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1.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(5): 799-806, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219727

RESUMEN

Rationale: The natural history of recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unknown. Because fibrosis with persistent physiological deficit is a previously described feature of patients recovering from similar coronaviruses, treatment represents an early opportunity to modify the disease course, potentially preventing irreversible impairment.Objectives: Determine the incidence of and describe the progression of persistent inflammatory interstitial lung disease (ILD) following SARS-CoV-2 when treated with prednisolone.Methods: A structured assessment protocol screened for sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonitis. Eight hundred thirty-seven patients were assessed by telephone 4 weeks after discharge. Those with ongoing symptoms had outpatient assessment at 6 weeks. Thirty patients diagnosed with persistent interstitial lung changes at a multidisciplinary team meeting were reviewed in the interstitial lung disease service and offered treatment. These patients had persistent, nonimproving symptoms.Results: At 4 weeks after discharge, 39% of patients reported ongoing symptoms (325/837) and were assessed. Interstitial lung disease, predominantly organizing pneumonia, with significant functional deficit was observed in 35/837 survivors (4.8%). Thirty of these patients received steroid treatment, resulting in a mean relative increase in transfer factor following treatment of 31.6% (standard deviation [SD] ± 27.6, P < 0.001), and forced vital capacity of 9.6% (SD ± 13.0, P = 0.014), with significant symptomatic and radiological improvement.Conclusions: Following SARS-CoV-2 pneumonitis, a cohort of patients are left with both radiological inflammatory lung disease and persistent physiological and functional deficit. Early treatment with corticosteroids was well tolerated and associated with rapid and significant improvement. These preliminary data should inform further study into the natural history and potential treatment for patients with persistent inflammatory ILD following SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Posteriores/métodos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales , Pulmón , Pruebas de Función Respiratoria/métodos , /mortalidad , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Pulmón/fisiopatología , Pulmón/virología , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/etiología , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/fisiopatología , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/terapia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Alta del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Sobrevivientes/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Síntomas/métodos , Evaluación de Síntomas/estadística & datos numéricos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Reino Unido/epidemiología
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(18): 674-679, 2021 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218744

RESUMEN

Adults aged ≥65 years are at increased risk for severe outcomes from COVID-19 and were identified as a priority group to receive the first COVID-19 vaccines approved for use under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) in the United States (1-3). In an evaluation at 24 hospitals in 14 states,* the effectiveness of partial or full vaccination† with Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines against COVID-19-associated hospitalization was assessed among adults aged ≥65 years. Among 417 hospitalized adults aged ≥65 years (including 187 case-patients and 230 controls), the median age was 73 years, 48% were female, 73% were non-Hispanic White, 17% were non-Hispanic Black, 6% were Hispanic, and 4% lived in a long-term care facility. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19-associated hospitalization among adults aged ≥65 years was estimated to be 94% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 49%-99%) for full vaccination and 64% (95% CI = 28%-82%) for partial vaccination. These findings are consistent with efficacy determined from clinical trials in the subgroup of adults aged ≥65 years (4,5). This multisite U.S. evaluation under real-world conditions suggests that vaccination provided protection against COVID-19-associated hospitalization among adults aged ≥65 years. Vaccination is a critical tool for reducing severe COVID-19 in groups at high risk.


Asunto(s)
/administración & dosificación , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medición de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas Sintéticas
3.
Lancet ; 395(10238): 1705-1714, 2020 05 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217628

