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Am J Public Health ; 111(6): 996-998, 2021 06.
Artículo | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245617

COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 41(4): 280-286, 2023 Apr 20.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245733


Objective: To investigate the wearing of masks and the knowledge of masks among high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission. Methods: From May 14 to 17, 2022, a convenient sampling method was used to conduct an online survey among 963 workers in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission in Beijing. The behaviors of individual use and wearing masks, the distribution and supervision of the unit, the knowledge of personal mask protection and the subjective feelings of wearing masks were analyzed. The χ(2) test and logistic regression model were used to analyze the influencing factors of the correct selection of masks. Results: The majority of the workers in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission were male (86.0%, 828/963), age concentration in 18-44 years old (68.2%, 657/963), and the majority of them had college or bachelor degrees (49.4%, 476/963). 79.4%(765/963) of the workers chose the right type of masks, female, 45-59 years old and high school education or above were the risk factors for correct selection of masks (P <0.05). Workers had good behaviors such as wearing/removing masks, but only 10.5% (101/963) could correctly rank the protective effect of different masks. 98.4% (948/963) of the workers believed that their work units had provided masks to their employees, and 99.1% (954/963) and 98.2%(946/963) of them had organized training and supervision on the use of masks, respectively. 47.4%(456/963) of the workers were uncomfortable while wearing masks. Conclusion: The overall selection and use of masks among occupational groups in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission in China need to be further standardized. It is necessary to strengthen supervision and inspection on the use of masks among occupational groups, and take improvement measures to improve the comfort of wearing masks.

Máscaras , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Transversales , China , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Beijing
Curr Opin Neurol ; 36(3): 165-167, 2023 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245730
JAMA Health Forum ; 4(6): e231310, 2023 Jun 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245714


This Viewpoint discusses how the COVID-19 pandemic has spotlighted the critical role of unpaid family caregiving.

Cuidadores , Equidad de Género , Humanos
J R Soc Interface ; 20(202): 20230036, 2023 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245634


Frequent emergence of communicable diseases is a major concern worldwide. Lack of sufficient resources to mitigate the disease burden makes the situation even more challenging for lower-income countries. Hence, strategy development for disease eradication and optimal management of the social and economic burden has garnered a lot of attention in recent years. In this context, we quantify the optimal fraction of resources that can be allocated to two major intervention measures, namely reduction of disease transmission and improvement of healthcare infrastructure. Our results demonstrate that the effectiveness of each of the interventions has a significant impact on the optimal resource allocation in both long-term disease dynamics and outbreak scenarios. The optimal allocation strategy for long-term dynamics exhibits non-monotonic behaviour with respect to the effectiveness of interventions, which differs from the more intuitive strategy recommended in the case of outbreaks. Further, our results indicate that the relationship between investment in interventions and the corresponding increase in patient recovery rate or decrease in disease transmission rate plays a decisive role in determining optimal strategies. Intervention programmes with decreasing returns promote the necessity for resource sharing. Our study provides fundamental insights into determining the best response strategy when controlling epidemics in resource-constrained situations.

Enfermedades Transmisibles , Epidemias , Humanos , Epidemias/prevención & control , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Asignación de Recursos
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(12): 2565-2566, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245600


Adult vaccination is an accepted part of health care and diabetes care. In spite of evidence regarding the efficacy and utility of vaccination in preventing disease, we continue to encounter vaccine hesitancy and vaccine skepticism. As physicians, it is our duty to encourage the public to get vaccinated. In this article, we create a simple framework which helps assess the barriers to vaccine acceptance, and create bridges to overcome vaccine hesitancy and skepticism. We use an interesting mnemonic, NARCO, to remind ourselves, and our readers, of the appropriate hierarchy of interviewing related to vaccine acceptance.

