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1.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(3): 824-825, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182629
4.
Orv Hetil ; 162(10): 362-365, 2021 03 07.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123703

RESUMEN

Összefoglaló. Számos közlemény született arról, hogy a COVID-19-pneumoniás betegek jelentos hányadában az artériás parciális oxigéntenzió kifejezetten alacsony, mégsem jellemzo a dyspnoe, és a pulzusoximetria sem mutat - a csökkent oxigéntenzióval arányos - súlyos hypoxaemiát. A jelenséget "happy hypoxaemia" néven említik. Ugyanakkor a légszomjról nem panaszkodó, de súlyos alveolocapillaris O2-felvételi zavarban szenvedo COVID-19-pneumoniás betegek a legkisebb fizikai megterhelést sem turik, és állapotuk gyorsan kritikussá válhat, tehát a hypoxaemia mértékének idoben való felismerése kulcskérdés. A jelen közleményben egy ilyen eset rövid ismertetése után összefoglaljuk a súlyos, de tünetmentes hypoxaemia hátterében meghúzódó élettani okokat. Ezek között szerepel a hypocapnia (respiratoricus alkalosis) is, mely alacsony oxigéntenzió mellett is a hemoglobin viszonylag megtartott oxigénszaturációját eredményezi. Ezért a mindennapi COVID-19-ellátásban a megismételt artériásvérgáz-meghatározások jelentosége nem hangsúlyozható eléggé. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(10): 362-365. Summary. Many COVID-19 patients have very low arterial partial oxigen tension while severe dyspnoe does not develop. Pulse oxymetry indicates only moderate reduction of arterial O2 saturation in these patients. The phenomenon is named "happy hypoxaemia". Lack of (severe) dyspnoe and only moderately decreased O2 saturation in severely impaired alveolo-capillary O2 uptake may partially be explained by an increased oxygen affinity of hemoglobin in the presence of low arterial partial pressure of CO2. The latter results from increased alveolar ventilation, while low partial pressure of O2 in COVID-19 patients reflects right-to-left shunting of pulmonary blood flow and ventilation-perfusion mismatch of the diseased lungs. While such patients may have mild complaints as related to the real impairment of alveolo-capillary oxygen exchange, severe hypoxaemia is a negative prognostic factor of outcome in this state where severe clinical deterioration may rapidly appear. The latter circumstance together with the unusual relationship of O2 partial pressure and O2 saturation of hemoglobin in COVID-19 emphasize the importance of repeated complete arterial blood gas analyses in these patients. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(10): 362-365.


Asunto(s)
Hipoxia , /complicaciones , Humanos , Hipoxia/etiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 241, 2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119412

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cytokine storm triggered by Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with high mortality. With high Interleukin -6 (IL-6) levels reported in COVID-19 related deaths in China, IL-6 is considered to be the key player in COVID-19 cytokine storm. Tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody against IL-6 receptor, is used on compassionate grounds for treatment of COVID-19 cytokine storm. The aim of this study was to assess effect of tocilizumab on mortality due to COVID-19 cytokine storm. METHOD: This retrospective, observational study included patients of severe COVID-19 pneumonia with persistent hypoxia (defined as saturation 94% or less on supplemental Oxygen of 15 L per minute through non-rebreathing mask or PaO2/FiO2 ratio of less than 200) who were admitted to a tertiary care center in Mumbai, India, between 31st March to 5th July 2020. In addition to standard care, single Inj. Tocilizumab 400 mg was given intravenously to 151 consecutive COVID-19 patients with persistent hypoxia, from 13th May to 5th July 2020. These 151 patients were retrospectively analysed and compared with historic controls, ie consecutive COVID-19 patients with persistent hypoxia, defined as stated above (N = 118, from our first COVID-19 admission on 31st March to 12th May 2020 i.e., till tocilizumab was available in hospital). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed for identifying predictors of survival. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 26. RESULTS: Out of 269 (151 in tocilizumab group and 118 historic controls) patients studied from 31st March to 5th July 2020, median survival in the tocilizumab group was significantly longer than in the control group; 18 days (95% CI, 11.3 to 24.7) versus 9 days (95% CI, 5.7 to 12.3); log rank p 0.007. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, independent predictors of survival were use of tocilizumab (HR 0.621, 95% CI 0.427-0.903, P 0.013) and higher oxygen saturation. CONCLUSION: Tocilizumab may improve survival in severe COVID-19 pneumonia with persistent hypoxia. Randomised controlled trials on use of tocilizumab as rescue therapy in patients of severe COVID-19 pneumonia with hypoxia (PaO2/FiO2 less than 200) due to hyperinflammatory state, are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/administración & dosificación , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas , Hipoxia , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inhibidores , Neumonía Viral , /epidemiología , /fisiopatología , Ensayos de Uso Compasivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/etiología , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/inmunología , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Hipoxia/etiología , Hipoxia/terapia , India/epidemiología , Interleucina-6/inmunología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/etiología , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Respiración Artificial/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Análisis de Supervivencia , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247414, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099928