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised about the possibility that inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) could predispose individuals to severe COVID-19; however, epidemiological evidence is lacking. We report the results of a case-population study done in Madrid, Spain, since the outbreak of COVID-19. METHODS: In this case-population study, we consecutively selected patients aged 18 years or older with a PCR-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 requiring admission to hospital from seven hospitals in Madrid, who had been admitted between March 1 and March 24, 2020. As a reference group, we randomly sampled ten patients per case, individually matched for age, sex, region (ie, Madrid), and date of admission to hospital (month and day; index date), from Base de datos para la Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica en Atención Primaria (BIFAP), a Spanish primary health-care database, in its last available year (2018). We extracted information on comorbidities and prescriptions up to the month before index date (ie, current use) from electronic clinical records of both cases and controls. The outcome of interest was admission to hospital of patients with COVID-19. To minimise confounding by indication, the main analysis focused on assessing the association between COVID-19 requiring admission to hospital and use of RAAS inhibitors compared with use of other antihypertensive drugs. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs, adjusted for age, sex, and cardiovascular comorbidities and risk factors, using conditional logistic regression. The protocol of the study was registered in the EU electronic Register of Post-Authorisation Studies, EUPAS34437. FINDINGS: We collected data for 1139 cases and 11 390 population controls. Among cases, 444 (39·0%) were female and the mean age was 69·1 years (SD 15·4), and despite being matched on sex and age, a significantly higher proportion of cases had pre-existing cardiovascular disease (OR 1·98, 95% CI 1·62-2·41) and risk factors (1·46, 1·23-1·73) than did controls. Compared with users of other antihypertensive drugs, users of RAAS inhibitors had an adjusted OR for COVID-19 requiring admission to hospital of 0·94 (95% CI 0·77-1·15). No increased risk was observed with either angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (adjusted OR 0·80, 0·64-1·00) or angiotensin-receptor blockers (1·10, 0·88-1·37). Sex, age, and background cardiovascular risk did not modify the adjusted OR between use of RAAS inhibitors and COVID-19 requiring admission to hospital, whereas a decreased risk of COVID-19 requiring admission to hospital was found among patients with diabetes who were users of RAAS inhibitors (adjusted OR 0·53, 95% CI 0·34-0·80). The adjusted ORs were similar across severity degrees of COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: RAAS inhibitors do not increase the risk of COVID-19 requiring admission to hospital, including fatal cases and those admitted to intensive care units, and should not be discontinued to prevent a severe case of COVID-19. FUNDING: Instituto de Salud Carlos III.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efectos adversos , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/efectos adversos , Antihipertensivos/efectos adversos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efectos adversos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Renina/antagonistas & inhibidores , Factores de Riesgo , España/epidemiología
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 397, 2021 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216886

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a major global health threat with a great number of deaths worldwide. Despite abundant data on that many COVID-19 patients also displayed kidney disease, there is limited information available about the recovery of kidney disease after discharge. METHODS: Retrospective and prospective cohort study to patients with new-onset kidney disease during the COVID-19 hospitalization, admitted between January 28 to February 26, 2020. The median follow-up was 4 months after discharge. The follow-up patients were divided into the recovery group and non-recovery group. Descriptive statistics and between-groups comparison were used. RESULTS: In total, 143 discharged patients with new-onset kidney disease during the COVID-19 hospitalization were included. Patients had a median age was 64 (IQR, 51-70) years, and 59.4% of patients were men. During 4-months median follow-up, 91% (130 of 143) patients recovered from kidney disease, and 9% (13 of 143) patients haven't recovered. The median age of patients in the non-recovery group was 72 years, which was significantly higher than the median age of 62 years in the recovery group. Discharge serum creatinine was significantly higher in the non-recovery group than in the recovery group. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the new-onset kidney diseases during hospitalization of COVID-19 patients recovered 4 months after discharge. We recommend that COVID-19 patients with new-onset kidney disease be followed after discharge to assess kidney recovery, especially elderly patients or patients with high discharge creatinine.


Asunto(s)
/etiología , Creatinina/sangre , Enfermedades Renales/etiología , Anciano , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , /epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Incidencia , Enfermedades Renales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Renales/terapia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Alta del Paciente , Estudios Prospectivos , Proteinuria/epidemiología , Proteinuria/virología , Respiración Artificial , Estudios Retrospectivos
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e218828, 2021 05 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210568

RESUMEN

Importance: In-hospital mortality rates from COVID-19 are high but appear to be decreasing for selected locations in the United States. It is not known whether this is because of changes in the characteristics of patients being admitted. Objective: To describe changing in-hospital mortality rates over time after accounting for individual patient characteristics. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study of 20 736 adults with a diagnosis of COVID-19 who were included in the US American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry and admitted to 107 acute care hospitals in 31 states from March through November 2020. A multiple mixed-effects logistic regression was then used to estimate the odds of in-hospital death adjusted for patient age, sex, body mass index, and medical history as well as vital signs, use of supplemental oxygen, presence of pulmonary infiltrates at admission, and hospital site. Main Outcomes and Measures: In-hospital death adjusted for exposures for 4 periods in 2020. Results: The registry included 20 736 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 from March through November 2020 (9524 women [45.9%]; mean [SD] age, 61.2 [17.9] years); 3271 patients (15.8%) died in the hospital. Mortality rates were 19.1% in March and April, 11.9% in May and June, 11.0% in July and August, and 10.8% in September through November. Compared with March and April, the adjusted odds ratios for in-hospital death were significantly lower in May and June (odds ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.58-0.76; P < .001), July and August (odds ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.49-0.69; P < .001), and September through November (odds ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.47-0.73). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, high rates of in-hospital COVID-19 mortality among registry patients in March and April 2020 decreased by more than one-third by June and remained near that rate through November. This difference in mortality rates between the months of March and April and later months persisted even after adjusting for age, sex, medical history, and COVID-19 disease severity and did not appear to be associated with changes in the characteristics of patients being admitted.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad Hospitalaria/tendencias , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Factores de Tiempo , Factores de Edad , /terapia , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación del Resultado de la Atención al Paciente , Neumonía Viral/etiología , Sistema de Registros , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Sexuales , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Signos Vitales
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e218824, 2021 05 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210567

