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1.
MEDICC Rev ; 23(1): 18-20, 2021 Jan.
Artículo | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184136

RESUMEN

On March 23, 2020, Cuba's Henry Reeve Emergency Medical Contingent began treating COVID-19 patients at Maggiore Hospital in Crema, Lombardy. Within days, the 52-member contingent comprised of 36 doctors and 15 nurses (plus 1 logistics specialist), together with Italian colleagues, were receiving patients in an adjacent fi eld hospital established and equipped for this purpose. At the time, Lombardy was the epicenter of COVID-19 transmission in Europe. Many of the Cubans in Lombardy were Contingent veterans, having served in postdisaster and epidemic scenarios in Chile, Pakistan, Haiti and elsewhere since the founding of the emergency medical team in 2005. Importantly, some had worked fi ghting the 2014 Ebola epidemic in West Africa. Even so, providing medical care during COVID-19 is a unique challenge, the likes of which had never before been seen by the Cuban team. Dr Carlos R. Pérez-Díaz, one of the Contingent's founding members, headed the team during its 60-day rotation in Lombardy, drawing on a wide array of professional experience. From 2006 to 2009, Dr Pérez-Díaz led the Cuban team posted at the Peltier Hospital in Djibouti, where he worked in the infectious disease department; in 2008, this team helped control a cholera outbreak that had spread to three countries. Following the 2010 earthquake in Chile, Dr Pérez-Díaz headed the team of Henry Reeve volunteers that provided free health services for 10 months in a tent hospital established to treat victims; he returned to Chile in 2015, again as head of the Henry Reeve Contingent, after severe fl ooding struck the Atacama region.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Misiones Médicas , Neumonía Viral/terapia , /epidemiología , Cuba , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
2.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e929489, 2021 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184052

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND The damage caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been extensive. Pregnant women are a group requiring special attention in medicine given the anatomical and physiological changes that occur during pregnancy. Skin rash is commonly associated with pregnancy, with the most common form of an erythematous maculopapular rash being pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy. Skin rash is also an increasingly reported initial presentation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to infection with SARS-CoV-2. CASE REPORT A 34-year-old woman with a diamniotic dichorionic twin pregnancy presented with clinical picture characterized by dermatological manifestations, namely an erythematous and papular skin rash associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. A real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (GeneFinder) test was positive for SARS-CoV-2 detection. CONCLUSIONS Ten months after the onset of this pandemic, there is no conclusive evidence indicating that pregnant women represent a sector more or less vulnerable to severe forms of COVID-19 than the general population. This report has highlighted the importance of performing a reliable diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients who present with a skin rash, particularly pregnant women.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Eritema/virología , Exantema/virología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Embarazo Gemelar
3.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(2): 76-82, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183983

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to analyze available resources, guidelines in use, and preparedness to care for newborn infants at maternity centers in Argentina during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Cross-sectional study based on a survey administered to medical and nursing staff. In May 2020, Argentine facilities with more than 500 annual births were contacted; 58 % of these were from the public sector. RESULTS: In total, 104/147 facilities answered (71 %). All had guidelines for care during the pandemic, and 93 % indicated they had been trained on how to use them. A companion was not allowed during childbirth in 26 % of private facilities and in 60 % of public ones (p < 0.01). Deferred cord clamping was recommended in 87 %; rooming-in with asymptomatic newborns was promoted in 62 %; breastfeeding using protective measures was recommended in 70 %; and breast milk using a bottle, in 23 %. In 94 %, family visiting in the Neonatology Unit was restricted. Difficulties included the unavailability of individual rooms for symptomatic newborn infants and a potential shortage of health care staff and personal protective equipment. CONCLUSIONS: All facilities are aware of the national guidelines to fight the pandemic. Most have the resources to comply with the recommended protective measures. There is uncertainty as to whether personal protective equipment, staff, and physical space available at the different facilities would be enough if cases increased significantly.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Recursos en Salud/provisión & distribución , Cuidado del Lactante/organización & administración , Control de Infecciones/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud Materna/organización & administración , Argentina/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Política de Salud , Humanos , Cuidado del Lactante/estadística & datos numéricos , Recién Nacido , Control de Infecciones/instrumentación , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Control de Infecciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Servicios de Salud Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Embarazo
4.
J Glaucoma ; 30(3): e50-e53, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183056