Médicos , Vacilación a la Vacunación , Adulto , Humanos , Instituciones de Salud , Memoria , Vacunación , Atención Primaria de Salud
Front Public Health ; 11: 1117539, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245549


Background: Two years after the outbreak of the pandemic, several studies look at the consequences for the well-being and mental health of young people. In particular, creativity and resilience are cited in the scientific literature as resources that promote this well-being in adolescents and young adults. Purpose: This mini-literature review was created with the aim of examining how many articles have explored the relationship between creativity and resilience in adolescents and young adults since the onset of the pandemic. Methods: Particular attention was paid to how many of the articles actually related to the consequences of the pandemic, in which country they were published, their target population, and the models, instruments and variables used to analyze them. Results: Only 4 articles emerged from the screening, of which only one was actually related to pandemic consequences. All articles were published in Asian countries with a target group of university students. Three of the articles used mediation models to examine the relationship between resilience as an independent variable and creativity as a dependent variable. All articles used self-assessment instruments for creativity and resilience, both at the individual and group level. Significance: This mini-review offers us the opportunity to reflect on the lack of studies that have addressed the issue of youth resources in the form of creativity and resilience since the beginning of the pandemic. The results show us a still underdeveloped interest in creativity in the scientific literature, in contrast to what the media reports on the promotion of creativity in daily life.

Salud Mental , Pandemias , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Brotes de Enfermedades , Asia
East Mediterr Health J ; 29(4): 232-235, 2023 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245497
Otolaryngol Pol ; 76(2): 34-41, 2021 Dec 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245468


<b> Aim:</b> The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the related change of the teaching mode from stationary to distance learning on the severity of voice-related ailments among teachers. </br></br> <b> Materials and methods:</b> A questionnaire survey of teachers was conducted to assess voice disorders during stationary and remote work using the Vocal Tract Discomfort (VTDs) scale and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), and the respondents' subjective feelings were assessed. Demographic and environmental factors associated with voice work were examined. Data on sickness absence, which were obtained from the "Health Needs Maps 2020" Ministry of Health's, were also analyzed. Responses were subjected to statistical analysis. A P-value level below 0.05 was considered statistically significant. </br></br> <b>Results:</b> 128 teachers participated in the survey. The overall assessment of voice disorders using VTDs and NRS scales showed no statistically significant differences for complaints between stationary and remote work. Detailed analysis revealed more se-vere voice disorders in teachers working more than 6 months remotely (P = 0.049) and having more than 20 lessons per week (P = 0.012). Subjective assessment confirmed a significantly lower percentage of teachers reporting voice disorders when wor-king remotely compared to stationary (P = 0.043). This resulted in less sickness absence and a 40% decrease in sick leave related to voice disorders in 2020 compared to 2019. </br></br> <b>Conclusions:</b> During the remote learning period of the COVID-19 pandemic, teachers reported lower severity of voice disor-ders and this influenced the reduction of sickness absences. There were no statistically significant differences in voice complaints as assessed by VTDs and NRS scales for both teaching modes. Several factors affecting the severity of vocal tract disorders were identified - the number of class hours per week (>20) for stationary teaching and a long period of remote teaching (>6 months).

COVID-19 , Enfermedades Profesionales , Trastornos de la Voz , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , Enfermedades Profesionales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Pandemias , Trastornos de la Voz/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Voz/epidemiología , Calidad de la Voz
Menopause ; 29(2): 184-188, 2021 12 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244811


OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate patient satisfaction with telephone appointments during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, determine visit type preference (in-person vs telephone), and predictors of those preferences. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patient visits during the first wave of COVID-19 (March 20 to July 15, 2020) were characterized (in-person vs telephone) in a single provider's weekly menopause clinic in Toronto, Canada. Patients attending telephone appointments were asked to complete a modified Telemedicine Satisfaction Questionnaire with 5-point Likert-scale responses. Demographic information was collected along with the patient-reported cost to attend an in-person appointment (monetary, travel time, and time away from work). Of those who experienced both visit types, preference was evaluated and bivariate analysis was performed identifying factors associated with visit type preference and included in a multivariable binary logistic regression model. RESULTS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, 214 women had 246 visits, attending mostly by telephone (221/246, 90%). Mean Telemedicine Satisfaction Questionnaire composite score was 4.23 ±â€Š0.72. Of those who attended a prepandemic in-person appointment (118/139, 85%), a minority (24/118, 20%) preferred in-person visits. Those favoring in-person were more likely to commute less than 30 minutes (OR 3.78, 95% CI 1.16-12.29, P = 0.027), require less than 2 hours away from work (OR 4.05, 95% CI 1.07-15.4, P = 0.04), and spend less than $10 to attend (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.1-12.26, P = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Menopause clinic telephone appointments had high patient satisfaction, with most preferring this visit type, although in-person visits are preferred among a minority of women.

COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Menopausia , Satisfacción del Paciente , SARS-CoV-2 , Teléfono
Urol J ; 19(3): 241-245, 2021 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244739


BACKGROUND: The pandemic of COVID-19 is nowhere from over, which pushes us to adapt to it.  Social distancing rules were applied to restrict the people and prevent virus transmission. Despite these restrictions, the patient's care should not be compromised. Doctors are encouraged to technologically improve themselves to get used to the utilization of telemedicine. METHODS: We conducted an online survey of urology specialists and urology residents throughout the country. The survey was accompanied by the Indonesian Urological Association, and the survey was opened for one month and sent by email to all members of the association. RESULTS: A total of 50 urologists and 182 urology residents participated. Almost half (48%) currently do not have facilities to hold a telemedicine practice in their institution, and 14% reported inadequate facilities. The majority reveals that the barrier to conducting this method was due to insufficient facility. Other issues like insurance coverage and patient's interest in telemedicine, the risk of patient's data leak, and the urologist's lack of interest in telemedicine might also be challenging. Despite some doubts, in sum, more than half have thought that telemedicine would keep utilized although the pandemic is resolved. CONCLUSIONS: We are currently learning the novel telemedicine implementation and some challenges still need to be resolved. Starting from the regulation and legal protection fundamentally, and the health insurance coverage needs to be determined. After all, the low interest in adopting this method has become the greatest barrier.

COVID-19 , Telemedicina , Urología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , Indonesia/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2
Cardiol Rev ; 29(6): 289-291, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244180


The ongoing coronavirus infection-2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic has had devastating impacts on the global population since 2019. Cardiac complications are a well-documented sequala of COVID-19, with exposed patients experiencing complications such as myocardial infarction, myocarditis, and arrythmias. This article aims to review prominent literature regarding COVID-19 and its link with arrhythmias, as well as to discuss some of the possible mechanisms by which arrhythmogenesis may occur in patients with COVID-19.

Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Antibacterianos/efectos adversos , Antirreumáticos/efectos adversos , Arritmias Cardíacas/inducido químicamente , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatología , Azitromicina/efectos adversos , COVID-19/fisiopatología , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efectos adversos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Tratamiento Farmacológico de COVID-19
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1885-1898, 2021 May.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243734


This article explores the use of spatial artificial intelligence to estimate the resources needed to implement Brazil's COVID-19 immu nization campaign. Using secondary data, we conducted a cross-sectional ecological study adop ting a time-series design. The unit of analysis was Brazil's primary care centers (PCCs). A four-step analysis was performed to estimate the popula tion in PCC catchment areas using artificial in telligence algorithms and satellite imagery. We also assessed internet access in each PCC and con ducted a space-time cluster analysis of trends in cases of SARS linked to COVID-19 at municipal level. Around 18% of Brazil's elderly population live more than 4 kilometer from a vaccination point. A total of 4,790 municipalities showed an upward trend in SARS cases. The number of PCCs located more than 5 kilometer from cell towers was largest in the North and Northeast regions. Innovative stra tegies are needed to address the challenges posed by the implementation of the country's National COVID-19 Vaccination Plan. The use of spatial artificial intelligence-based methodologies can help improve the country's COVID-19 response.

