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2.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 122(3): 206-211, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097343

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a serious public health problem for    183 out of 197 countries in the world. Understanding the routes and pathogenesis of the coronavirus is important and it is considered that the studies on host cell receptor Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) may be valuable for the treatment and prevention of the disease. AIM: To evaluate the possibility of inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 at throat. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted. CONCLUSION: In view of the fact that the mouth and nose have higher number of ACE2 expressed cells, they serve as a gateway for the virus to enter. Thus, blocking the gate could be a good choice to reduce or even prevent the transmission. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are double-stranded RNA molecules and could be designed easily and directed against many strains of a virus. Due to their features, siRNAs can provide a potential strategy to interfere with the replication of viral diseases. We think that since oral and nasal epithelial cells are relatively easily accessible it may allow to develop siRNA molecules to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 already at the entry where it continues to replicate for a period (Fig. 1, Ref. 50).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Humanos , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/genética , Faringe
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 780, 2021 02 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087442

RESUMEN

Novel pathogenic coronaviruses - such as SARS-CoV and probably SARS-CoV-2 - arise by homologous recombination between co-infecting viruses in a single cell. Identifying possible sources of novel coronaviruses therefore requires identifying hosts of multiple coronaviruses; however, most coronavirus-host interactions remain unknown. Here, by deploying a meta-ensemble of similarity learners from three complementary perspectives (viral, mammalian and network), we predict which mammals are hosts of multiple coronaviruses. We predict that there are 11.5-fold more coronavirus-host associations, over 30-fold more potential SARS-CoV-2 recombination hosts, and over 40-fold more host species with four or more different subgenera of coronaviruses than have been observed to date at >0.5 mean probability cut-off (2.4-, 4.25- and 9-fold, respectively, at >0.9821). Our results demonstrate the large underappreciation of the potential scale of novel coronavirus generation in wild and domesticated animals. We identify high-risk species for coronavirus surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus/fisiología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Mamíferos/virología , Animales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Filogenia , Recombinación Genética/genética , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
6.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(2): 79-85, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083628

RESUMEN

The persistence of the coronavirus-caused respiratory disease (COVID-19) and the related restrictions to mobility and social interactions are forcing a significant portion of students and workers to reorganize their daily activities to accommodate the needs of distance learning and agile work (smart working). What is the impact of these changes on the bosses/teachers' and workers/students' experience? This article uses recent neuroscience research findings to explore how distance learning and smart working impact the following three pillars that reflect the organization of our brain and are at the core of school and office experiences: (a) the learning/work happens in a dedicated physical place; (b) the learning/work is carried out under the supervision of a boss/professor; and (c) the learning/work is distributed between team members/classmates. For each pillar, we discuss its link with the specific cognitive processes involved and the impact that technology has on their functioning. In particular, the use of videoconferencing affects the functioning of Global Positioning System neurons (neurons that code our navigation behavior), mirror neurons, self-attention networks, spindle cells, and interbrain neural oscillations. These effects have a significant impact on many identity and cognitive processes, including social and professional identity, leadership, intuition, mentoring, and creativity. In conclusion, just moving typical office and learning processes inside a videoconferencing platform, as happened in many contexts during the COVID-19 pandemic, can in the long term erode corporate cultures and school communities. In this view, an effective use of technology requires us to reimagine how work and teaching are done virtually, in creative and bold new ways.


Asunto(s)
Educación a Distancia , Relaciones Interpersonales , Vías Nerviosas , Conducta Espacial , Atención , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Memoria Episódica , Neuronas Espejo , Neuronas , Pandemias , Navegación Espacial , Estudiantes , Comunicación por Videocoferencia
7.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(2): 286-287, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083219
8.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(2): 284, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081919
9.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(2): 283, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081909
10.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(2): 285-286, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081462
11.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(2): 284-285, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081122
12.
13.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(2): 286, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080401
14.
Wiad Lek ; 73(12 cz 1): 2672-2676, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080000

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To investigate the causes of the negative impact of diabetes mellitus co-morbidity on the onset and development of COVID-19 in diabetic patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Electronic databases of MEDLINE and Google Scholar were searched using keyword searches. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: 1. Diabetes mellitus is not a verdict. Diabetic patients can have COVID-19 with the same frequency as other people. And diabetes mellitus co-morbidity does not increase the probability of development COVID-19. 2. Previous diabetes can contribute the complications of COVID-19, patient's severe condition and can increase the mortality. 3. The reasons for the negative results of COVID 19 treatment in patients with diabetes may be: features of autonomic innervation in patients with diabetes, impaired function of pancreatic islet cells due to the influence of SARS-CoV-2, use of some cardiac drugs, expression of inflammatory factors due to infection.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus , /tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos
15.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079698