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To report a case of bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma associated with hyponatremia in the setting of chlorthalidone use and SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to demonstrate the challenges of managing this patient given her infectious status. METHODS: This was a case report. CASE: A 65-year-old woman taking chlorthalidone for hypertension presented to the emergency room with headache, pain, and blurry vision in both eyes and was found to be in bilateral acute angle closure. On laboratory investigation, she was severely hyponatremic and also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. B-scan ultrasound demonstrated an apparent supraciliary effusion in the right eye. Following stabilization of her intraocular pressures with medical management, she ultimately underwent cataract extraction with iridectomies and goniosynechiolysis in both eyes. CONCLUSIONS: We report a rare case of bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma associated with hyponatremia. Chlorthalidone use and perhaps SARS-CoV-2 infection may have contributed to this electrolyte abnormality and unique clinical presentation. In addition, we discuss the challenges of managing this complex patient with active SARS-CoV-2 infection during the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Glaucoma de Ángulo Cerrado/cirugía , Presión Intraocular/fisiología , Iridectomía/métodos , Enfermedad Aguda , Anciano , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Glaucoma de Ángulo Cerrado/epidemiología , Glaucoma de Ángulo Cerrado/fisiopatología , Humanos , Pandemias
5.
Lancet ; 397(10280): 1204-1212, 2021 03 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182741

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The degree to which infection with SARS-CoV-2 confers protection towards subsequent reinfection is not well described. In 2020, as part of Denmark's extensive, free-of-charge PCR-testing strategy, approximately 4 million individuals (69% of the population) underwent 10·6 million tests. Using these national PCR-test data from 2020, we estimated protection towards repeat infection with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: In this population-level observational study, we collected individual-level data on patients who had been tested in Denmark in 2020 from the Danish Microbiology Database and analysed infection rates during the second surge of the COVID-19 epidemic, from Sept 1 to Dec 31, 2020, by comparison of infection rates between individuals with positive and negative PCR tests during the first surge (March to May, 2020). For the main analysis, we excluded people who tested positive for the first time between the two surges and those who died before the second surge. We did an alternative cohort analysis, in which we compared infection rates throughout the year between those with and without a previous confirmed infection at least 3 months earlier, irrespective of date. We also investigated whether differences were found by age group, sex, and time since infection in the alternative cohort analysis. We calculated rate ratios (RRs) adjusted for potential confounders and estimated protection against repeat infection as 1 - RR. FINDINGS: During the first surge (ie, before June, 2020), 533 381 people were tested, of whom 11 727 (2·20%) were PCR positive, and 525 339 were eligible for follow-up in the second surge, of whom 11 068 (2·11%) had tested positive during the first surge. Among eligible PCR-positive individuals from the first surge of the epidemic, 72 (0·65% [95% CI 0·51-0·82]) tested positive again during the second surge compared with 16 819 (3·27% [3·22-3·32]) of 514 271 who tested negative during the first surge (adjusted RR 0·195 [95% CI 0·155-0·246]). Protection against repeat infection was 80·5% (95% CI 75·4-84·5). The alternative cohort analysis gave similar estimates (adjusted RR 0·212 [0·179-0·251], estimated protection 78·8% [74·9-82·1]). In the alternative cohort analysis, among those aged 65 years and older, observed protection against repeat infection was 47·1% (95% CI 24·7-62·8). We found no difference in estimated protection against repeat infection by sex (male 78·4% [72·1-83·2] vs female 79·1% [73·9-83·3]) or evidence of waning protection over time (3-6 months of follow-up 79·3% [74·4-83·3] vs ≥7 months of follow-up 77·7% [70·9-82·9]). INTERPRETATION: Our findings could inform decisions on which groups should be vaccinated and advocate for vaccination of previously infected individuals because natural protection, especially among older people, cannot be relied on. FUNDING: None.