O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o uso da inteligência artificial espacial no contexto da imunização contra COVID-19 para a seleção adequada dos recursos necessários. Trata-se de estudo ecológico de caráter transversal baseado em uma abordagem espaço-temporal utilizando dados secundários, em Unidades Básicas de Saúde do Brasil. Foram adotados quatro passos analíticos para atribuir um volume de população por unidade básica, aplicando algoritmos de inteligência artificial a imagens de satélite. Em paralelo, as condições de acesso à internet móvel e o mapeamento de tendências espaço-temporais de casos graves de COVID-19 foram utilizados para caracterizar cada município do país. Cerca de 18% da população idosa brasileira está a mais de 4 quilômetros de distância de uma sala de vacina. No total, 4.790 municípios apresentaram tendência de agudização de casos de Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave. As regiões Norte e Nordeste apresentaram o maior número de Unidades Básicas de Saúde com mais de 5 quilômetros de distância de antenas de celular. O Plano nacional de vacinação requer o uso de estratégias inovadoras para contornar os desafios do país. O uso de metodologias baseadas em inteligência artificial espacial pode contribuir para melhoria do planejamento das ações de resposta à COVID-19.

Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Anciano , Inteligencia Artificial , Brasil , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Inteligencia , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación
Clin Chem ; 68(1): 143-152, 2021 12 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243230


BACKGROUND: The urgent need for massively scaled clinical testing for SARS-CoV-2, along with global shortages of critical reagents and supplies, has necessitated development of streamlined laboratory testing protocols. Conventional nucleic acid testing for SARS-CoV-2 involves collection of a clinical specimen with a nasopharyngeal swab in transport medium, nucleic acid extraction, and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). As testing has scaled across the world, the global supply chain has buckled, rendering testing reagents and materials scarce. To address shortages, we developed SwabExpress, an end-to-end protocol developed to employ mass produced anterior nares swabs and bypass the requirement for transport media and nucleic acid extraction. METHODS: We evaluated anterior nares swabs, transported dry and eluted in low-TE buffer as a direct-to-RT-qPCR alternative to extraction-dependent viral transport media. We validated our protocol of using heat treatment for viral inactivation and added a proteinase K digestion step to reduce amplification interference. We tested this protocol across archived and prospectively collected swab specimens to fine-tune test performance. RESULTS: After optimization, SwabExpress has a low limit of detection at 2-4 molecules/µL, 100% sensitivity, and 99.4% specificity when compared side by side with a traditional RT-qPCR protocol employing extraction. On real-world specimens, SwabExpress outperforms an automated extraction system while simultaneously reducing cost and hands-on time. CONCLUSION: SwabExpress is a simplified workflow that facilitates scaled testing for COVID-19 without sacrificing test performance. It may serve as a template for the simplification of PCR-based clinical laboratory tests, particularly in times of critical shortages during pandemics.

Prueba de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Humanos , ARN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Manejo de Especímenes
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(11): 5589-5598, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242971


The 16th National Health Conference illustrated the interest of health councils to intervene in public policies in order to guarantee the right to health technologies. The INTEGRA project (Integration of policies for Health Surveillance, Pharmaceutical Care, Science, Technology, and Innovation in Health) is a partnership among the National Health Council, the National School of Pharmacists, and the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), with support from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), with the goal of strengthening participation and social engagement in the theme, as well as the integration of health policies and practices within different sectors of society (social movements, health councils, and health professionals), with the various stages related to the access to medicines (research, incorporation, national production, and services) being the main theme in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. It seeks to offer training for leadership groups in the health regions and activities with a broad national and political scope, and it hopes to establish an intersectorial and integrated network of leaders capable of acting collaboratively to defend the development of science, public policies, national sovereignty, and social control of health.

