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1.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 404: 115182, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694488

RESUMEN

Due to the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019, the use of disinfectants is rapidly increasing worldwide. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is an EPA-registered disinfectant, it was also a component in humidifier disinfectants that had caused idiopathic pulmonary diseases in Korea. In this study, we identified the possible pulmonary toxic response and mechanism using human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and mice. First, cell viability decreased sharply at a 4 µg/mL of concentration. The volume of intracellular organelles and the ROS level reduced, leading to the formation of apoptotic bodies and an increase of the LDH release. Secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinase-1 also significantly increased. More importantly, lamellar body-like structures were formed in both the cells and mice exposed to DDAC, and the expression of both the indicator proteins for lamellar body (ABCA3 and Rab11a) and surfactant proteins (A, B, and D) was clearly enhanced. In addition, chronic fibrotic pulmonary lesions were notably observed in mice instilled twice (weekly) with DDAC (500 µg), ultimately resulting in death. Taken together, we suggest that disruption of pulmonary surfactant homeostasis may contribute to DDAC-induced cell death and subsequent pathophysiology and that the formation of lamellar body-like structures may play a role as the trigger. In addition, we propose that the cause of sudden death of mice exposed to DDAC should be clearly elucidated for the safe application of DDAC.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Compuestos de Amonio Cuaternario/toxicidad , Animales , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Femenino , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Compuestos de Amonio Cuaternario/administración & dosificación
2.
JAMA ; 324(1): 41-42, 2020 Jul 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689371
7.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(7): e009007, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-669270
8.
NASN Sch Nurse ; 35(4): 196-197, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657165

RESUMEN

Annually, the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) sets advocacy goals. The goals include legislative and policy priorities. This article sets forth current NASN legislative priorities and results of advocacy that benefit students. The NASN Board of Directors are instrumental in moving policy priorities forward. In addition, this article shares NASN advocacy during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Prejuicio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Prejuicio/prevención & control , Servicios de Salud Escolar/normas , Servicios de Enfermería Escolar/normas , Fumar Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fumar Tabaco/prevención & control , Adolescente , Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Almuerzo , Masculino , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Estados Unidos
10.
Bioanalysis ; 12(13): 919-935, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656243

RESUMEN

Aim: Evaluation of a novel microsampling device for its use in clinical sample collection and biomarker analysis. Methodology: Matching samples were collected from 16 healthy donors (ten females, six males; age 42 ± 20) via K2EDTA touch activated phlebotomy (TAP) device and phlebotomy. The protein profile differences between sampling groups was evaluated using aptamer-based proteomic assay SomaScan and selected ELISA. Conclusion: Somascan signal concordance between phlebotomy- and TAP-generated samples was studied and comparability of protein abundances between these blood sample collection methods was demonstrated. Statistically significant correlation in selected ELISA assays also confirmed the TAP device applicability to the quantitative analysis of protein biomarkers in clinical trials.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Sanguíneas/análisis , Flebotomía/instrumentación , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Hemólisis , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Proteómica/instrumentación , Adulto Joven
12.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(3): 354-361, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654937

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The overarching goal of this study was to provide key information on how adolescents' substance use has changed since the corona virus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic, in addition to key contexts and correlates of substance use during social distancing. METHODS: Canadian adolescents (n = 1,054, Mage = 16.68, standard deviation = .78) completed an online survey, in which they reported on their frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, cannabis use, and vaping in the 3 weeks before and directly after social distancing practices had taken effect. RESULTS: For most substances, the percentage of users decreased; however, the frequency of both alcohol and cannabis use increased. Although the greatest percentage of adolescents was engaging in solitary substance use (49.3%), many were still using substances with peers via technology (31.6%) and, shockingly, even face to face (23.6%). Concerns for how social distancing would affect peer reputation was a significant predictor of face-to-face substance use with friends among adolescents with low self-reported popularity, and a significant predictor of solitary substance use among average and high popularity teens. Finally, adjustment predictors, including depression and fear of the infectivity of COVID-19, predicted using solitary substance use during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide preliminary evidence that adolescent substance use, including that which occurs face to face with peers, thereby putting adolescents at risk for contracting COVID-19, may be of particular concern during the pandemic. Further, solitary adolescent substance use during the pandemic, which is associated with poorer mental health and coping, may also be a notable concern worthy of further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adolescente , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Canadá/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Marihuana/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Factores de Riesgo , Distancia Social , Vapeo/epidemiología
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11746, 2020 07 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654915

RESUMEN

Category A and B biothreat agents are deemed to be of great concern by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and include the bacteria Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Brucella species. Underscored by the impact of the 2020 SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, 2016 Zika pandemic, 2014 Ebola outbreak, 2001 anthrax letter attacks, and 1984 Rajneeshee Salmonella attacks, the threat of future epidemics/pandemics and/or terrorist/criminal use of pathogenic organisms warrants continued exploration and development of both classic and alternative methods of detecting biothreat agents. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a large and highly diverse group of carbon-based molecules, generally related by their volatility at ambient temperature. Recently, the diagnostic potential of VOCs has been realized, as correlations between the microbial VOC metabolome and specific bacterial pathogens have been identified. Herein, we describe the use of microbial VOC profiles as fingerprints for the identification of biothreat-relevant microbes, and for differentiating between a kanamycin susceptible and resistant strain. Additionally, we demonstrate microbial VOC profiling using a rapid-throughput VOC metabolomics method we refer to as 'simultaneous multifiber headspace solid-phase microextraction' (simulti-hSPME). Finally, through VOC analysis, we illustrate a rapid non-invasive approach to the diagnosis of BALB/c mice infected with either F. tularensis SCHU S4 or Y. pestis CO92.