Asunto(s)
Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , /inmunología , /inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Bases de Datos Factuales , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
6.
Nutrition ; 84: 111106, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182641

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionally affected a variety of patients with underlying risk factors such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, and black race. Vitamin D deficiency, which can result in a compromised immune response, has been also linked to increased risk and increased morbidities associated with COVID-19. In the absence of large-scale longitudinal studies to determine the strength of association between vitamin deficiency and COVID-19, cross-sectional studies of large patient cohorts can be used. METHODS: We used the i2b2 patient's registry platform at the University of Florida Health Center to generate a count of patients using the international classification of diseases (ICD)-10 diagnosis codes for the period of October 1, 2015, through June 30, 2020. Logistic regression of the aggregates was used for the analysis. RESULTS: Patients with vitamin D deficiency were 4.6 times more likely to be positive for COVID-19 (indicated by the ICD-10 diagnostic code COVID19) than patients with no deficiency (P < 0.001). The association decreased slightly after adjusting for sex (odds ratio [OR] = 4.58; P < 0.001) and malabsorption (OR = 4.46; P < 0.001), respectively. The association decreased significantly but remained robust (P < 0.001) after adjusting for race (OR = 3.76; P < 0.001), periodontal disease status (OR = 3.64; P < 0.001), diabetes (OR = 3.28; P < 0.001), and obesity (OR = 2.27; P < 0.001), respectively. In addition, patients with vitamin D deficiency were 5 times more likely to be infected with COVID-19 than patients with no deficiency after adjusting for age groups (OR = 5.155; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with increased risk for COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/epidemiología , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/virología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Florida/epidemiología , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Sistema de Registros , Factores de Riesgo , Vitamina D/sangre , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/sangre , Adulto Joven
7.
Circulation ; 143(13): 1274-1286, 2021 03 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180993

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation, whether secondary to drugs, genetics including congenital long QT syndrome, and/or systemic diseases including SARS-CoV-2-mediated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can predispose to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Currently, QTc assessment and monitoring relies largely on 12-lead electrocardiography. As such, we sought to train and validate an artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled 12-lead ECG algorithm to determine the QTc, and then prospectively test this algorithm on tracings acquired from a mobile ECG (mECG) device in a population enriched for repolarization abnormalities. METHODS: Using >1.6 million 12-lead ECGs from 538 200 patients, a deep neural network (DNN) was derived (patients for training, n = 250 767; patients for testing, n = 107 920) and validated (n = 179 513 patients) to predict the QTc using cardiologist-overread QTc values as the "gold standard". The ability of this DNN to detect clinically-relevant QTc prolongation (eg, QTc ≥500 ms) was then tested prospectively on 686 patients with genetic heart disease (50% with long QT syndrome) with QTc values obtained from both a 12-lead ECG and a prototype mECG device equivalent to the commercially-available AliveCor KardiaMobile 6L. RESULTS: In the validation sample, strong agreement was observed between human over-read and DNN-predicted QTc values (-1.76±23.14 ms). Similarly, within the prospective, genetic heart disease-enriched dataset, the difference between DNN-predicted QTc values derived from mECG tracings and those annotated from 12-lead ECGs by a QT expert (-0.45±24.73 ms) and a commercial core ECG laboratory [10.52±25.64 ms] was nominal. When applied to mECG tracings, the DNN's ability to detect a QTc value ≥500 ms yielded an area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.97, 80.0%, and 94.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using smartphone-enabled electrodes, an AI DNN can predict accurately the QTc of a standard 12-lead ECG. QTc estimation from an AI-enabled mECG device may provide a cost-effective means of screening for both acquired and congenital long QT syndrome in a variety of clinical settings where standard 12-lead electrocardiography is not accessible or cost-effective.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Electrocardiografía/métodos , Cardiopatías/diagnóstico , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Área Bajo la Curva , /virología , Electrocardiografía/instrumentación , Femenino , Cardiopatías/fisiopatología , Humanos , Síndrome de QT Prolongado/diagnóstico , Síndrome de QT Prolongado/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Teléfono Inteligente
8.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 37(4): 232-236, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180679