RESUMEN

Importance: Schools were closed intermittently across Hong Kong to control the COVID-19 outbreak, which led to significant physical and psychosocial problems among children and youths. Objective: To compare the clinical characteristics and sources of infection among children and youths with COVID-19 during the 3 waves of outbreaks in Hong Kong in 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study involved children and youths aged 18 years or younger with COVID-19 in the 3 waves of outbreaks from January 23 through December 2, 2020. Data were analyzed from December 2020 through January 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic characteristics, travel and contact histories, lengths of hospital stay, and symptoms were captured through the central electronic database. Individuals who were infected without recent international travel were defined as having domestic infections. Results: Among 397 children and youths confirmed with COVID-19 infections, the mean (SD) age was 9.95 (5.34) years, 220 individuals (55.4%) were male, and 154 individuals (38.8%) were asymptomatic. There were significantly more individuals who were infected without symptoms in the second wave (59 of 118 individuals [50.0%]) and third wave (94 of 265 individuals [35.5%]) than in the first wave (1 of 14 individuals [7.1%]) (P = .001). Significantly fewer individuals who were infected in the second and third waves, compared with the first wave, had fever (first wave: 10 individuals [71.4%]; second wave: 22 individuals [18.5%]; third wave: 98 individuals [37.0%]; P < .001) or cough (first wave: 6 individuals [42.9%]; second wave: 15 individuals [12.7%]; third wave: 52 individuals [19.6%]; P = .02). Among all individuals, 394 individuals (99.2%) had mild illness. One patient developed chilblains (ie, COVID toes), 1 patient developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 1 patient developed post-COVID-19 autoimmune hemolytic anemia. In all 3 waves, 204 patients with COVID-19 (51.4%) had domestic infections. Among these individuals, 186 (91.2%) reported having a contact history with another individual with COVID-19, of which most (183 individuals [90.0%]) were family members. In the third wave, 18 individuals with domestic infections had unknown contact histories. Three schoolmates were confirmed with COVID-19 on the same day and were reported to be close contacts. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that nearly all children and youths with COVID-19 in Hong Kong had mild illness. These findings suggest that household transmission was the main source of infection for children and youths with domestic infections and that the risk of being infected at school was small.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , Trazado de Contacto , Evaluación de Síntomas , Adolescente , /terapia , Niño , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Trazado de Contacto/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Evaluación de Síntomas/métodos , Evaluación de Síntomas/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes
7.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(1): 41-47, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207573

RESUMEN

Aims: For everyone with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 in Norway, we studied whether age, sex, comorbidity, continent of birth and nursing home residency were risk factors for hospitalization, invasive mechanical ventilation treatment and death. Methods: Data for everyone who had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Norway by end of June 2020 (N = 8569) were linked at the individual level to hospitalization, receipt of invasive mechanical ventilation treatment and death measured to end of July 2020. Underlying comorbidity was proxied by hospital-based in- or outpatient treatment during the two months before the SARS-CoV-2 test. Multivariable generalized linear models were used to assess risk ratios (RRs). Results: Risk of hospitalization was particularly high for elderly (for those aged 90 and above: RR 9.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.1-12.7; comparison group aged below 50), Norwegian residents born in Asia, Africa or Latin-America (RR 2.1; 95% CI 1.9-2.4; comparison group born in Norway), patients with underlying comorbidity (RR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8) and men (RR 1.3; 95% CI 1.2-1.5). Men and residents born in Africa, Asia and Latin-America were also at higher risk of receiving ventilation treatment and dying, but the mortality risk was especially high for the elderly (for those aged 90 and above: RR 607.9; 95% CI 145.5-2540.1; comparison group aged below 50) and residents in nursing homes (RR 4.2; 95% CI 3.1-5.7). Conclusions: High age was the most important predictor of severe disease and death if infected with SARS-CoV-2, and nursing home residents were at particularly high risk of death.