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Facemasks are recommended to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, but concern about inadequate gas exchange is an often cited reason for non-compliance. RESEARCH QUESTION: Among adult volunteers, do either cloth masks or surgical masks impair oxygenation or ventilation either at rest or during physical activity? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: With IRB approval and informed consent, we measured heart rate (HR), transcutaneous carbon dioxide (CO2) tension and oxygen levels (SpO2) at the conclusion of six 10-minute phases: sitting quietly and walking briskly without a mask, sitting quietly and walking briskly while wearing a cloth mask, and sitting quietly and walking briskly while wearing a surgical mask. Brisk walking required at least a 10bpm increase in heart rate. Occurrences of hypoxemia (decrease in SpO2 of ≥3% from baseline to a value of ≤94%) and hypercarbia (increase in CO2 tension of ≥5 mmHg from baseline to a value of ≥46 mmHg) in individual subjects were collected. Wilcoxon signed-rank was used for pairwise comparisons among values for the whole cohort (e.g. walking without a mask versus walking with a cloth mask). RESULTS: Among 50 adult volunteers (median age 33 years; 32% with a co-morbidity), there were no episodes of hypoxemia or hypercarbia (0%; 95% confidence interval 0-1.9%). In paired comparisons, there were no statistically significant differences in either CO2 or SpO2 between baseline measurements without a mask and those while wearing either kind of mask mask, both at rest and after walking briskly for ten minutes. INTERPRETATION: The risk of pathologic gas exchange impairment with cloth masks and surgical masks is near-zero in the general adult population.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Máscaras , Oxígeno/metabolismo , Ventilación Pulmonar/fisiología , Adulto , /transmisión , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Humanos , Hipoxia/etiología , Hipoxia/metabolismo , Masculino , Máscaras/efectos adversos , Descanso/fisiología , Caminata/fisiología
7.
Respir Med ; 179: 106312, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081264

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Efforts to meet increased oxygen demands in COVID-19 patients are a priority in averting mechanical ventilation (MV), associated with high mortality approaching 76.4-97.2%. Novel methods of oxygen delivery could mitigate that risk. Oxygen hoods/helmets may improve: O2-saturation (SaO2), reduce in-hospital mechanical ventilation and mortality rates, and reduce length of hospitalization in hypoxic Covid-19 patients failing on conventional high-flow oxygen delivery systems. METHODS: DesignProspective Controlled Cohort Study. SettingSingle Center. ParticipantsAll patients admitted with a diagnosis of COVID-19 were reviewed and 136/347 patients met inclusion criteria. Study period3/6/2020 to 5/1/2020. 136 participants completed the study with known status for all outcome measures. Intervention or exposureOxygen hoods/helmets as compared to conventional high-flow oxygen delivery systems. MAIN OUTCOME(S) AND MEASURE(S): 1) Pre and post change in oxygen saturation (SaO2). 2) In-hospital Mechanical Ventilation (MV). 3) In-hospital Mortality. 4) Length of hospitalization. RESULTS: 136 patients including 58-intervention and 78-control patients were studied. Age, gender, and other demographics/prognostic indicators were comparable between cohorts. Oxygen hoods averted imminent or immediate intubation/MV in all 58 COVID-19 patients failing on conventional high-flow oxygen delivery systems with a mean improvement in SaO2 of 8.8%, p < 0.001. MV rates were observed to be higher in the control 37/78 (47.4%) as compared to the intervention cohort 23/58 (39.7%), a difference of 7.7%, a 27% risk reduction, not statistically significant, OR 95%CI 0.73 (0.37-1.5). Mortality rates were observed higher in the control 54/78 (69.2%) as compared to the intervention cohort 36/58 (62.1%), a difference of 7.1%, a 27% risk reduction, not statistically significant OR 95%CI 0.73 (0.36-1.5). CONCLUSION: Oxygen hoods demonstrate improvement in SaO2 for patients failing on conventional high-flow oxygen-delivery systems and prevented imminent mechanical ventilation. In-hospital mechanical ventilation and mortality rates were reduced with the use of oxygen hoods but not found to be statistically significant. The oxygen hood is a safe, effective oxygen-delivery system which may reduce intubation/MV and mortality rates. Their use should be considered in treating hypoxic COVID-19 patients. Further research is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04407260.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Hipoxia/terapia , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Terapia por Inhalación de Oxígeno/instrumentación , Respiración Artificial/instrumentación , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Falla de Equipo , Femenino , Humanos , Hipoxia/etiología , Hipoxia/mortalidad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Pronóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Tasa de Supervivencia/tendencias , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
9.
Acta Biomed ; 91(4): e2020139, 2020 12 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059374