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to describe the clinical characteristics of febrile infants younger than 90 days with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, to investigate the prevalence of serious bacterial infections (SBIs) in these infants, and to compare the risk of SBI in SARS-CoV-2-positive febrile infants with sex- and age-matched SARS-CoV- 2-negative febrile infants. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted from March to November 2020 in a tertiary children's hospital. Patients were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes and included if age was younger than 90 days, a SARS-CoV-2 test was performed, and at least 1 bacterial culture was collected. Positive cases of SARS-CoV-2 were age- and sex-matched to negative controls for analysis. Serious bacterial infection was defined as a urinary tract infection, bacterial enteritis, bacteremia, and/or bacterial meningitis. RESULTS: Fifty-three SARS-CoV-2-positive infants were identified with a higher rate of respiratory symptoms and lower white blood cell and C-reactive protein values than their SARS-CoV-2 matched controls. The rate of SBI in the SARS-CoV-2-positive infants was 8% compared with 34% in the controls; the most common infections were urinary tract infections (6% vs 23%). There were no cases of bacteremia or bacterial meningitis in the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) infants and 2 (4%) cases of bacteremia in the controls. The relative risk of any SBI between the 2 groups was 0.22 (95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.6; P ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that febrile infants younger than 90 days with COVID-19 have lower rates of SBI than their matched SARS-CoV-2-negative controls. These data are consistent with previous studies describing lower risks of SBI in febrile infants with concomitant viral respiratory tract infections.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/etiología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
9.
Biosci Rep ; 41(3)2021 03 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180288

RESUMEN

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has induced an ongoing global health crisis. Here we utilized a combination of targeted amino acids (AAs) and clinical biochemical profiling to analyze the plasma of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) subjects at the hospitalization stage and 1-month post-infection convalescent stage, respectively, to investigate the systematic injury during COVID-19 disease progress. We found the virus-induced inflammatory status and reduced liver synthesis capacity in hospitalized patients, which manifested with increased branched-chain AAs (BCAAs), aromatic AAs (AAAs), one-carbon related metabolites, and decreased methionine. Most of these disturbances during infection recover except for the increased levels of medium-chain acylcarnitines (ACs) in the convalescent subjects, implying the existence of incomplete fatty acids oxidation during recovery periods. Our results suggested that the imbalance of the AA profiling in COVID-19 patients. The majority of disturbed AAs recovered in 1 month. The incomplete fatty acid oxidation products suggested it might take longer time for convalescent patients to get complete recovery.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , /virología , /fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Aminoácidos/sangre , Biomarcadores , /epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Hospitalización , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolómica/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
11.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(3): e185-e193, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180145