Asunto(s)
Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Respiración Artificial/estadística & datos numéricos , /aislamiento & purificación , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /mortalidad , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Noruega/epidemiología , Casas de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Prospectivos , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo
8.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(1): 48-56, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207572

RESUMEN

Aim: Research concerning COVID-19 among immigrants is limited. We present epidemiological data for all notified cases of COVID-19 among the 17 largest immigrant groups in Norway, and related hospitalizations and mortality. Methods: We used data on all notified COVID-19 cases in Norway up to 18 October 2020, and associated hospitalizations and mortality, from the emergency preparedness register (including Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases) set up by The Norwegian Institute of Public Health to handle the pandemic. We report numbers and rates per 100,000 people for notified COVID-19 cases, and related hospitalizations and mortality in the 17 largest immigrant groups in Norway, crude and with age adjustment. Results: The notification, hospitalization and mortality rates per 100,000 were 251, 21 and five, respectively, for non-immigrants; 567, 62 and four among immigrants; 408, 27 and two, respectively, for immigrants from Europe, North-America and Oceania; and 773, 106 and six, respectively for immigrants from Africa, Asia and South America. The notification rate was highest among immigrants from Somalia (2057), Pakistan (1868) and Iraq (1616). Differences between immigrants and non-immigrants increased when adjusting for age, especially for mortality. Immigrants had a high number of hospitalizations relative to notified cases compared to non-immigrants. Although the overall COVID-19 notification rate was higher in Oslo than outside of Oslo, the notification rate among immigrants compared to non-immigrants was not higher in Oslo than outside. Conclusions: We observed a higher COVID-19 notification rate in immigrants compared to non-immigrants and much higher hospitalization rate, with major differences between different immigrant groups. Somali-, Pakistani- and Iraqi-born immigrants had especially high rates.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Notificación de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Noruega/epidemiología , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Joven
10.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250730, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202390

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of individuals needing hospital admission has sometimes exceeded the availability of hospital beds. Since hospitalization can have detrimental effects on older individuals, preference has been given to younger patients. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of hospitalization for elderly affected by COVID-19. We hypothesized that their mortality decreases when there is greater access to hospitals. METHODS: This study examined 1902 COVID-19 patients consecutively admitted to three large hospitals in Milan, Italy. Overall mortality data for Milan from the same period was retrieved. Based on emergency department (ED) data, both peak and off-peak phases were identified. The percentage of elderly patients admitted to EDs during these two phases were compared by calculating the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of the individuals younger than, versus older than, 80 years. RESULTS: The median age of the patients hospitalized during the peak phase was lower than the median age during the off-peak phase (64 vs. 75 years, respectively; p <0.001). However, while the SMR for the younger patients was lower during the off-peak phase (1.98, 95% CI: 1.72-2.29 versus 1.40, 95% CI: 1.25-1.58, respectively), the SMR was similar between both phases for the elderly patients (2.28, 95% CI: 2.07-2.52 versus 2.48, 95% CI: 2.32-2.65, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Greater access to hospitals during an off-peak phase did not affect the mortality rate of COVID-19-positive elderly patients in Milan. This finding, if confirmed in other settings, should influence future decisions regarding resource management of health care organizations.


Asunto(s)
/patología , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /mortalidad , Bases de Datos Factuales , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Femenino , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , /aislamiento & purificación
11.
Lancet ; 397(10285): 1646-1657, 2021 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201750

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer-BioNTech) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccines have shown high efficacy against disease in phase 3 clinical trials and are now being used in national vaccination programmes in the UK and several other countries. Studying the real-world effects of these vaccines is an urgent requirement. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between the mass roll-out of the first doses of these COVID-19 vaccines and hospital admissions for COVID-19. METHODS: We did a prospective cohort study using the Early Pandemic Evaluation and Enhanced Surveillance of COVID-19-EAVE II-database comprising linked vaccination, primary care, real-time reverse transcription-PCR testing, and hospital admission patient records for 5·4 million people in Scotland (about 99% of the population) registered at 940 general practices. Individuals who had previously tested positive were excluded from the analysis. A time-dependent Cox model and Poisson regression models with inverse propensity weights were fitted to estimate effectiveness against COVID-19 hospital admission (defined as 1-adjusted rate ratio) following the first dose of vaccine. FINDINGS: Between Dec 8, 2020, and Feb 22, 2021, a total of 1 331 993 people were vaccinated over the study period. The mean age of those vaccinated was 65·0 years (SD 16·2). The first dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was associated with a vaccine effect of 91% (95% CI 85-94) for reduced COVID-19 hospital admission at 28-34 days post-vaccination. Vaccine effect at the same time interval for the ChAdOx1 vaccine was 88% (95% CI 75-94). Results of combined vaccine effects against hospital admission due to COVID-19 were similar when restricting the analysis to those aged 80 years and older (83%, 95% CI 72-89 at 28-34 days post-vaccination). INTERPRETATION: Mass roll-out of the first doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA and ChAdOx1 vaccines was associated with substantial reductions in the risk of hospital admission due to COVID-19 in Scotland. There remains the possibility that some of the observed effects might have been due to residual confounding. FUNDING: UK Research and Innovation (Medical Research Council), Research and Innovation Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund, Health Data Research UK.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación Masiva , Pandemias/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Escocia/epidemiología , Clase Social , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248080, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199975

