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1.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(10): 1098-1105, 2020 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918910

RESUMEN

The novel coronavirus has become a global risk because of its massive transmission and high rates of mutation. Efficient clinical management remains a challenge in combatting the severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by this virulent strain. This contagious disease is new to the people of Bangladesh. The country is at high risk of spreading the coronavirus infection particularly because of its high population density. Significant morbidity and mortality have been observed for the quick transmission of this virus since March 8, 2020. The basic objective of this article is to analyze the preparedness of Bangladesh, given its constraints and limitations, to cope with the rapid spread of COVID-19 infection. In doing so, it summarizes the origin of coronavirus, epidemiology, mode of transmission, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of the disease. Although many steps have been taken by the Government and the private sector of Bangladesh to create awareness about measures needed to prevent the deadly infections, many people are unaware of and reluctant to accept the prescribed rules. Inadequacy of diagnostic facilities and limitations of clinical care and health care services were major constraints faced in treating COVID-19 infected people in Bangladesh. Greater compliance by the people in following the suggested measures may help reduce the rapid spread of the disease and overcome the challenges faced by this pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Factores de Riesgo
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(43): 1571-1575, 2020 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895762

RESUMEN

Elections occurring during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have been affected by notable changes in the methods of voting, the number and type of polling locations, and in-person voting procedures (1). To mitigate transmission of COVID-19 at polling locations, jurisdictions have adopted changes to protocols and procedures, informed by CDC's interim guidance, developed in collaboration with the Election Assistance Commission (2). The driving principle for this guidance is that voting practices with lower infection risk will be those which reduce the number of voters who congregate indoors in polling locations by offering a variety of methods for voting and longer voting periods. The guidance for in-person voting includes considerations for election officials, poll workers, and voters to maintain healthy environments and operations. To assess knowledge and adoption of mitigation strategies, CDC collaborated with the Delaware Department of Health and Social Services and the Delaware State Election Commission on a survey of poll workers who served during the statewide primary election on September 15, 2020. Among 522 eligible poll workers, 93% correctly answered all three survey questions about COVID-19 transmission. Respondents noted that most voters and poll workers wore masks. However, masks were not always worn correctly (i.e., covering both the nose and mouth). Responses suggest that mitigation measures recommended for both poll workers and voters were widely adopted and feasible, but also highlighted gaps in infection prevention control efforts. Strengthening of measures intended to minimize the risk of poll workers acquiring COVID-19 from ill voters, such as additional training and necessary personal protective equipment (PPE), as well as support for alternative voting options for ill voters, are needed. Adherence to mitigation measures is important not only to protect voters but also to protect poll workers, many of whom are older adults, and thus at higher risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness. Enhanced attention to reducing congregation in polling locations, correct mask use, and providing safe voting options for ill voters are critical considerations to minimize risk to voters and poll workers. Evidence from the Delaware election supports the feasibility and acceptability of implementing current CDC guidance for election officials, poll workers, and voters for mitigating COVID-19 transmission at polling locations (2).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Política , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Delaware/epidemiología , Femenino , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
5.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200487, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895102

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Reflect and propose adaptations to the Multimodal Hand Hygiene Strategy for field hospitals, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Reflective study, carried out in April 2020, based on the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the guide for the implementation of the five components of the Multimodal Strategy: system change related to infrastructure; training/education; evaluation and feedback; reminders in the workplace; and institutional security climate. RESULTS: The Multimodal Strategy, proposed for hospitals in general, can be adapted for field hospitals in order to reduce the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Investments to adapt the infrastructure and education of workers require foresight and speed and are of special relevance to promote hand hygiene in this care context. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: Adjusting the Multimodal Strategy, especially for the reduced time in the execution of each component, is necessary for field hospitals with a view to preventing COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Higiene de las Manos/métodos , Unidades Móviles de Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Guías como Asunto , Higiene de las Manos/organización & administración , Humanos , Seguridad del Paciente , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Organización Mundial de la Salud
10.
Work ; 66(4): 713-716, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789248

