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5.
Invest Radiol ; 55(5): 257-261, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684015

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the chest computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to evaluate its relationship with clinical features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study sample consisted of 80 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 from January to February 2020. The chest CT images and clinical data were reviewed, and the relationship between them was analyzed. RESULTS: Totally, 80 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included. With regards to the clinical manifestations, 58 (73%) of the 80 patients had cough, and 61 (76%) of the 80 patients had high temperature levels. The most frequent CT abnormalities observed were ground glass opacity (73/80 cases, 91%), consolidation (50/80 cases, 63%), and interlobular septal thickening (47/80, 59%). Most of the lesions were multiple, with an average of 12 ± 6 lung segments involved. The most common involved lung segments were the dorsal segment of the right lower lobe (69/80, 86%), the posterior basal segment of the right lower lobe (68/80, 85%), the lateral basal segment of the right lower lobe (64/80, 80%), the dorsal segment of the left lower lobe (61/80, 76%), and the posterior basal segment of the left lower lobe (65/80, 81%). The average pulmonary inflammation index value was (34% ± 20%) for all the patients. Correlation analysis showed that the pulmonary inflammation index value was significantly correlated with the values of lymphocyte count, monocyte count, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, days from illness onset, and body temperature (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The common chest CT findings of COVID-19 are multiple ground glass opacity, consolidation, and interlobular septal thickening in both lungs, which are mostly distributed under the pleura. There are significant correlations between the degree of pulmonary inflammation and the main clinical symptoms and laboratory results. Computed tomography plays an important role in the diagnosis and evaluation of this emerging global health emergency.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía Viral/patología , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Tos/virología , Femenino , Fiebre/virología , Humanos , Pulmón/patología , Pulmón/virología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/virología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagen , Tórax/virología , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Adulto Joven
6.
Radiology ; 296(2): E97-E104, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-683271

RESUMEN

Background A categorical CT assessment scheme for suspicion of pulmonary involvement of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19 provides a basis for gathering scientific evidence and improved communication with referring physicians. Purpose To introduce the COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) for use in the standardized assessment of pulmonary involvement of COVID-19 on unenhanced chest CT images and to report its initial interobserver agreement and performance. Materials and Methods The Dutch Radiological Society developed CO-RADS based on other efforts for standardization, such as the Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System or Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. CO-RADS assesses the suspicion for pulmonary involvement of COVID-19 on a scale from 1 (very low) to 5 (very high). The system is meant to be used in patients with moderate to severe symptoms of COVID-19. The system was evaluated by using 105 chest CT scans of patients admitted to the hospital with clinical suspicion of COVID-19 and in whom reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed (mean, 62 years ± 16 [standard deviation]; 61 men, 53 with positive RT-PCR results). Eight observers used CO-RADS to assess the scans. Fleiss κ value was calculated, and scores of individual observers were compared with the median of the remaining seven observers. The resulting area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was compared with results from RT-PCR and clinical diagnosis of COVID-19. Results There was absolute agreement among observers in 573 (68.2%) of 840 observations. Fleiss κ value was 0.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45, 0.47), with the highest κ value for CO-RADS categories 1 (0.58, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.62) and 5 (0.68, 95% CI: 0.65, 0.72). The average AUC was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.97) for predicting RT-PCR outcome and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.99) for clinical diagnosis. The false-negative rate for CO-RADS 1 was nine of 161 cases (5.6%; 95% CI: 1.0%, 10%), and the false-positive rate for CO-RADS category 5 was one of 286 (0.3%; 95% CI: 0%, 1.0%). Conclusion The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) is a categorical assessment scheme for pulmonary involvement of COVID-19 at unenhanced chest CT that performs very well in predicting COVID-19 in patients with moderate to severe symptoms and has substantial interobserver agreement, especially for categories 1 and 5. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/normas , Adulto , Anciano , Comunicación , Femenino , Humanos , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Pandemias , Sistemas de Información Radiológica , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa/métodos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos
8.
Korean J Radiol ; 21(5): 541-544, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-678713

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is a recent outbreak in mainland China and has rapidly spread to multiple countries worldwide. Pulmonary parenchymal opacities are often observed during chest radiography. Currently, few cases have reported the complications of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. We report a case where serial follow-up chest computed tomography revealed progression of pulmonary lesions into confluent bilateral consolidation with lower lung predominance, thereby confirming COVID-19 pneumonia. Furthermore, complications such as mediastinal emphysema, giant bulla, and pneumothorax were also observed during the course of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Enfisema Mediastínico/etiología , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumotórax/etiología , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Vesícula , China , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Pulmón/patología , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e20781, 2020 Jul 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676380