Asunto(s)
Metabolómica/métodos , Tularemia/metabolismo , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/metabolismo , Animales , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/efectos de los fármacos , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Femenino , Francisella tularensis/efectos de los fármacos , Francisella tularensis/aislamiento & purificación , Francisella tularensis/metabolismo , Kanamicina/farmacología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/metabolismo , Neumonía Viral/virología , Microextracción en Fase Sólida , Tularemia/microbiología , Tularemia/patología , Tularemia/veterinaria , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/aislamiento & purificación , Yersinia pestis/efectos de los fármacos , Yersinia pestis/aislamiento & purificación , Yersinia pestis/metabolismo
14.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(9)2020 08 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654170

RESUMEN

Previously, ivermectin (1 to 10 mg/kg of body weight) was shown to inhibit the liver-stage development of Plasmodium berghei in orally dosed mice. Here, ivermectin showed inhibition of the in vitro development of Plasmodium cynomolgi schizonts (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 10.42 µM) and hypnozoites (IC50, 29.24 µM) in primary macaque hepatocytes when administered as a high dose prophylactically but not when administered in radical cure mode. The safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of oral ivermectin (0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mg/kg) with and without chloroquine (10 mg/kg) administered for 7 consecutive days were evaluated for prophylaxis or radical cure of P. cynomolgi liver stages in rhesus macaques. No inhibition or delay to blood-stage P. cynomolgi parasitemia was observed at any ivermectin dose (0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mg/kg). Ivermectin (0.6 and 1.2 mg/kg) and chloroquine (10 mg/kg) in combination were well-tolerated with no adverse events and no significant pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions observed. Repeated daily ivermectin administration for 7 days did not inhibit ivermectin bioavailability. It was recently demonstrated that both ivermectin and chloroquine inhibit replication of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro Further ivermectin and chloroquine trials in humans are warranted to evaluate their role in Plasmodium vivax control and as adjunctive therapies against COVID-19 infections.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos/farmacología , Cloroquina/farmacología , Ivermectina/farmacología , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Plasmodium cynomolgi/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Antimaláricos/sangre , Antimaláricos/farmacocinética , Disponibilidad Biológica , Cloroquina/sangre , Cloroquina/farmacocinética , Esquema de Medicación , Combinación de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Femenino , Hepatocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Hepatocitos/parasitología , Ivermectina/sangre , Ivermectina/farmacocinética , Hígado/parasitología , Macaca mulatta , Malaria/parasitología , Masculino , Parasitemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Plasmodium cynomolgi/crecimiento & desarrollo , Plasmodium cynomolgi/patogenicidad , Cultivo Primario de Células , Esquizontes/efectos de los fármacos , Esquizontes/crecimiento & desarrollo
15.
Br J Gen Pract ; 70(697): e540-e547, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-653992

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in a rapid change in workload across healthcare systems. Factors related to this adaptation in UK primary care have not yet been examined. AIM: To assess the responsiveness and prioritisation of primary care consultation type for older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional database study examining consultations between 17 February and 10 May 2020 for patients aged ≥65 years, drawn from primary care practices within the Oxford Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) Research and Surveillance Centre (RSC) sentinel network, UK. METHOD: The authors reported the proportion of consultation type across five categories: clinical administration, electronic/video, face-to-face, telephone, and home visits. Temporal trends in telephone and face-to-face consultations were analysed by polypharmacy, frailty status, and socioeconomic group using incidence rate ratios (IRR). RESULTS: Across 3 851 304 consultations, the population median age was 75 years (interquartile range [IQR] 70-82); and 46% (n = 82 926) of the cohort (N = 180 420) were male. The rate of telephone and electronic/video consultations more than doubled across the study period (106.0% and 102.8%, respectively). Face-to-face consultations fell by 64.6% and home visits by 62.6%. This predominantly occurred across week 11 (week commencing 9 March 2020), coinciding with national policy change. Polypharmacy and frailty were associated with a relative increase in consultations. The greatest relative increase was among people taking ≥10 medications compared with those taking none (face-to-face IRR 9.90, 95% CI = 9.55 to 10.26; telephone IRR 17.64, 95% CI = 16.89 to 18.41). CONCLUSION: Primary care has undergone an unprecedented in-pandemic reorganisation while retaining focus on patients with increased complexity.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Visita Domiciliaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Anciano , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Médicos Generales/organización & administración , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Reino Unido/epidemiología
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e19831, 2020 07 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651795