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients are considered at high risk of poor outcomes after COVID-19 on the basis of their immunosuppressed status, but data from large studies in HSCT recipients are lacking. This study describes the characteristics and outcomes of HSCT recipients after developing COVID-19. METHODS: In response to the pandemic, the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) implemented a special form for COVID-19-related data capture on March 27, 2020. All patients-irrespective of age, diagnosis, donor type, graft source, or conditioning regimens-were included in the analysis with data cutoff of Aug 12, 2020. The main outcome was overall survival 30 days after a COVID-19 diagnosis. Overall survival probabilities were calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimator. Factors associated with mortality after COVID-19 diagnosis were examined using Cox proportional hazard models. FINDINGS: 318 HSCT recipients diagnosed with COVID-19 were reported to the CIBMTR. The median time from HSCT to COVID-19 diagnosis was 17 months (IQR 8-46) for allogeneic HSCT recipients and 23 months (8-51) for autologous HSCT recipients. The median follow-up of survivors was 21 days (IQR 8-41) for allogeneic HSCT recipients and 25 days (12-35) for autologous HSCT recipients. 34 (18%) of 184 allogeneic HSCT recipients were receiving immunosuppression within 6 months of COVID-19 diagnosis. Disease severity was mild in 155 (49%) of 318 patients, while severe disease requiring mechanical ventilation occurred in 45 (14%) of 318 patients-ie, 28 (15%) of 184 allogeneic HSCT recipients and 17 (13%) of 134 autologous HSCT recipients. At 30 days after the diagnosis of COVID-19, overall survival was 68% (95% CI 58-77) for recipients of allogeneic HSCT and 67% (55-78) for recipients of autologous HSCT. Age 50 years or older (hazard ratio 2·53, 95% CI 1·16-5·52; p=0·020); male sex (3·53; 1·44-8·67; p=0·006), and development of COVID-19 within 12 months of transplantation (2·67, 1·33-5·36; p=0·005) were associated with a higher risk of mortality among allogeneic HSCT recipients, and a disease indication of lymphoma was associated with a higher risk of mortality compared with plasma cell disorder or myeloma (2·41, [1·08-5·38]; p=0·033) in autologous HSCT recipients. INTERPRETATION: Recipients of autologous and allogeneic HSCT who develop COVID-19 have poor overall survival. These data emphasise the need for stringent surveillance and aggressive treatment measures in HSCT recipients who develop COVID-19. FUNDING: American Society of Hematology; Leukemia and Lymphoma Society; National Cancer Institute; National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Institutes of Health; National Cancer Institute; Health Resources and Services Administration; Office of Naval Research.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , /mortalidad , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Sexuales , Tasa de Supervivencia , Trasplante Autólogo , Trasplante Homólogo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
13.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(4): 397-406, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180129

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Analysis of the effect of COVID-19 on the complete hospital population in England has been lacking. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive account of all hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in England during the early phase of the pandemic and to identify the factors that influenced mortality as the pandemic evolved. METHODS: This was a retrospective exploratory analysis using the Hospital Episode Statistics administrative dataset. All patients aged 18 years or older in England who completed a hospital stay (were discharged alive or died) between March 1 and May 31, 2020, and had a diagnosis of COVID-19 on admission or during their stay were included. In-hospital death was the primary outcome of interest. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model the relationship between death and several covariates: age, sex, deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation), ethnicity, frailty (Hospital Frailty Risk Score), presence of comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index items), and date of discharge (whether alive or deceased). FINDINGS: 91 541 adult patients with COVID-19 were discharged during the study period, among which 28 200 (30·8%) in-hospital deaths occurred. The final multilevel logistic regression model accounted for age, deprivation score, and date of discharge as continuous variables, and sex, ethnicity, and Charlson Comorbidity Index items as categorical variables. In this model, significant predictors of in-hospital death included older age (modelled using restricted cubic splines), male sex (1·457 [1·408-1·509]), greater deprivation (1·002 [1·001-1·003]), Asian (1·211 [1·128-1·299]) or mixed ethnicity (1·317 [1·080-1·605]; vs White ethnicity), and most of the assessed comorbidities, including moderate or severe liver disease (5·433 [4·618-6·392]). Later date of discharge was associated with a lower odds of death (0·977 [0·976-0·978]); adjusted in-hospital mortality improved significantly in a broadly linear fashion, from 52·2% in the first week of March to 16·8% in the last week of May. INTERPRETATION: Reductions in the adjusted probability of in-hospital mortality for COVID-19 patients over time might reflect the impact of changes in hospital strategy and clinical processes. The reasons for the observed improvements in mortality should be thoroughly investigated to inform the response to future outbreaks. The higher mortality rate reported for certain ethnic minority groups in community-based studies compared with our hospital-based analysis might partly reflect differential infection rates in those at greatest risk, propensity to become severely ill once infected, and health-seeking behaviours. FUNDING: None.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Mortalidad Hospitalaria/tendencias , Grupos Minoritarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Comorbilidad , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Registros Electrónicos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
14.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(4): 407-418, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180128