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: No specific anti-virus drugs or vaccines have been available for the treatment of COVID-19. Integrative traditional Chinese and western medicine has been proposed as a therapeutic option with substantial applications in China. This protocol is proposed for a systematic review and meta-analysis that aims to evaluate the efficacy of integrative traditional Chinese and western medicine treatment on patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Ten databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CIHAHL, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP), Wanfang database, China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and Chinese Biomedical Literature Service System (SinoMed) will be searched. All published randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, case-control, and case series that meet the pre-specified eligibility criteria will be included. Primary outcome measures include mortality, clinical recovery rate, duration of fever, progression rate from mild or moderate to severe, improvement of symptoms, biomarkers of laboratory examination and changes in computed tomography. Secondary outcomes include dosage of hormonotherapy, incidence and severity of adverse events and quality of life. Study selection, data extraction and assessment of bias risk will be conducted by 2 reviewers independently. RevMan software (V.5.3.5) will be used to perform data synthesis. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis will be performed when necessary. The strength of evidence will be assessed by the GRADE system. RESULTS: This study will provide a well-reported and high-quality synthesis on the efficacy of integrative traditional Chinese and western medicine treatment on patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: This systematic review protocol will be helpful for providing evidence of whether integrative traditional Chinese and western medicine treatment is an effective therapeutic approach for patients with COVID-19. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is unnecessary as no individual patient or privacy data is collected. The results of this study will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and/or conference presentation. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020167205.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Medicina China Tradicional/métodos , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Biomarcadores/análisis , Estudios de Casos y Controles , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Humanos , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Proyectos de Investigación , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento
11.
Radiology ; 296(2): E65-E71, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657750

RESUMEN

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has widely spread all over the world since the beginning of 2020. It is desirable to develop automatic and accurate detection of COVID-19 using chest CT. Purpose To develop a fully automatic framework to detect COVID-19 using chest CT and evaluate its performance. Materials and Methods In this retrospective and multicenter study, a deep learning model, the COVID-19 detection neural network (COVNet), was developed to extract visual features from volumetric chest CT scans for the detection of COVID-19. CT scans of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and other non-pneumonia abnormalities were included to test the robustness of the model. The datasets were collected from six hospitals between August 2016 and February 2020. Diagnostic performance was assessed with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, and specificity. Results The collected dataset consisted of 4352 chest CT scans from 3322 patients. The average patient age (±standard deviation) was 49 years ± 15, and there were slightly more men than women (1838 vs 1484, respectively; P = .29). The per-scan sensitivity and specificity for detecting COVID-19 in the independent test set was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 83%, 94%; 114 of 127 scans) and 96% (95% CI: 93%, 98%; 294 of 307 scans), respectively, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.96 (P < .001). The per-scan sensitivity and specificity for detecting CAP in the independent test set was 87% (152 of 175 scans) and 92% (239 of 259 scans), respectively, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.97). Conclusion A deep learning model can accurately detect coronavirus 2019 and differentiate it from community-acquired pneumonia and other lung conditions. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Anciano , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/diagnóstico por imagen , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Aprendizaje Profundo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Curva ROC , Interpretación de Imagen Radiográfica Asistida por Computador/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 517, 2020 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651422

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a public health emergency of major international concern. Real-time RT-PCR assays are recommended for diagnosis of COVID-19. Here we report a rare case of COVID-19 with multiple negative results for PCR assays outside Wuhan, China. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year old male was admitted to our hospital because of 6 days of unexplained fever on January 29, 2020. He had come from Wuhan city 10 days before admission. Five days before admission, no abnormality was noted in laboratory test, chest radiography, and nasopharyngeal swab test for the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. The patient was treated with ibuprofen for alleviating fever. On admission, chest computed tomography showed multiple ground-glass opacities in right lower lung field. COVID-19 was suspected. Three times of nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected after admission. However, none of the specimens were positive. The patient was confirmed with COVID-19 after fifth SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test. He was treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, recombinant human interferon alfa-2b inhalation, methylprednisolone. After 18 days of treatment, he was discharged with improved symptoms, lung lesions and negative results of nasopharyngeal swab. CONCLUSION: This case reminds clinician that a patient with high clinical suspicion of COVID-19 but multiple negative RT-PCR result should not be taken out of isolation. A combination of patient's exposure history, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and typical imaging findings plays a vital role in making preliminary diagnosis and guide early isolation and treatment. Repeat swab tests are helpful in diagnosis for this kind of patients.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Resultados Negativos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/virología , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/genética , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Fiebre/etiología , Fiebre/virología , Hospitalización , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Cuarentena , Radiografía , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Incertidumbre
15.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648508