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) may positively or negatively impact outcomes in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We investigated the association of ARB or ACEI use with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related outcomes in US Veterans with treated hypertension using an active comparator design, appropriate covariate adjustment, and negative control analyses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this retrospective cohort study of Veterans with treated hypertension in the Veterans Health Administration (01/19/2020-08/28/2020), we compared users of (A) ARB/ACEI vs. non-ARB/ACEI (excluding Veterans with compelling indications to reduce confounding by indication) and (B) ARB vs. ACEI among (1) SARS-CoV-2+ outpatients and (2) COVID-19 hospitalized inpatients. The primary outcome was all-cause hospitalization or mortality (outpatients) and all-cause mortality (inpatients). We estimated hazard ratios (HR) using propensity score-weighted Cox regression. Baseline characteristics were well-balanced between exposure groups after weighting. Among outpatients, there were 5.0 and 6.0 primary outcomes per 100 person-months for ARB/ACEI (n = 2,482) vs. non-ARB/ACEI (n = 2,487) users (HR 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.99, median follow-up 87 days). Among outpatients who were ARB (n = 4,877) vs. ACEI (n = 8,704) users, there were 13.2 and 14.8 primary outcomes per 100 person-months (HR 0.91, 95%CI 0.86-0.97, median follow-up 85 days). Among inpatients who were ARB/ACEI (n = 210) vs. non-ARB/ACEI (n = 275) users, there were 3.4 and 2.0 all-cause deaths per 100 person months (HR 1.25, 95%CI 0.30-5.13, median follow-up 30 days). Among inpatients, ARB (n = 1,164) and ACEI (n = 2,014) users had 21.0 vs. 17.7 all-cause deaths, per 100 person-months (HR 1.13, 95%CI 0.93-1.38, median follow-up 30 days). CONCLUSIONS: This observational analysis supports continued ARB or ACEI use for patients already using these medications before SARS-CoV-2 infection. The novel beneficial association observed among outpatients between users of ARBs vs. ACEIs on hospitalization or mortality should be confirmed with randomized trials.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Anciano , /virología , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensión/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Puntaje de Propensión , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Tasa de Supervivencia , Veteranos
13.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e101, 2021 04 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199248

RESUMEN

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has emerged as an unprecedented global crisis challenging health systems. This paper aims to assess and characterise SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg to identify groups at greatest risk, to establish early measures to curb transmission. We analysed all mandatory notified (i.e. laboratory-confirmed) coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreaks with more than two cases in Baden-Wuerttemberg from calendar weeks 18-49 (from 27 April to 6 December 2020). We used the following classification for settings: asylum and refugee accommodation, care homes, care facilities, day care child centres, hobby-related, hospitality, hospitals, households, other, residence halls, schools, supported housing, training schools, transportation, treatment facilities and workplace (occupational). We used R program version 3.6.3 for analysis. In our analysis, 3219 outbreaks with 22 238 individuals were included. About 48% were in household and hobby-related settings. Care homes accounted for 9.5% of outbreaks and 21.6% of cases. The median age across all settings was 43 (interquartile range (IQR) 24-63). The median age of cases in care homes was 81 (IQR 56-88). Of all reported cases in care homes, 72.1% were women. Over 30% (466/1511) of hospitalisations were among cases in care homes compared to 17.7% (268/1511) in households. Overall, 70% (500/715) of all deceased persons in outbreaks in the study period were in care homes compared to 4.2% in household settings (30/715). We observed an exponential increase in the number of notified outbreaks starting around the 41st week with N = 291 outbreaks reported in week 49. The median number of cases in outbreaks in care homes and care facilities after the 40th week was 14 (IQR 5-29) and 11 (IQR 5-20), respectively, compared to 3 (IQR 3-5) in households. We observed an increase in hospitalisations, and mortality associated with COVID-19 outbreaks in care homes after the 40th week. We found the care home demographic to be at greatest risk after the 40th week, based on the exponential increase in outbreaks, the number of cases, hospitalisations and mortality trends. Our analysis highlights the necessity of targeted, setting-specific approaches to control transmission in this vulnerable population. Regular screening of staff members and visitors' using rapid antigen point-of-care-tests could be a game-changer in curbing transmission in this setting.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Notificación de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/tendencias , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad/tendencias , Distribución por Sexo , Adulto Joven
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e216842, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198342