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Most low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) have little or no data integrated into a national surveillance system to identify characteristics or outcomes of COVID-19 hospital admissions and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their national health systems. We aimed to analyse characteristics of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 in Brazil, and to examine the impact of COVID-19 on health-care resources and in-hospital mortality. METHODS: We did a retrospective analysis of all patients aged 20 years or older with quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR)-confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to hospital and registered in SIVEP-Gripe, a nationwide surveillance database in Brazil, between Feb 16 and Aug 15, 2020 (epidemiological weeks 8-33). We also examined the progression of the COVID-19 pandemic across three 4-week periods within this timeframe (epidemiological weeks 8-12, 19-22, and 27-30). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. We compared the regional burden of hospital admissions stratified by age, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and respiratory support. We analysed data from the whole country and its five regions: North, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast, and South. FINDINGS: Between Feb 16 and Aug 15, 2020, 254 288 patients with RT-qPCR-confirmed COVID-19 were admitted to hospital and registered in SIVEP-Gripe. The mean age of patients was 60 (SD 17) years, 119 657 (47%) of 254 288 were aged younger than 60 years, 143 521 (56%) of 254 243 were male, and 14 979 (16%) of 90 829 had no comorbidities. Case numbers increased across the three 4-week periods studied: by epidemiological weeks 19-22, cases were concentrated in the North, Northeast, and Southeast; by weeks 27-30, cases had spread to the Central-West and South regions. 232 036 (91%) of 254 288 patients had a defined hospital outcome when the data were exported; in-hospital mortality was 38% (87 515 of 232 036 patients) overall, 59% (47 002 of 79 687) among patients admitted to the ICU, and 80% (36 046 of 45 205) among those who were mechanically ventilated. The overall burden of ICU admissions per ICU beds was more pronounced in the North, Southeast, and Northeast, than in the Central-West and South. In the Northeast, 1545 (16%) of 9960 patients received invasive mechanical ventilation outside the ICU compared with 431 (8%) of 5388 in the South. In-hospital mortality among patients younger than 60 years was 31% (4204 of 13 468) in the Northeast versus 15% (1694 of 11 196) in the South. INTERPRETATION: We observed a widespread distribution of COVID-19 across all regions in Brazil, resulting in a high overall disease burden. In-hospital mortality was high, even in patients younger than 60 years, and worsened by existing regional disparities within the health system. The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need to improve access to high-quality care for critically ill patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, particularly in LMICs. FUNDING: National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), Coordinating Agency for Advanced Training of Graduate Personnel (CAPES), Carlos Chagas Filho Foundation for Research Support of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), and Instituto de Salud Carlos III.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad Hospitalaria/tendencias , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , /terapia , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Geografía , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Admisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Respiración Artificial/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
15.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(4): 349-359, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180127

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prognostic models to predict the risk of clinical deterioration in acute COVID-19 cases are urgently required to inform clinical management decisions. METHODS: We developed and validated a multivariable logistic regression model for in-hospital clinical deterioration (defined as any requirement of ventilatory support or critical care, or death) among consecutively hospitalised adults with highly suspected or confirmed COVID-19 who were prospectively recruited to the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infections Consortium Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium (ISARIC4C) study across 260 hospitals in England, Scotland, and Wales. Candidate predictors that were specified a priori were considered for inclusion in the model on the basis of previous prognostic scores and emerging literature describing routinely measured biomarkers associated with COVID-19 prognosis. We used internal-external cross-validation to evaluate discrimination, calibration, and clinical utility across eight National Health Service (NHS) regions in the development cohort. We further validated the final model in held-out data from an additional NHS region (London). FINDINGS: 74 944 participants (recruited between Feb 6 and Aug 26, 2020) were included, of whom 31 924 (43·2%) of 73 948 with available outcomes met the composite clinical deterioration outcome. In internal-external cross-validation in the development cohort of 66 705 participants, the selected model (comprising 11 predictors routinely measured at the point of hospital admission) showed consistent discrimination, calibration, and clinical utility across all eight NHS regions. In held-out data from London (n=8239), the model showed a similarly consistent performance (C-statistic 0·77 [95% CI 0·76 to 0·78]; calibration-in-the-large 0·00 [-0·05 to 0·05]); calibration slope 0·96 [0·91 to 1·01]), and greater net benefit than any other reproducible prognostic model. INTERPRETATION: The 4C Deterioration model has strong potential for clinical utility and generalisability to predict clinical deterioration and inform decision making among adults hospitalised with COVID-19. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, Department for International Development, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, EU Platform for European Preparedness Against (Re-)emerging Epidemics, NIHR Health Protection Research Unit (HPRU) in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections at University of Liverpool, NIHR HPRU in Respiratory Infections at Imperial College London.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Reglas de Decisión Clínica , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas/métodos , Deterioro Clínico , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /terapia , Cuidados Críticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Admisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Pronóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Respiración Artificial/estadística & datos numéricos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Reino Unido/epidemiología
16.
JAMA ; 325(12): 1185-1195, 2021 03 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178926