RESUMEN

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a persistent threat to global public health. Although primarily a respiratory illness, extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 include gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal and neurological diseases. Recent studies suggest that dysfunction of the endothelium during COVID-19 may exacerbate these deleterious events by inciting inflammatory and microvascular thrombotic processes. Although controversial, there is evidence that SARS-CoV-2 may infect endothelial cells by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) cellular receptor using the viral Spike protein. In this review, we explore current insights into the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection, endothelial dysfunction due to ACE2 downregulation, and deleterious pulmonary and extra-pulmonary immunothrombotic complications in severe COVID-19. We also discuss preclinical and clinical development of therapeutic agents targeting SARS-CoV-2-mediated endothelial dysfunction. Finally, we present evidence of SARS-CoV-2 replication in primary human lung and cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. Accordingly, in striving to understand the parameters that lead to severe disease in COVID-19 patients, it is important to consider how direct infection of endothelial cells by SARS-CoV-2 may contribute to this process.


Asunto(s)
/metabolismo , Células Endoteliales/metabolismo , Endotelio/metabolismo , /inmunología , Proteína ADAM17/metabolismo , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Células Endoteliales/inmunología , Endotelio/inmunología , Endotelio/virología , Endotelio Vascular/inmunología , Endotelio Vascular/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmón/metabolismo , Trombosis , Replicación Viral
16.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246803, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079374

RESUMEN

Niclosamide (NIC) has demonstrated promising in vitro antiviral efficacy against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Though NIC is already FDA-approved, administration of the currently available oral formulation results in systemic drug levels that are too low for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2. We hypothesized that the co-formulation of NIC with an endogenous protein, human lysozyme (hLYS), could enable the direct aerosol delivery of the drug to the respiratory tract as an alternative to oral delivery, thereby effectively treating COVID-19 by targeting the primary site of SARS-CoV-2 acquisition and spread. To test this hypothesis, we engineered and optimized composite particles containing NIC and hLYS suitable for delivery to the upper and lower airways via dry powder inhaler, nebulizer, and nasal spray. The novel formulation demonstrates potent in vitro and in vivo activity against two coronavirus strains, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, and may offer protection against methicillin-resistance staphylococcus aureus pneumonia and inflammatory lung damage occurring secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infections. The suitability of the formulation for all stages of the disease and low-cost development approach will ensure rapid clinical development and wide-spread utilization.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Muramidasa/administración & dosificación , Niclosamida/administración & dosificación , Administración por Inhalación , Animales , Antivirales/farmacología , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Línea Celular , Composición de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos/instrumentación , Inhaladores de Polvo Seco , Humanos , Ratones Transgénicos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/efectos de los fármacos , Muramidasa/farmacología , Muramidasa/uso terapéutico , Rociadores Nasales , Niclosamida/farmacología , Niclosamida/uso terapéutico , /efectos de los fármacos
17.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 88(1): e1-e8, 2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077469

RESUMEN

Human coronaviruses are known respiratory pathogens associated with a range of respiratory illnesses, and there are considerable morbidity and hospitalisation amongst immune-compromised individuals of all age groups. The emergence of a highly pathogenic human coronavirus in China in 2019 has confirmed the long-held opinion that these viruses are important emerging and re-emerging pathogens. In this review article, we trace the discovery and emergence of coronaviruses (CoVs) over time since they were first reported. The review article will enrich our understanding on the host range, diversity and evolution, transmission of human CoVs and the threat posed by these viruses circulating in animal populations but overtime have spilled over to humans because of the increased proximity between humans and animals.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Coronavirus/clasificación , Animales , Coronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Brotes de Enfermedades , Especificidad del Huésped , Humanos
18.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(8): 819-821, 2020 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077293

RESUMEN

Novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) is the most deadly pandemic disease of the century and is now known for its high infectivity, morbidity, and mortality. It is conceivable to expect the ramifications of this pandemic in the form of depression and frustration. An increase in crime rate and violence is expected in the near future. Forensic experts along with forensic odontologists will be receiving many cases shortly and they should be ready to face the challenges. In the present paper, a critical perspective is presented on COVID-19 and its socioeconomic impact. Recommendations are provided for effectively carrying out the investigative procedures related to forensic odontology. Clinical relevance: Novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) is the most deadly pandemic disease of the century and is now known for its high infectivity, morbidity, and mortality. Hence, it is recommended to treat every forensic sample as potential COVID-19 infected. In this regard, the present paper gives some important recommendations for handling the samples that are related to forensic odontology. These will prevent the infection spread in the forensic experts, which are considered as the backbone of this critical COVID-19 situation. Keywords: Coronavirus, COVID-19, Forensic medicine, Forensic odontology.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Pandemias
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