RESUMEN

Importance: Critical illness, a marked inflammatory response, and viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 may prolong corrected QT interval (QTc). Objective: To evaluate baseline QTc interval on 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) and ensuing changes among patients with and without COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 3050 patients aged 18 years and older who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing and had ECGs at Columbia University Irving Medical Center from March 1 through May 1, 2020. Patients were analyzed by treatment group over 5 days, as follows: hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, and neither hydroxychloroquine nor azithromycin. ECGs were manually analyzed by electrophysiologists masked to COVID-19 status. Multivariable modeling evaluated clinical associations with QTc prolongation from baseline. Exposures: COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mean QTc prolongation, percentage of patients with QTc of 500 milliseconds or greater. Results: A total of 965 patients had more than 2 ECGs and were included in the study, with 561 (58.1%) men, 198 (26.2%) Black patients, and 191 (19.8%) aged 80 years and older. There were 733 patients (76.0%) with COVID-19 and 232 patients (24.0%) without COVID-19. COVID-19 infection was associated with significant mean QTc prolongation from baseline by both 5-day and 2-day multivariable models (5-day, patients with COVID-19: 20.81 [95% CI, 15.29 to 26.33] milliseconds; P < .001; patients without COVID-19: -2.01 [95% CI, -17.31 to 21.32] milliseconds; P = .93; 2-day, patients with COVID-19: 17.40 [95% CI, 12.65 to 22.16] milliseconds; P < .001; patients without COVID-19: 0.11 [95% CI, -12.60 to 12.81] milliseconds; P = .99). COVID-19 infection was independently associated with a modeled mean 27.32 (95% CI, 4.63-43.21) millisecond increase in QTc at 5 days compared with COVID-19-negative status (mean QTc, with COVID-19: 450.45 [95% CI, 441.6 to 459.3] milliseconds; without COVID-19: 423.13 [95% CI, 403.25 to 443.01] milliseconds; P = .01). More patients with COVID-19 not receiving hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin had QTc of 500 milliseconds or greater compared with patients without COVID-19 (34 of 136 [25.0%] vs 17 of 158 [10.8%], P = .002). Multivariable analysis revealed that age 80 years and older compared with those younger than 50 years (mean difference in QTc, 11.91 [SE, 4.69; 95% CI, 2.73 to 21.09]; P = .01), severe chronic kidney disease compared with no chronic kidney disease (mean difference in QTc, 12.20 [SE, 5.26; 95% CI, 1.89 to 22.51; P = .02]), elevated high-sensitivity troponin levels (mean difference in QTc, 5.05 [SE, 1.19; 95% CI, 2.72 to 7.38]; P < .001), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels (mean difference in QTc, 5.31 [SE, 2.68; 95% CI, 0.06 to 10.57]; P = .04) were associated with QTc prolongation. Torsades de pointes occurred in 1 patient (0.1%) with COVID-19. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, COVID-19 infection was independently associated with significant mean QTc prolongation at days 5 and 2 of hospitalization compared with day 0. More patients with COVID-19 had QTc of 500 milliseconds or greater compared with patients without COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Azitromicina , Electrocardiografía , Hidroxicloroquina , Síndrome de QT Prolongado , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antiinfecciosos/administración & dosificación , Antiinfecciosos/efectos adversos , Azitromicina/administración & dosificación , Azitromicina/efectos adversos , /tratamiento farmacológico , /métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/estadística & datos numéricos , Electrocardiografía/métodos , Electrocardiografía/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administración & dosificación , Hidroxicloroquina/efectos adversos , Síndrome de QT Prolongado/inducido químicamente , Síndrome de QT Prolongado/diagnóstico , Síndrome de QT Prolongado/epidemiología , Síndrome de QT Prolongado/virología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , New York/epidemiología , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3023-3032, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196533

RESUMEN

Diabetes is a risk factor for developing severe COVID-19, but the pathogenesis remains unclear. We investigated if the association of diabetes and COVID-19 severity may be mediated by inflammation. We also hypothesized that this increased risk may extend to prediabetes. Hospitalized patients in Singapore with COVID-19 were subdivided into three groups in a retrospective cohort: normoglycemia (HbA1c: ≤5.6%), prediabetes (HbA1c: 5.7%-6.4%) and diabetes (HbA1c: ≥6.5%). The primary outcome of severe COVID-19 was defined by respiratory rate ≥30, SpO2 ≤93% or intensive care unit admission. The association between clinical factors on severe COVID-19 outcome was analyzed by cox regression. Adjusted mediation analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP) on the relationship between diabetes and severe COVID-19 was performed. Of 1042 hospitalized patients, mean age 39 ± 11 years, 13% had diabetes, 9% prediabetes and 78% normoglycemia. Severe COVID-19 occurred in 4.9% of subjects. Compared to normoglycemia, diabetes was significantly associated with severe COVID-19 on both univariate (hazard ratio [HR]: 9.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.54-17.84; p < .001) and multivariate analysis (HR: 3.99; 95% CI: 1.92-8.31; p < .001), while prediabetes was not a risk factor (HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.22-4.03; p = .929). CRP, a biomarker of inflammation, mediated 32.7% of the total association between diabetes and severe COVID-19 outcome. In conclusion, CRP is a partial mediator of the association between diabetes and severe COVID-19 infection, confirming that inflammation is important in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 in diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Proteína C-Reactiva/metabolismo , /epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus/sangre , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Inflamación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Singapur/epidemiología
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 2908-2917, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196524