RESUMEN

Importance: Convalescent plasma is a proposed treatment for COVID-19. Objective: To assess clinical outcomes with convalescent plasma treatment vs placebo or standard of care in peer-reviewed and preprint publications or press releases of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Data Sources: PubMed, the Cochrane COVID-19 trial registry, and the Living Overview of Evidence platform were searched until January 29, 2021. Study Selection: The RCTs selected compared any type of convalescent plasma vs placebo or standard of care for patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 in any treatment setting. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two reviewers independently extracted data on relevant clinical outcomes, trial characteristics, and patient characteristics and used the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. The primary analysis included peer-reviewed publications of RCTs only, whereas the secondary analysis included all publicly available RCT data (peer-reviewed publications, preprints, and press releases). Inverse variance-weighted meta-analyses were conducted to summarize the treatment effects. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause mortality, length of hospital stay, clinical improvement, clinical deterioration, mechanical ventilation use, and serious adverse events. Results: A total of 1060 patients from 4 peer-reviewed RCTs and 10 722 patients from 6 other publicly available RCTs were included. The summary risk ratio (RR) for all-cause mortality with convalescent plasma in the 4 peer-reviewed RCTs was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.63 to 1.38), the absolute risk difference was -1.21% (95% CI, -5.29% to 2.88%), and there was low certainty of the evidence due to imprecision. Across all 10 RCTs, the summary RR was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.92 to 1.12) and there was moderate certainty of the evidence due to inclusion of unpublished data. Among the peer-reviewed RCTs, the summary hazard ratio was 1.17 (95% CI, 0.07 to 20.34) for length of hospital stay, the summary RR was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.20 to 2.87) for mechanical ventilation use (the absolute risk difference for mechanical ventilation use was -2.56% [95% CI, -13.16% to 8.05%]), and there was low certainty of the evidence due to imprecision for both outcomes. Limited data on clinical improvement, clinical deterioration, and serious adverse events showed no significant differences. Conclusions and Relevance: Treatment with convalescent plasma compared with placebo or standard of care was not significantly associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality or with any benefit for other clinical outcomes. The certainty of the evidence was low to moderate for all-cause mortality and low for other outcomes.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Adulto , Sesgo , Causas de Muerte , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunización Pasiva/efectos adversos , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Placebos/uso terapéutico , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Respiración Artificial , Nivel de Atención , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 39(10): 1792-1798, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177766

RESUMEN

Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of adolescent mortality and injury in the United States. For young drivers, crash risk peaks immediately after licensure and declines during the next two years, making the point of licensure an important safety intervention opportunity. Legislation in Ohio established a unique health-transportation partnership among the State of Ohio, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and Diagnostic Driving, Inc., to identify underprepared driver license applicants through a virtual driving assessment system. The system, a computer-based virtual driving test, exposes drivers to common serious crash scenarios to identify critical skill deficits and is delivered in testing centers immediately before the on-road examination. A pilot study of license applicants who completed it showed that the virtual driving assessment system accurately predicted which drivers would fail the on-road examination and provided automated feedback that informed drivers on their skill deficits. At this time, the partnership's work is informing policy changes around integrating the virtual driving assessment system into licensing and driver training with the aim of reducing crashes in the first months of independent driving. The system can be developed to identify deficits in safety-critical skills that lead to crashes in new drivers and to address challenges that the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has introduced to driver testing and training.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil/legislación & jurisprudencia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Concesión de Licencias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Administración de la Seguridad/organización & administración , Interfaz Usuario-Computador , Adolescente , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Vehículos a Motor/estadística & datos numéricos , Ohio , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Philadelphia , Proyectos Piloto , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Transportes/métodos , Adulto Joven
18.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(1): e19727, 2021 01 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177912