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly identified pathogen that mainly spreads by droplets. Most published studies have been focused on adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but data concerning pediatric patients are limited. In this study, we aimed to determine epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of pediatric patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We reviewed and analyzed data on pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, including basic information, epidemiological history, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiologic findings, treatment, outcome, and follow-up results. RESULTS: A total of 74 pediatric patients with COVID-19 were included in this study. Of the 68 case patients whose epidemiological data were complete, 65 (65 of 68; 95.59%) were household contacts of adults. Cough (32.43%) and fever (27.03%) were the predominant symptoms of 44 (59.46%) symptomatic patients at onset of the illness. Abnormalities in leukocyte count were found in 23 (31.08%) children, and 10 (13.51%) children presented with abnormal lymphocyte count. Of the 34 (45.95%) patients who had nucleic acid testing results for common respiratory pathogens, 19 (51.35%) showed coinfection with other pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2. Ten (13.51%) children had real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis for fecal specimens, and 8 of them showed prolonged existence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with COVID-19 presented with distinct epidemiological, clinical, and radiologic characteristics from adult patients. Nearly one-half of the infected children had coinfection with other common respiratory pathogens. It is not uncommon for pediatric patients to have prolonged fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA during the convalescent phase.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coinfección/diagnóstico por imagen , Coinfección/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Coinfección/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Hospitalización/tendencias , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Estudios Retrospectivos
16.
Korean J Radiol ; 21(8): 1018-1023, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647741

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has reached global pandemic status as announced by the World Health Organization, which currently recommends reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as the standard diagnostic tool. However, although the RT-PCR test results may be found negative, there are cases that are found positive for COVID-19 pneumonia on computed tomography (CT) scan. CT is also useful in assessing the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia. When clinicians desire a CT scan of a patient with COVID-19 to monitor treatment response, a safe method for patient transport is necessary. To address the engagement of medical resources necessary to transport a patient with COVID-19, our institution has implemented the use of mobile CT. Therefore, we report two cases of COVID-19 pneumonia evaluated by using mobile cone-beam CT. Although mobile cone-beam CT had some limitations regarding its image quality such as scatter noise, motion and streak artifacts, and limited field of view compared with conventional multi-detector CT, both cases had acceptable image quality to establish the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. We report the usefulness of mobile cone-beam CT in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada Multidetector/instrumentación , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias
19.
Korean J Intern Med ; 35(4): 771-781, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646244

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Current evidence supports lung ultrasound as a point-ofcare alternative diagnostic tool for various respiratory diseases. We sought to determine the utility of lung ultrasound for early detection of pneumonia and for assessment of respiratory failure among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Six patients with confirmed COVID-19 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were enrolled. All had undergone chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) on the day of admission and underwent multiple point-of-care lung ultrasound scans over the course of their hospitalization. RESULTS: Lung ultrasound detected early abnormal findings of representative B-lines in a patient with a normal chest X-ray, corresponding to ground-glass opacities on the chest CT scan. The ultrasound findings improved as her clinical condition improved and her viral load decreased. In another minimally symptomatic patient without significant chest X-ray findings, the ultrasound showed B-lines, an early sign of pneumonia before abnormalities were detected on the chest CT scan. In two critically ill patients, ultrasound was performed to assess for evaluation of disease severity. In both patients, the clinicians conducted emergency rapid sequence intubation based on the ultrasound findings without awaiting the laboratory results and radiological reports. In two children, ultrasound was used to assess the improvement in their pneumonia, thus avoiding further imaging tests such as chest CT. CONCLUSION: Lung ultrasound is feasible and useful as a rapid, sensitive, and affordable point-of-care screening tool to detect pneumonia and assess the severity of respiratory failure in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía , Adulto , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/virología , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/diagnóstico por imagen , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/virología , Estudios Retrospectivos
20.
Korean J Intern Med ; 35(4): 788-792, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646087

RESUMEN

In view of this pandemic, as of February 2020, South Korea has the second highest number of confirmed cases in the world. Herein, we report four confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in the early stage of the pandemic in South Korea and describe the identification, diagnosis, clinical course, and management, including one patient's initial mild symptoms at presentation and their progression to pneumonia on day 21 of illness. Within 48 hours of hospitalization, all four patients underwent evaluation for initial laboratory parameters, COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and chest computed tomography (CT) findings. All four mild COVID-19 patients were discharged, and they were re-examined 14 days after discharge. Despite all four of them being asymptomatic, one patient was re-admitted after confirmation of COVID-19 through PCR viral nucleic acid detection. She could be discharged after 7 days with two subsequent negative COVID-19 PCR at 24-hour intervals. Patients with mild COVID-19 generally have normal follow-up chest CT scans after discharge, even if the early chest CT definitely indicates pneumonia. Re-hospitalized patients with COVID-19 PCR positive results after discharge were not related to her initial chest CT, lab, symptoms compared other three patients.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Lopinavir/uso terapéutico , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Ritonavir/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Combinación de Medicamentos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Radiografía Torácica
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