A 16ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde demonstrou o interesse do controle social em intervir sobre as políticas públicas a fim de garantir o direito às tecnologias de saúde. O projeto Integra - Integração das Políticas de Vigilância em Saúde, Assistência Farmacêutica, Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação em Saúde -, nasce da parceria entre o Conselho Nacional de Saúde, a Escola Nacional dos Farmacêuticos e a Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), com apoio da Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde (OPAS) com objetivo de fortalecimento da participação e engajamento social na temática e a integração das políticas e práticas de saúde em diferentes setores da sociedade (movimentos sociais, controle social e profissionais de saúde), tendo as diversas etapas relacionadas ao acesso aos medicamentos (pesquisa, incorporação, produção nacional e serviços) como mote principal, no cenário da pandemia de COVID-19. Oferta-se, neste projeto, capacitação para grupos de lideranças nas regiões de saúde e atividades de grande abrangência nacional e política. Espera-se alcançar o estabelecimento de uma rede intersetorial, integrada de lideranças capazes de atuar colaborativamente para a defesa do desenvolvimento da ciência, das políticas públicas, da soberania nacional e do controle social da saúde.

COVID-19 , Participación Social , Tecnología Biomédica , Política de Salud , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1873-1884, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242970


The objective of this research was to analyse federal government interventions in crisis management and the consequences for health professionals. This is a documentary-type qualitative research. Brazilian Federal regulations referring to work and health education produced during the pandemic emergency of COVID-19, published from January 28 to June 2, 2020, were identified. Of the total of 845 documents, 62 were selected in accordance with the inclusion criteria and were then submitted to Thematic Content Analysis. The results and discussions were grouped into four categories:workforce management, workforce protection, workforce training and academic-workforce relationship. Absence of a federal coordinating actions and policies for desinformation were identified. This lacking mechanisms for coordination contributed decisively to the tragic epidemiological situation still underway, especially in terms of the exposure of health workers to the risk of contamination, revealed in the extremely high rates of professionals infected or killed by COVID-19 in Brazil and the failure to control the pandemic in the population.

COVID-19 , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Brasil/epidemiología , Humanos , Política Pública , SARS-CoV-2
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(3): 458-466, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242956


OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the spectrum, characteristics and outcomes of neurologic manifestations associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre retrospective study during the French coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in March-April 2020. All COVID-19 patients with de novo neurologic manifestations were eligible. RESULTS: We included 222 COVID-19 patients with neurologic manifestations from 46 centres in France. Median (interquartile range, IQR) age was 65 (53-72) years and 136 patients (61.3%) were male. COVID-19 was severe or critical in 102 patients (45.2%). The most common neurologic diseases were COVID-19-associated encephalopathy (67/222, 30.2%), acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome (57/222, 25.7%), encephalitis (21/222, 9.5%) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (15/222, 6.8%). Neurologic manifestations appeared after the first COVID-19 symptoms with a median (IQR) delay of 6 (3-8) days in COVID-19-associated encephalopathy, 7 (5-10) days in encephalitis, 12 (7-18) days in acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome and 18 (15-28) days in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Brain imaging was performed in 192 patients (86.5%), including 157 magnetic resonance imaging (70.7%). Among patients with acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome, 13 (22.8%) of 57 had multiterritory ischaemic strokes, with large vessel thrombosis in 16 (28.1%) of 57. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of encephalitis patients showed heterogeneous acute nonvascular lesions in 14 (66.7%) of 21. Cerebrospinal fluid of 97 patients (43.7%) was analysed, with pleocytosis found in 18 patients (18.6%) and a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result in two patients with encephalitis. The median (IQR) follow-up was 24 (17-34) days with a high short-term mortality rate (28/222, 12.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical spectrum and outcomes of neurologic manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were broad and heterogeneous, suggesting different underlying pathogenic processes.

COVID-19/complicaciones , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/etiología , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/patología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/diagnóstico , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/epidemiología , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2