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The primary response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has been to minimize social contact through lockdown measures. The closure of non-essential businesses to tackle the spread of the coronavirus has had negative consequences for the global economy, production, and employment. OBJECTIVE: To outline how known occupational health principles can be used for preventative management of the coronavirus in workplaces to support resumption of work. METHODS: A discussion of current knowledge of COVID-19, the cost of the lockdown strategy, and preventative biological cycle management. RESULTS: The evidence-based literature indicates that biological cycle management can control the risk of coronavirus infection, provide a suitable and sufficient exit strategy from lockdown, and support getting employees back to work. Adherence to personal protective equipment standards has been insufficient, indicating a need for workplace investment and education. CONCLUSION: Imposed restrictions on workplace operations can be lifted without compromising worker health and safety when a workplace commits to practicing the three principles of biological cycle management.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Salud Laboral , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuarentena/normas , Reinserción al Trabajo , Lugar de Trabajo/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Guías como Asunto , Higiene de las Manos/normas , Humanos , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Cuarentena/organización & administración , Factores de Tiempo
13.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(2): 264-270, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-765088

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization (WHO) hand-rub formulations have been in use around the world for at least the past 10 years. The advent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has further enhanced their use. We reviewed published efficacy data for the original and modified formulations. Only efficacy data according to the European Norms (EN) were found. The bactericidal efficacy of the original formulations was, under practical conditions, partly insufficient (EN 1500, only effective in 60 s; EN 12791, efficacy too low in 5 min). The first modification with higher alcohol concentrations improves their efficacy as hygienic hand rub (effective in 30 s). The second (0.725% glycerol) and third (0.5% glycerol) modification improves their efficacy for surgical hand preparation (effective in 5 and 3 min). The original and second modified formulations were tested and demonstrate activity against enveloped viruses including severe acute resiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 30 s. The ethanol-based formulation is also active against some non-enveloped test viruses in 60 s (suspension tests, EN 14476). In-vivo data on the formulations would provide a more reliable result on the virucidal efficacy on contaminated hands but are currently not available. Nevertheless, the most recent modifications should be adopted for use in healthcare.


Asunto(s)
2-Propanol/normas , Antiinfecciosos Locales/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Desinfectantes/normas , Guías como Asunto , Desinfección de las Manos/normas , Control de Infecciones/normas , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Organización Mundial de la Salud
15.
NASN Sch Nurse ; 35(4): 196-197, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657165

RESUMEN

Annually, the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) sets advocacy goals. The goals include legislative and policy priorities. This article sets forth current NASN legislative priorities and results of advocacy that benefit students. The NASN Board of Directors are instrumental in moving policy priorities forward. In addition, this article shares NASN advocacy during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Prejuicio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Prejuicio/prevención & control , Servicios de Salud Escolar/normas , Servicios de Enfermería Escolar/normas , Fumar Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fumar Tabaco/prevención & control , Adolescente , Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Almuerzo , Masculino , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Estados Unidos
16.
Health Lit Res Pract ; 4(3): e161-e165, 2020 08 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760978

RESUMEN

Stay-at-home orders have been an essential component of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) management in the United States. As states start lifting these mandates to reopen the economy, voluntary public compliance with public health recommendations may significantly influence the extent of resurgence in COVID-19 infection rates. Population-level risk from reopening may therefore be predicted from public intent to comply with public health recommendations. We are conducting a global, convergent design mixed-methods survey on public knowledge, perceptions, preferred health information sources, and understanding of and intent to comply with public health recommendations. With over 9,000 completed surveys from every US state and over 70 countries worldwide, to our knowledge this is the largest pandemic messaging study to date. Although the study is still ongoing, we have conducted an analysis of 5,005 US surveys completed from April 9-15, 2020 on public intent to comply with public health recommendations and offer insights on the COVID-19 pandemic-related risk of reopening. We found marked regional differences in intent to follow key public health recommendations. Regional efforts are urgently needed to influence public behavior changes to decrease the risk of reopening, particularly in higher-risk areas with low public intent to comply with preventive health recommendations. [HLRP: Health Literacy Research and Practice. 2020;4(3):e160-e165.].