RESUMEN

The aim is to explore the relation between inflammation-associated factors and in-hospital mortality and investigate which factor is an independent predictor of in-hospital death in patients with coronavirus disease-2019. This study included patients with coronavirus disease-2019, who were hospitalized between February 9, 2020, and March 30, 2020. Univariate Cox regression analysis and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression (LASSO) were used to select variables. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was applied to identify independent risk factors in coronavirus disease-2019. A total of 1135 patients were analyzed during the study period. A total of 35 variables were considered to be risk factors after the univariate regression analysis of the clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters (p < .05), and LASSO regression analysis screened out seven risk factors for further study. The six independent risk factors revealed by multivariate Cox regression were myoglobin (HR, 5.353; 95% CI, 2.633-10.882; p < .001), C-reactive protein (HR, 2.063; 95% CI, 1.036-4.109; p = .039), neutrophil count (HR, 2.015; 95% CI, 1.154-3.518; p = .014), interleukin 6 (Il-6; HR, 9.753; 95% CI, 2.952-32.218; p < .001), age (HR, 2.016; 95% CI, 1.077-3.773; p = .028), and international normalized ratio (HR, 2.595; 95% CI, 1.412-4.769; p = .002). Our results suggested that inflammation-associated factors were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in coronavirus disease-2019 patients. C-reactive protein, neutrophil count, and interleukin 6 were independent factors for predicting in-hospital mortality and had a better independent predictive ability. We believe these findings may allow early identification of the patients at high risk for death, and can also assist in better management of these patients.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Inflamación/sangre , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Biomarcadores/sangre , /diagnóstico , Femenino , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Curva ROC , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Tasa de Supervivencia
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e216468, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196363

RESUMEN

Importance: Data on the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir-ritonavir for the treatment of high-risk outpatients with COVID-19 in developing countries are needed. Objective: To determine whether hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir-ritonavir reduces hospitalization among high-risk patients with early symptomatic COVID-19 in an outpatient setting. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in Brazil. Recently symptomatic adults diagnosed with respiratory symptoms from SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled between June 2 and September 30, 2020. The planned sample size was 1476 patients, with interim analyses planned after 500 patients were enrolled. The trial was stopped after the interim analysis for futility with a sample size of 685 patients. Statistical analysis was performed in December 2020. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to hydroxychloroquine (800 mg loading dose, then 400 mg daily for 9 days), lopinavir-ritonavir (loading dose of 800 mg and 200 mg, respectively, every 12 hours followed by 400 mg and 100 mg, respectively, every 12 hours for the next 9 days), or placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were COVID-19-associated hospitalization and death assessed at 90 days after randomization. COVID-19-associated hospitalization was analyzed with a Cox proportional hazards model. The trial included the following secondary outcomes: all-cause hospitalization, viral clearance, symptom resolution, and adverse events. Results: Of 685 participants, 632 (92.3%) self-identified as mixed-race, 377 (55.0%) were women, and the median (range) age was 53 (18-94) years. A total of 214 participants were randomized to hydroxychloroquine; 244, lopinavir-ritonavir; and 227, placebo. At first interim analysis, the data safety monitoring board recommended stopping enrollment of both hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir-ritonavir groups because of futility. The proportion of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 was 3.7% (8 participants) in the hydroxychloroquine group, 5.7% (14 participants) in the lopinavir-ritonavir group, and 4.8% (11 participants) in the placebo group. We found no significant differences between interventions for COVID-19-associated hospitalization (hydroxychloroquine: hazard ratio [HR], 0.76 [95% CI, 0.30-1.88]; lopinavir-ritonavir: HR, 1.16 [95% CI, 0.53-2.56] as well as for the secondary outcome of viral clearance through day 14 (hydroxychloroquine: odds ratio [OR], 0.91 [95% CI, 0.82-1.02]; lopinavir-ritonavir: OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.94-1.16]). At the end of the trial, there were 3 fatalities recorded, 1 in the placebo group and 2 in the lopinavir-ritonavir intervention group. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, neither hydroxychloroquine nor lopinavir-ritonavir showed any significant benefit for decreasing COVID-19-associated hospitalization or other secondary clinical outcomes. This trial suggests that expedient clinical trials can be implemented in low-income settings even during the COVID-19 pandemic. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04403100.