RESUMEN

A new cause of POS hás been recently described: SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Important aspects regarding the case are presented and clarifications requested from the authors. Dr Howard B. Burchell described platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) in 1949. Burchell´s contributions to Medicine are briefly presented as well as his career.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales , Neumonía , Humanos , Hipoxia/etiología , Postura
12.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(3): 825-827, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036392
13.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 25, 2021 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024364

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intermittent Prone Positioning (IPP) for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) decreases mortality. We present a program for IPP using expedient materials for settings of significant limitations in both overwhelmed established ICUs and particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) treating ARDS due to COVID-19 caused by SARS CoV-2. METHODS: The proning program evolved based on the principles of High Reliability Organizations (HROs) and Crew Resource Management (CRM). Patients with severe ARDS [PaO2:FiO2 ratio (PFr) ≤ 150 on FiO2 ≥ 0.6 and PEEP ≥ 5 cm H2O] received IPP. Patients were placed prone 16 h each day. When PFr was ≥ 200 for > 8 h supine IPP ceased. IPP used available materials without requiring additional work from the bedside team. Changes in PFr, PaCO2, and the SaO2:FiO2 ratio (SaFr) positionally were evaluated using t-statistics and ANOVA with Bonferroni correction (p < 0.017). RESULTS: Between 14APR2020 and 09MAY2020, at the peak of deaths in New York, there were 202 IPPs in 29 patients. Patients were 58.5 ± 1.7 years of age (37, 73), 76% male and had a body mass index (BMI) of 27.8 ± 0.8 (21, 38). Pressor agents were used in 76% and 17% received dialysis. The PFr prior to IPP was 107.5 ± 5.6 and 1 h after IPP was 155.7 ± 11.2 (p < 0.001 compared to pre-prone). PFr after the patients were placed supine was 131.5 ± 9.1 (p = 0.02). Pre-prone PaCO2 was 60.0 ± 2.5 and the 1-h post-prone PaCO2 was 67.2 ± 3.1 (p = 0.02). Supine PaCO2 after IPP was 60.4 ± 3.4 (p = 0.90). The SaFr prior to IPP was 121.3 ± 4.2 and the SaFr 1 h after positioning was 131.5 ± 5.1 (p = 0.03). The post-IPP supine SaFr was 139.7 ± 5.9 (p < 0.001). With ANOVA and Bonferroni correction there were statistically significant changes in PFr (p < 0.001) and SaFr (p < 0.001) and no significant changes in PaCO2 over the four time points measured. Using regression coefficients, the SaFrs predicted by PFrs of 150 and 200 at baseline are 133.2 and 147.3, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: An IPP program for patients with COVID-19 ARDS can be instituted rapidly, safely, and effectively during an overwhelming mass casualty scenario. This approach may be equally applicable in both traditionally austere environments in LMICs and in otherwise capable centers facing situational resource limitations.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Hipoxia/etiología , Hipoxia/terapia , Posicionamiento del Paciente/métodos , Posicionamiento del Paciente/normas , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/etiología , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Protocolos Clínicos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Posición Prona , Estudios Prospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
14.
Crit Care Med ; 49(4): 661-670, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010659