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Intención , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Conducta Social , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Comunicación , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Guías como Asunto , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Aislamiento Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
17.
Health Lit Res Pract ; 4(3): e166-e170, 2020 Aug 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760977

RESUMEN

By mid-May 2020, most of the United States had been under shelter-in-place orders for several weeks to decrease the spread of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). As states begin to lift these orders to reopen the economy, the risk of a resurgence of COVID-19 may be related to the public's voluntary adherence to public health recommendations. We conducted a nationally representative survey of 604 African Americans to generate a risk assessment based on African Americans' compliance with public health recommendations to frequently wash hands, maintain social distancing, avoid touching face, and wear a mask in public. This is, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive study of African Americans and public health adherence specific to COVID-19. The percent of respondents reporting that they always comply with these recommendations was 72%, 67%, 55%, and 65%, respectively. Based on this threshold, African Americans' level of adherence with COVID-19 public health recommendations suggests they may be at high risk of a resurgence of COVID-19 during reopening, and there is an urgent need for targeted, culturally responsive public health messaging that is accessible to communities of color to help address racial disparities in COVID-19 risk. [HLRP: Health Literacy Research and Practice. 2020;4(3):e166-e170.].


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Cara , Femenino , Guías como Asunto , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Medición de Riesgo , Aislamiento Social , Estados Unidos
18.
Work ; 66(4): 717-729, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760843

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly contagious acute respiratory syndrome and has been declared a pandemic in more than 209 countries worldwide. At the time of writing, no preventive vaccine has been developed and tested in the community. This study was conducted to review studies aimed at preventing the spread of the coronavirus worldwide. METHODS: This study was a review of the evidence-based literature and was conducted by searching databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect, until April 2020. The search was performed based on keywords including "coronavirus", "COVID-19", and "prevention". The list of references in the final studies has also been re-reviewed to find articles that might not have been obtained through the search. The guidelines published by trustworthy organizations such as the World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control have been used in this study. CONCLUSION: So far, no vaccine or definitive treatment for COVID-19 has been invented, and the disease has become a pandemic. Therefore, observation of hand hygiene, disinfection of high-touch surfaces, observation of social distance, and lack of presence in public places are recommended as preventive measures. Moreover, to control the situation and to reduce the incidence of the virus, some of the measures taken by the decision-making bodies and the guidelines of the deterrent institutions to strengthen telecommuting of employees and reduce the presence of people in the community and prevent unnecessary activities, are very important.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Guías como Asunto , Control de Infecciones/normas , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Lugar de Trabajo/organización & administración , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Toma de Decisiones en la Organización , Desinfección/organización & administración , Desinfección/normas , Higiene de las Manos/organización & administración , Higiene de las Manos/normas , Humanos , Incidencia , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Control de Infecciones/organización & administración , Tamizaje Masivo/organización & administración , Tamizaje Masivo/normas , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Distancia Social , Telecomunicaciones/organización & administración , Telecomunicaciones/normas , Lugar de Trabajo/normas
19.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020028, 2020 09 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761249

RESUMEN

This article reviews the current knowledges of congenital bleeding disorders (CBD) amid the COVID-19 pandemic. It appears that CBD is not associated with higher risk of getting COVID-19 and so the prevalence of COVID-19 among them seems not higher compared to the general population. In absence of specific therapeutic recommendations, it is essential to make a correct assessment of the risk of haemorrhage/thrombosis. Based on expert opinion, strategies for outpatient management include adherence to prescribed regimens, telemedicine, and communication about COVID-19 in patients with CBD. More data should be also collected to better characterize the impact of COVID-19 on patients with CBD. The current findings encourage further studies to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV2 infection in CBD patients to understand more fully the burden of this novel pathogen and to develop adequate preventive measures against this infection.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Trastornos de la Coagulación Sanguínea Heredados/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Guías como Asunto , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Telemedicina/métodos , Trastornos de la Coagulación Sanguínea Heredados/terapia , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatorios
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