Asunto(s)
Intervención Médica Temprana , Hidroxicloroquina/administración & dosificación , Lopinavir/administración & dosificación , Ritonavir/administración & dosificación , Antivirales/administración & dosificación , Brasil/epidemiología , /terapia , Monitoreo de Drogas/métodos , Monitoreo de Drogas/estadística & datos numéricos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Intervención Médica Temprana/métodos , Intervención Médica Temprana/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Inutilidad Médica , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ajuste de Riesgo/métodos , Evaluación de Síntomas/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(4): 492-501, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196965

RESUMEN

Background: Smaller studies suggest lower morbidity and mortality associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in women. Our aim is to assess the impact of female sex on outcomes in a large cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective observational cohort study of 10,630 adult patients hospitalized with a confirmed COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction between March 1, 2020 and April 27, 2020, with follow-up conducted through June 4, 2020. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between sex and the primary outcomes, including length of stay, admission to intensive care unit (ICU), need for mechanical ventilation, pressor requirement, and all-cause mortality as well as major adverse events and in-hospital COVID-19 treatments. Results: In the multivariable analysis, women had 27% lower odds of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.81; p < 0.001), 24% lower odds of ICU admission (OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.69-0.84; p < 0.001), 26% lower odds of mechanical ventilation (OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.66-0.82; p < 0.001), and 25% lower odds of vasopressor requirement (OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.67-0.84; p < 0.001). Women had 34% less odds of having acute cardiac injury (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.59-0.74; p < 0.001; n = 7,289), 16% less odds of acute kidney injury (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.92; p < 0.001; n = 9,840), and 27% less odds of venous thromboembolism (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.96; p < 0.02; c-statistic 0.85, n = 9,407). Conclusions: Female sex is associated with lower odds of in-hospital outcomes, major adverse events, and all-cause mortality. There may be protective mechanisms inherent to female sex, which explain differences in COVID-19 outcomes.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , New York/epidemiología , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Distribución por Sexo , Factores Sexuales , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3015-3022, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196535

RESUMEN

In the current study, we aimed to develop and validate a model, based on our nationwide centralized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) database for predicting death. We conducted an observational study (CORONATION-TR registry). All patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Turkey between March 11 and June 22, 2020 were included. We developed the model and validated both temporal and geographical models. Model performances were assessed by area under the curve-receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC or c-index), R2 , and calibration plots. The study population comprised a total of 60,980 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Of these patients, 7688 (13%) were transferred to intensive care unit, 4867 patients (8.0%) required mechanical ventilation, and 2682 patients (4.0%) died. Advanced age, increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, creatinine, albumine, and D-dimer levels, and pneumonia on computed tomography, diabetes mellitus, and heart failure status at admission were found to be the strongest predictors of death at 30 days in the multivariable logistic regression model (area under the curve-receiver operating characteristic = 0.942; 95% confidence interval: 0.939-0.945; R2 = .457). There were also favorable temporal and geographic validations. We developed and validated the prediction model to identify in-hospital deaths in all hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Our model achieved reasonable performances in both temporal and geographic validations.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Estadísticos , Adulto , Anciano , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Riesgo , Turquia/epidemiología
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(16): e25634, 2021 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195758

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Spain is one of the European countries most largely affected by COVID-19, being Madrid the epicenter. A good knowledge of the main features of hospitalized patients during the complete lockdown should improve the management of new COVID-19 surges.All patients hospitalized at one large tertiary hospital in Madrid for suspected COVID-19 pneumonia from March 1 to May 31 were retrospectively identified.A total of 1752 patients were admitted with suspected pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2 infection during the 3-month study period. The peak of daily admissions (n = 84) was reached on March 24, whereas the maximal cumulative number of hospitalized patients (n = 626) occurred on March 30. Overall, 85.3% had a positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 at least once during admission. Their median age was 65 (54-77) and 59.9% were male. The median length of hospitalization was of 7 (4-13) days. Roughly 6.5% were admitted at the intensive care unit.Death occurred in 242 (13.8%). Overall, 75% of deaths occurred in patients older than 75 years-old. It was 38.2% in patients hospitalized older than 80 years-old versus 2.2% in patients younger than 60 years-old (p < 0.001). Up to 94 (38.8%) of deceased patients had been transferred from nursing homes. The median Charlson co-morbidity score was 6 in deceased patients.The in-hospital mortality rate during the first wave of COVID-19 in Madrid was 14%. It was largely driven by older age, the presence of underlying chronic conditions (≥2) and living at nursing homes.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Pandemias , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuarentena , Estudios Retrospectivos , España/epidemiología
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