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we hypothesized that coronavirus disease 2019 patients exhibit sublingual microcirculatory alterations caused by inflammation, coagulopathy, and hypoxemia. DESIGN: Multicenter case-controlled study. SETTING: Two ICUs in The Netherlands and one in Switzerland. PATIENTS: Thirty-four critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients were compared with 33 healthy volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The microcirculatory parameters quantified included total vessel density (mm × mm-2), functional capillary density (mm × mm-2), proportion of perfused vessels (%), capillary hematocrit (%), the ratio of capillary hematocrit to systemic hematocrit, and capillary RBC velocity (µm × s-1). The number of leukocytes in capillary-postcapillary venule units per 4-second image sequence (4 s-1) and capillary RBC microaggregates (4 s-1) was measured. In comparison with healthy volunteers, the microcirculation of coronavirus disease 2019 patients showed increases in total vessel density (22.8 ± sd 5.1 vs 19.9 ± 3.3; p < 0.0001) and functional capillary density (22.2 ± 4.8 vs 18.8 ± 3.1; p < 0.002), proportion of perfused vessel (97.6 ± 2.1 vs 94.6 ± 6.5; p < 0.01), RBC velocity (362 ± 48 vs 306 ± 53; p < 0.0001), capillary hematocrit (5.3 ± 1.3 vs 4.7 ± 0.8; p < 0.01), and capillary-hematocrit-to-systemic-hematocrit ratio (0.18 ± 0.0 vs 0.11 ± 0.0; p < 0.0001). These effects were present in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores less than 10 but not in patients with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores greater than or equal to 10. The numbers of leukocytes (17.6 ± 6.7 vs 5.2 ± 2.3; p < 0.0001) and RBC microaggregates (0.90 ± 1.12 vs 0.06 ± 0.24; p < 0.0001) was higher in the microcirculation of the coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Receiver-operating-characteristics analysis of the microcirculatory parameters identified the number of microcirculatory leukocytes and the capillary-hematocrit-to-systemic-hematocrit ratio as the most sensitive parameters distinguishing coronavirus disease 2019 patients from healthy volunteers. CONCLUSIONS: The response of the microcirculation to coronavirus disease 2019-induced hypoxemia seems to be to increase its oxygen-extraction capacity by increasing RBC availability. Inflammation and hypercoagulation are apparent in the microcirculation by increased numbers of leukocytes and RBC microaggregates.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Capilares , Hipoxia/etiología , Leucocitos , Microcirculación/fisiología , Eritrocitos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
15.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Dec 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000398

RESUMEN

COVID-19 pneumonia has a significant case fatality rate and no effective antiviral drugs are available even after 9 months of the pandemic. The spectrum of COVID-19 disease ranges from asymptomatic cases to severe ARDS with myriad manifestations. Here we report a case of a male patient with severe COVID-19 ARDS who improved after receiving standard therapy but again 'deteriorated' after being stepped down to ward. He complained of worsening shortness of breath and hypoxemia which was found to be mainly positional. After ruling out other causes, he was labeled as a case of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome due to underlying lung involvement.  It is important to be aware of this condition in the context of COVID-19 which can be easily diagnosed bedside with pulse oximetry.


Asunto(s)
Disnea , Hipoxia , Pulmón , Posicionamiento del Paciente/métodos , Neumonía Viral , Anciano , /fisiopatología , Deterioro Clínico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Disnea/diagnóstico , Disnea/etiología , Humanos , Hipoxia/diagnóstico , Hipoxia/etiología , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Pulmón/fisiopatología , Masculino , Oximetría/métodos , Terapia por Inhalación de Oxígeno/métodos , Manejo de Atención al Paciente , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/etiología , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Pruebas de Función Respiratoria/métodos , Síndrome , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos
16.
A A Pract ; 14(9): e01287, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992616

