concept of conservative management of acute coronary syndromes and address some complications such as myocarditis, heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias that may be relevant for the management of patients presenting with COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/terapia , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
13.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727437

RESUMEN

The recent pandemic of COVID-19 has already infected millions of individuals and has resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands worldwide. Based on clinical features, pathology, and the pathogenesis of respiratory disorders induced by this and other highly homogenous coronaviruses, the evidence suggests that excessive inflammation, oxidation, and an exaggerated immune response contribute to COVID-19 pathology; these are caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This leads to a cytokine storm and subsequent progression triggering acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and often death. We and others have reported melatonin to be an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative molecule with a high safety profile. It is effective in critical care patients by reducing their vascular permeability and anxiety, inducing sedation, and improving their quality of sleep. As melatonin shows no harmful adverse effects in humans, it is imperative to introduce this indoleamine into clinical trials where it might be beneficial for better clinical outcomes as an adjuvant treatment of COVID-19-infected patients. Herein, we strongly encourage health care professionals to test the potential of melatonin for targeting the COVID-19 pandemic. This is urgent, since there is no reliable treatment for this devastating disease.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Melatonina/uso terapéutico , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/virología
15.
mSphere ; 5(4)2020 08 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725309

RESUMEN

Many coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients demonstrate lethal respiratory complications caused by cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Multiple cytokines have been implicated in CRS, but levels of tumor necrosis factor superfamily 14 (TNFSF14) (LIGHT) have not been previously measured in this setting. In this study, we observed significantly elevated serum LIGHT levels in hospitalized COVID-19 patients compared to healthy age- and gender-matched control patients. The assay detected bioavailable LIGHT unbound to the inhibitor Decoy receptor-3 (DcR3). Bioavailable LIGHT levels were elevated in patients both on and off ventilatory support, with a trend toward higher levels in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. In hospitalized patients over the age of 60, who exhibited a mortality rate of 82%, LIGHT levels were significantly higher (P = 0.0209) in those who died than in survivors. As previously reported, interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels were also elevated in these patients, with significantly (P = 0.0076) higher levels observed in patients who died than in survivors, paralleling the LIGHT levels. Although attempts to block IL-6 binding to its receptor have shown limited success in COVID-19 CRS, neutralization of LIGHT may prove to be more effective owing to its more central role in regulating antiviral immune responses. The findings presented here demonstrate that LIGHT is a cytokine which may play an important role in COVID-19 patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and CRS and suggest that LIGHT neutralization may be beneficial to COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/inmunología , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/virología , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/inmunología , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/virología , Miembro 14 de la Superfamilia de Ligandos de Factores de Necrosis Tumoral/sangre , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Interleucina-6/inmunología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Respiración Artificial/estadística & datos numéricos
19.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 8624963, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721226

RESUMEN

Single-cell RNA sequencing allows highly detailed profiling of cellular immune responses from limited-volume samples, advancing prospects of a new era of systems immunology. The power of single-cell RNA sequencing offers various opportunities to decipher the immune response to infectious diseases and vaccines. Here, we describe the potential uses of single-cell RNA sequencing methods in prophylactic vaccine development, concentrating on infectious diseases including COVID-19. Using examples from several diseases, we review how single-cell RNA sequencing has been used to evaluate the immunological response to different vaccine platforms and regimens. By highlighting published and unpublished single-cell RNA sequencing studies relevant to vaccinology, we discuss some general considerations how the field could be enriched with the widespread adoption of this technology.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , RNA-Seq/métodos , Análisis de la Célula Individual , Vacunología/métodos , Vacunas Virales/administración & dosificación , Animales , Línea Celular , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/genética , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/inmunología , Humanos , Inmunidad Celular/genética , Inmunidad Innata/genética , Inmunogenicidad Vacunal , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/virología , ARN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , Vacunas Virales/inmunología
20.
Mol Med ; 26(1): 80, 2020 08 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717479

RESUMEN

Infection of lung cells by the corona virus results in a loss of the balance between, on the one hand, angiotensin II-mediated stimulation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor and, on the other hand, stimulation of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor and/or the Mas receptor. The unbalanced enhanced stimulation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor causes inflammation, edema and contributes to the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Here we hypothesize that stable, receptor-specific agonists of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor and of the Mas receptor are molecular medicines to treat COVID-19 patients. These agonists have therapeutic potential in the acute disease but in addition may reduce COVID-19-associated long-term pulmonary dysfunction and overall end-organ damage of this disease.


Asunto(s)
Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/metabolismo , Receptor de Angiotensina Tipo 2/agonistas , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Imidazoles/farmacología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Receptor de Angiotensina Tipo 2/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiología
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