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: eHealth and mobile health (mHealth) are an evolving trend in the medical field. The acceptance of digital tools is high, and the need is growing. OBJECTIVE: Young adults (18-40 years) confronted with a cancer diagnosis present unique needs and require special care. They often have a strong affinity and are familiar with modern technology. On that account, we implemented a web-based symptom and quality of life (QoL) assessment to address patients' attitudes and willingness to use mHealth tools. The study also aims to evaluate sociodemographic parameters that could influence patients' opinions. METHODS: A total of 380 young patients aged 18-40 treated with radiotherapy between 2002 and 2017 were included in the trial. We assessed QoL via the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Core 30 (EORTC C30) questionnaire and added general questions about mHealth technology. The added questions inquired patients' opinions regarding general aspects, including technical advances in medicine, mobile and app assistance during cancer treatment, data transfer, and app-specific features. The survey was conducted for 12 months. Participation was voluntary and pseudonymized; prior written consent was obtained. RESULTS: We achieved a participation rate of 57.6% (219/380) and a completion rate of 50.2% (110/219). The median age was 33 years (range 18-40). Of all participants, 89.1% (98/110) considered new technologies in medicine as positive; 10.9% (12/110) answered with neutral. Nearly all patients (96.4%, 106/110) stated that they would send further data via a web-based platform. Of all, 96.4% (106/110) considered the provided pseudonymization of their data as safe. We further asked the patients if they would use a mobile app for symptom and QoL assessment similar to the present web-based system: 74.5% (82/110) answered with yes and 25.5% (28/110) said they would not use a mobile app in the future. We tested the willingness to use an app on several sociodemographic parameters, such as age, gender, education, health insurance status, and cancer-related parameters: tumor stage, time since radiation treatment, and treatment intention. None of these parameters correlated with app use in this group of young adults. Patients who were generally positive regarding using an app rated several possible functions of a future app. The 3 most requested features were appointment reminders (89.0%, 73/82), contact overview of all involved clinics and physicians (87%, 71/82), and making an appointment via app (78%, 64/82). CONCLUSIONS: eHealth and mHealth tools should be available as an integrated part of a comprehensive cancer care approach. It provides automated, thorough documentation of health parameters during therapy and follow-up for doctors, medical staff, and tumor patients to optimize treatment. With this study, we could show that young adults are the ideal patient population to use eHealth/mHealth tools. Such tools offer further digital support and improve the patients' need for constant QoL during cancer care.


Asunto(s)
Internet , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Calidad de Vida , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177537

RESUMEN

Radiation-induced spinal glioblastoma is an extremely rare disease with only four previously published reports in the literature. We report the fifth case, a 69-year-old woman who previously underwent treatment with brachytherapy for cervical cancer, and thereafter presented with neurologic deficits from a conus medullaris tumour. Biopsy and histopathology confirm glioblastoma, not otherwise specified. Treatment of spinal glioblastoma consists of surgery, either biopsy or excision and chemoradiation. However, results are still unsatisfactory and prognosis remains poor.


Asunto(s)
Braquiterapia/efectos adversos , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Inducidas por Radiación/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Médula Espinal/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/radioterapia , Anciano , Biopsia , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos de Citorreducción , Femenino , Glioblastoma/etiología , Glioblastoma/patología , Glioblastoma/cirugía , Humanos , Laminectomía , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Neoplasias Inducidas por Radiación/etiología , Neoplasias Inducidas por Radiación/patología , Neoplasias Inducidas por Radiación/cirugía , Médula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagen , Médula Espinal/patología , Médula Espinal/efectos de la radiación , Médula Espinal/cirugía , Neoplasias de la Médula Espinal/etiología , Neoplasias de la Médula Espinal/patología , Neoplasias de la Médula Espinal/cirugía
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