RESUMEN

Methemoglobinemia is a rare disorder of the blood in which there is an increase in methemoglobin, which occurs when hemoglobin is present in the oxidized form. Methemoglobin impairs hemoglobin's ability to transport oxygen, produces functional anemia, and leads to tissue hypoxia. We report the successful management of a case of refractory hypoxia due to acutely acquired methemoglobinemia in a patient undergoing treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. The cause of methemoglobinemia in this patient remains unknown. Hypoxia and methemoglobinemia did not respond to methylene blue and required administration of packed red blood cell transfusions.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Hipoxia/etiología , Metahemoglobinemia/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/etiología , Lesión Renal Aguda/complicaciones , Lesión Renal Aguda/terapia , Anciano , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/uso terapéutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Corynebacterium , Infecciones por Corynebacterium/complicaciones , Infecciones por Corynebacterium/terapia , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/complicaciones , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapéutico , Transfusión de Eritrocitos , Hematínicos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Hidroxocobalamina/uso terapéutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Hipoxia/terapia , Masculino , Metahemoglobinemia/terapia , Azul de Metileno/uso terapéutico , Pandemias , Neumonía Bacteriana/complicaciones , Neumonía Bacteriana/terapia , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Terapia de Reemplazo Renal , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/terapia , Choque Séptico/complicaciones
17.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(2): 291-299, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-980830

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To characterize symptoms and disease severity among pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, along with laboratory findings, imaging, and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Pregnant women with COVID-19 infection were identified at two affiliated hospitals in New York City from March 13 to April 19, 2020, for this case series study. Women were diagnosed with COVID-19 infection based on either universal testing on admission or testing because of COVID-19-related symptoms. Disease was classified as either 1) asymptomatic or mild or 2) moderate or severe based on dyspnea, tachypnea, or hypoxia. Clinical and demographic risk factors for moderate or severe disease were analyzed and calculated as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs. Laboratory findings and associated symptoms were compared between those with mild or asymptomatic and moderate or severe disease. The clinical courses and associated complications of women hospitalized with moderate and severe disease are described. RESULTS: Of 158 pregnant women with COVID-19 infection, 124 (78%) had mild or asymptomatic disease and 34 (22%) had moderate or severe disease. Of 15 hospitalized women with moderate or severe disease, 10 received respiratory support with supplemental oxygen and one required intubation. Women with moderate or severe disease had a higher likelihood of having an underlying medical comorbidity (50% vs 27%, OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.26-6.02). Asthma was more common among those with moderate or severe disease (24% vs 8%, OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.26-9.75). Women with moderate or severe disease were significantly more likely to have leukopenia and elevated aspartate transaminase and ferritin. Women with moderate or severe disease were at significantly higher risk for cough and chest pain and pressure. Nine women received ICU or step-down-level care, including four for 9 days or longer. Two women underwent preterm delivery because their clinical status deteriorated. CONCLUSION: One in five pregnant women who contracted COVID-19 infection developed moderate or severe disease, including a small proportion with prolonged critical illness who received ICU or step-down-level care.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crítica/terapia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Disnea/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipoxia/etiología , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/fisiopatología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Taquipnea/etiología , Adulto Joven
19.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110421, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-974427

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the COVID-19 crisis affecting the whole world. This virus can provoke acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) leading to overcrowed the intensive care unit (ICU). Over the last months, worldwide experience demonstrated that the ARDS in COVID-19 patients are in many ways "atypical". The mortality rate in ventilated patients is high despite the application of the gold standard treatment (protective ventilation, curare, prone position, inhaled NO). Several studies suggested that the SARS-CoV-2 could interact negatively on red blood cell homeostasis. Furthermore, SarsCov2 creates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which are toxic and generate endothelial dysfunction. Hypothesis/objective(s) We hypothesis that HEMO2Life® administrated intravenously is safe and could help symptomatically the patient condition. It would increase arterial oxygen content despite lung failure and allow better tissue oxygenation control. The use of HEMO2Life® is also interesting due to its anti-oxidative effect preventing cytokine storm induced by the SARS-CoV-2. Evaluation of the hypothesis: Hemarina is based on the properties of the hemoglobin of the Arenicola marina sea-worm (HEMO2Life®). This extracellular hemoglobin has an oxygen capacity 40 times greater than the hemoglobin of vertebrates. Furthermore, the size of this molecule is 250 times smaller than a human red blood cell, allowing it to diffuse in all areas of the microcirculation, without diffusing outside the vascular sector. It possesses an antioxidative property du a Superoxide Dismutase Activity. This technology has been the subject of numerous publications and HEMO2Life® was found to be well-tolerated and did not induce toxicity. It was administered intravenously to hamsters and rats, and showed no acute effect on heart rate and blood pressure and did not cause microvascular vasoconstriction. In preclinical in vivo models (mice, rats, and dogs), HEMO2Life® has enabled better tissue oxygenation, especially in the brain. This molecule has already been used in humans in organ preservation solutions and the patients showed no abnormal clinical signs. CONSEQUENCES OF THE HYPOTHESIS: The expected benefits of HEMO2Life® for COVID-19 patients are improved survival, avoidance of tracheal intubation, shorter oxygen supplementation, and the possibility of treating a larger number of patients as molecular respirator without to use an invasive machine.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Hemoglobinas/uso terapéutico , Hipoxia/etiología , Hipoxia/terapia , Modelos Biológicos , Oxígeno/administración & dosificación , Animales , Cricetinae , Perros , Hemoglobinas/administración & dosificación , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoxia/fisiopatología , Inyecciones Intravenosas , Ratones , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Oxígeno/metabolismo , Pandemias , Ratas , Investigación en Medicina Traslacional
20.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(1): 43-47, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965899