RESUMEN

Before the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), 1 in 3 women and girls, globally, were victimized by an abusive partner in intimate relationships. However, the current pandemic has amplified cases of domestic violence (DV) against women and girls, with up to thrice the prevalence in DV cases compared to the same time last year. Evidence of the adverse effects of the pandemic on DV is still emerging, even as violence prevention strategies are iteratively being refined by service providers, advocacy agencies, and survivors to meet stay-at-home mandates. Emotional and material support for survivors is a critical resource increasingly delivered using digital and technology-based modalities, which offer several advantages and challenges. This paper rapidly describes current DV mitigation approaches using digital solutions, signaling emerging best practices to support survivors, their children, and abusers during stay-at-home advisories. Some examples of technology-based strategies and solutions are presented. An immediate priority is mapping out current digital solutions in response to COVID-19-related DV and outlining issues with uptake, coverage, and meaningful use of digital solutions.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Violencia Doméstica/prevención & control , Violencia de Pareja/prevención & control , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Telemedicina/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Violencia Doméstica/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Prevalencia , Apoyo Social , Sobrevivientes/psicología
17.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(3)2020 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-649882

RESUMEN

Italy is currently experiencing an epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Aim of our study is to identify the best predictors of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission in patients with Covid-19. We examined 28 patients admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) and subsequently confirmed as cases of Covid-19. Patients received, at the admission to the ED, a diagnostic work-up including: patient history, clinical examination, an arterial blood gas analysis (whenever possible performed on room air), laboratory blood tests, including serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), lung ultrasound examination and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the thorax. For each patient, as gas exchange index through the alveolocapillary membrane, we determined the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (AaDO⁠2) and the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient augmentation (AaDO⁠2 augmentation). For each patient, as measurement of hypoxemia, we determined oxygen saturation (SpO2), partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO⁠2), PaO⁠2 deficit and the ratio between arterial partial pressure of oxygen by blood gas analysis and fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F). Patients were assigned to ICU Group or to Non-ICU Group basing on the decision to intubate. Areas under the curve (AUC) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to compare the performance of each test in relation to prediction of ICU admission. Comparing patients of ICU Group (10 patients) with patients of Non-ICU Group (18 patients), we found that the first were older, they had more frequently a medical history of malignancy and they were more frequently admitted to ED for dyspnea. Patients of ICU Group had lower oxygen saturation, PaO⁠2, P/F and higher heart rate, respiratory rate, AaDO⁠2, AaDO⁠2 augmentation and lactate than patients of Non-ICU Group. ROC curves demonstrate that age, heart rate, respiratory rate, dyspnea, lactate, AaDO2, AaDO2 augmentation, white blood cell count, neutrophil count and percentage, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose level, international normalized ratio (INR), blood urea and IL-6 are useful predictors of ICU admission. We identified several predictors of ICU admission in patients with Covid-19. They can act as fast tools for the early identification and timely treatment of critical cases since their arrival in the ED.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Análisis de los Gases de la Sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Curva ROC , Factores de Riesgo
18.
Euro Surveill ; 25(28)2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647501

RESUMEN

Most cases of coronavirus disease 2019 are mild or asymptomatic. Therefore, many cases remain unrecorded. We determined seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 3,186 regular blood donors in three German federal states between 9 March and 3 June 2020. The IgG seroprevalence was 0.91% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-1.24) overall, ranging from 0.66% (95% CI: 0.13-1.19) in Hesse to 1.22% (95% CI: 0.33-2.10) in Lower-Saxony.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Factores de Tiempo
19.
Eur J Radiol ; 130: 109202, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684452

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: So far, only a few studies evaluated the correlation between CT features and clinical outcome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. PURPOSE: To evaluate CT ability in differentiating critically ill patients requiring invasive ventilation from patients with less severe disease. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from patients admitted to our institution for COVID-19 pneumonia between March 5th-24th. Patients were considered critically ill or non-critically ill, depending on the need for mechanical ventilation. CT images from both groups were analyzed for the assessment of qualitative features and disease extension, using a quantitative semiautomatic method. We evaluated the differences between the two groups for clinical, laboratory and CT data. Analyses were conducted on a per-protocol basis. RESULTS: 189 patients were analyzed. PaO2/FIO2 ratio and oxygen saturation (SaO2) were decreased in critically ill patients. At CT, mixed pattern (ground glass opacities (GGO) and consolidation) and GGO alone were more frequent respectively in critically ill and in non-critically ill patients (p < 0.05). Lung volume involvement was significantly higher in critically ill patients (38.5 % vs. 5.8 %, p < 0.05). A cut-off of 23.0 % of lung involvement showed 96 % sensitivity and 96 % specificity in distinguishing critically ill patients from patients with less severe disease. The fraction of involved lung was related to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, PaO2/FIO2 ratio and SaO2 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Lung disease extension, assessed using quantitative CT, has a significant relationship with clinical severity and may predict the need for invasive ventilation in patients with COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Interpretación de Imagen Asistida por Computador/métodos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Anciano , Enfermedad Crítica , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Femenino , Humanos , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Proyectos de Investigación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
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