RESUMEN

The novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 [SARS-CoV-2]), also known as COVID-19, is a single-stranded enveloped RNA virus that created a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in January 2020, with a global case burden of over 15 million in just 7 months. Infected patients develop a wide range of clinical manifestations-typically presenting with fever, cough, myalgia, and fatigue. Severely ill patients may fall victim to acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute heart injuries, neurological manifestations, or complications due to secondary infections. These critically ill patients are also found to have disrupted coagulation function, predisposing them to consumptive coagulopathies, and both venous and thromboembolic complications. Common laboratory findings include thrombocytopenia, elevated D-dimer, fibrin degradation products, and fibrinogen, all of which have been associated with greater disease severity. Many cases of pulmonary embolism have been noted, along with deep vein thrombosis, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and systemic arterial embolism. The pathogenesis of coronavirus has not been completely elucidated, but the virus is known to cause excessive inflammation, endothelial injury, hypoxia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation, all of which contribute to thrombosis formation. These patients are also faced with prolonged immobilization while staying in the hospital or intensive care unit. It is important to have a high degree of suspicion for thrombotic complications as patients may rapidly deteriorate in severe cases. Evidence suggests that prophylaxis with anticoagulation may lead to a lower risk of mortality, although it does not eliminate the possibility. The risks and benefits of anticoagulation treatment should be considered in each case. Patients should be regularly evaluated for bleeding risks and thrombotic complications.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Coagulación Sanguínea/sangre , Embolia/sangre , Trombosis/sangre , Anticoagulantes/uso terapéutico , Trastornos de la Coagulación Sanguínea/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastornos de la Coagulación Sanguínea/etiología , Trastornos de la Coagulación Sanguínea/metabolismo , /tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/sangre , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/complicaciones , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/metabolismo , Coagulación Intravascular Diseminada/sangre , Coagulación Intravascular Diseminada/etiología , Coagulación Intravascular Diseminada/metabolismo , Coagulación Intravascular Diseminada/prevención & control , Embolia/etiología , Embolia/metabolismo , Embolia/prevención & control , Endotelio Vascular/metabolismo , Productos de Degradación de Fibrina-Fibrinógeno/metabolismo , Fibrinógeno/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoxia/sangre , Hipoxia/etiología , Hipoxia/metabolismo , Inmovilización , Inflamación/sangre , Inflamación/etiología , Inflamación/metabolismo , /etiología , /prevención & control , Infarto del Miocardio/sangre , Infarto del Miocardio/etiología , Infarto del Miocardio/metabolismo , Infarto del Miocardio/prevención & control , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Embolia Pulmonar/sangre , Embolia Pulmonar/etiología , Embolia Pulmonar/metabolismo , Embolia Pulmonar/prevención & control , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Trombocitopenia/sangre , Trombocitopenia/etiología , Trombosis/etiología , Trombosis/metabolismo , Trombosis/prevención & control , Trombosis de la Vena/sangre , Trombosis de la Vena/etiología , Trombosis de la Vena/metabolismo
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