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Int J Mol Sci ; 21(12)2020 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692289


In the 21st century, three highly pathogenic betacoronaviruses have emerged, with an alarming rate of human morbidity and case fatality. Genomic information has been widely used to understand the pathogenesis, animal origin and mode of transmission of coronaviruses in the aftermath of the 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks. Furthermore, genome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis have had an unprecedented relevance in the battle against the 2019-2020 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the newest and most devastating outbreak caused by a coronavirus in the history of mankind. Here, we review how genomic information has been used to tackle outbreaks caused by emerging, highly pathogenic, betacoronavirus strains, emphasizing on SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. We focus on shared genomic features of the betacoronaviruses and the application of genomic information to phylogenetic analysis, molecular epidemiology and the design of diagnostic systems, potential drugs and vaccine candidates.

Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Genoma Viral , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/virología , Animales , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Diseño de Fármacos , Genes Virales , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/genética , Epidemiología Molecular , Filogenia , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Virus del SRAS/genética , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/virología , Vacunas Virales/genética , Vacunas Virales/inmunología
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): e63-e64, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689472
Postepy Biochem ; 66(2): 83-90, 2020 05 09.
Artículo en Polaco | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689005


In December 2019 in Wuhan, China the first cases of previously unknown, coronaviral infection-induced pneumonia have been reported. The new virus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) was named after SARS-CoV due to their similarities and the disease caused by the pathogen is COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019). On 11 March 2020 WHO (World Health Organization) defined the rapidly increasing number of incidents of COVID-19 as a pandemic. In this review we will present recent information about the SARS-CoV-2 focusing on the origin, clinical picture, diagnostic methods, structure, replication cycle of SARS-CoV-2 and potential pharmaceutical measures against COVID-19.

Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/virología , Betacoronavirus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Virus del SRAS
J Infect ; 80(6): 639-645, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688316


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics and prognostic factors in the elderly patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Consecutive cases over 60 years old with COVID-19 in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from Jan 1 to Feb 6, 2020 were included. The primary outcomes were death and survival till March 5. Data of demographics, clinical features, comorbidities, laboratory tests and complications were collected and compared for different outcomes. Cox regression was performed for prognostic factors. RESULTS: 339 patients with COVID-19 (aged 71±8 years,173 females (51%)) were enrolled, including 80 (23.6%) critical, 159 severe (46.9%) and 100 moderate (29.5%) cases. Common comorbidities were hypertension (40.8%), diabetes (16.0%) and cardiovascular disease (15.7%). Common symptoms included fever (92.0%), cough (53.0%), dyspnea (40.8%) and fatigue (39.9%). Lymphocytopenia was a common laboratory finding (63.2%). Common complications included bacterial infection (42.8%), liver enzyme abnormalities (28.7%) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (21.0%). Till Mar 5, 2020, 91 cases were discharged (26.8%), 183 cases stayed in hospital (54.0%) and 65 cases (19.2%) were dead. Shorter length of stay was found for the dead compared with the survivors (5 (3-8) vs. 28 (26-29), P < 0.001). Symptoms of dyspnea (HR 2.35, P = 0.001), comorbidities including cardiovascular disease (HR 1.86, P = 0.031) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 2.24, P = 0.023), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (HR 29.33, P < 0.001) were strong predictors of death. And a high level of lymphocytes was predictive of better outcome (HR 0.10, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: High proportion of severe to critical cases and high fatality rate were observed in the elderly COVID-19 patients. Rapid disease progress was noted in the dead with a median survival time of 5 days after admission. Dyspnea, lymphocytopenia, comorbidities including cardiovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute respiratory distress syndrome were predictive of poor outcome. Close monitoring and timely treatment should be performed for the elderly patients at high risk.

Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/patología , Pronóstico , Análisis de Supervivencia
J Infect Dis ; 221(11): 1762-1769, 2020 05 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688308


BACKGROUND: In December 2019, novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan and has since rapidly spread throughout China. We aimed to clarify the characteristics and clinical significance of peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration in COVID-19. METHODS: The levels of peripheral lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry in 60 hospitalized COVID-19 patients before and after treatment, and their association with clinical characteristics and treatment efficacy was analyzed. RESULTS: Total lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells decreased in COVID-19 patients, and severe cases had a lower level than mild cases. The subsets showed a significant association with inflammatory status in COVID-19, especially CD8+ T cells and CD4+/CD8+ ratio. After treatment, 37 patients (67%) showed clinical response, with an increase in CD8+ T cells and B cells. No significant change in any subset was detected in nonresponsive cases. In multivariate analysis, posttreatment decrease in CD8+ T cells and B cells and increase in CD4+/CD8+ ratio were indicated as independent predictors of poor efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration was associated with clinical characteristics and treatment efficacy of COVID-19. CD8+ T cells tended to be an independent predictor for COVID-19 severity and treatment efficacy.

Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Subgrupos Linfocitarios , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Neumonía/etiología , Neumonía/fisiopatología , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , China , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Femenino , Citometría de Flujo , Humanos , Recuento de Linfocitos , Subgrupos Linfocitarios/inmunología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía/diagnóstico , Neumonía/terapia , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Pronóstico , Resultado del Tratamiento
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 89: 104096, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688201


A pandemic of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is an international problem and factors associated with increased risk of mortality have been reported. However, there exists limited statistical method to estimate a comprehensive risk for a case in which a patient has several characteristics and symptoms concurrently. We applied Boolean Monte Carlo method (BMCM) to the Novel Corona Virus 2019 Dataset to determine interrelation of patient's characteristics and symptoms. In the analyses, age, fever as an onset symptom, and sex were used as explanatory variables, and death as the objective variable. Among 265 patients included in the analysis, the interrelations for estimating death were determined as age "and" fever "and" sex (p < 0.0001 for both operators). This result indicates that satisfying the three conditions of age, fever, and sex concurrently may be associated with an increased risk of mortality.

Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Fiebre/virología , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Modelos Estadísticos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
JCI Insight ; 5(10)2020 05 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-687860


BACKGROUNDThe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a novel viral pneumonia (COVID-19), which is rapidly spreading throughout the world. The positive result of nucleic acid test is a golden criterion to confirm SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the detection features remain unclear.METHODSWe performed a retrospective analysis in 5630 high-risk individuals receiving SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests in Wuhan, China, and investigated their characteristics and diagnosis rates.RESULTSThe overall diagnosis rate was 34.7% (1952/5630). Male (P = 0.025) and older populations (P = 2.525 × 10-39) were at significantly higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. People were generally susceptible, and most cases concentrated in people of 30-79 years. Furthermore, we investigated the association between diagnosis rate and the amount of testing in 501 subjects. Results revealed a 1.27-fold improvement (from 27.9% to 35.5%) of diagnosis rate from testing once to twice (P = 5.847 × 10-9) and a 1.43-fold improvement (from 27.9% to 39.9%) from testing once to 3 times (P = 7.797 × 10-14). More than 3 testing administrations was not helpful for further improvement. However, this improvement was not observed in subjects with pneumonia (P = 0.097).CONCLUSIONAll populations are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and male and older-aged populations are at significantly higher risk. Increasing the amount of testing could significantly improve diagnosis rates, except for subjects with pneumonia. It is recommended to test twice in those high-risk individuals whose results are negative the first time, and performing 3 tests is better, if possible.FUNDINGThis work was supported by National Mega Project on Major Infectious Disease Prevention (no. 2017ZX10103005-007) and National Key Research and Development Program of China (no. 2018YFE0204500).

Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , ARN Viral/análisis , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
Acta Biomed ; 91(2): 172-176, 2020 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-685518


BACKGROUND AND AIM: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Its outbreak in many states of the world, forced the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a pandemic. Currently, COVID-19 has infected 1 991 562 patients causing 130 885 deaths globally as of 16 April 2020. The aim of this review is to underline the epidemiological, clinical and management characteristics in children affected by COVID-19. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, from January to April 2020, for the following search terms: "COVID-19", "children", "SARS-COV2", "complications", "epidemiology", "clinical features", focusing our attention mostly on epidemiology and symptoms of COVID-19 in children. RESULTS: Usually, infants and children present milder symptoms of the disease with a better outcome than adults. Consequently, children may be considered an infection reservoir that may play a role as spreader of the infection in community.

Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Radiografía Torácica , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Ultrasonografía
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 549, 2020 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684717


BACKGROUND: We aimed to report the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in Zengdu District, Hubei Province, China. METHODS: Clinical data on COVID-19 inpatients in Zengdu Hospital from January 27 to March 11, 2020 were collected; this is a community hospital in an area surrounding Wuhan and supported by volunteer doctors. All hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included in this study. The epidemiological findings, clinical features, laboratory findings, radiologic manifestations, and clinical outcomes of these patients were analyzed. The patients were followed up for clinical outcomes until March 22, 2020. Severe COVID-19 cases include severe and critical cases diagnosed according to the seventh edition of China's COVID-19 diagnostic guidelines. Severe and critical COVID-19 cases were diagnosed according to the seventh edition of China's COVID-19 diagnostic guidelines. RESULTS: All hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 276 (median age: 51.0 years), were enrolled, including 262 non-severe and 14 severe patients. The proportion of patients aged over 60 years was higher in the severe group (78.6%) than in the non-severe group (18.7%, p < 0.01). Approximately a quarter of the patients (24.6%) had at least one comorbidity, such as hypertension, diabetes, or cancer, and the proportion of patients with comorbidities was higher in the severe group (85.7%) than in the non-severe group (21.4%, p < 0.01). Common symptoms included fever (82.2% [227/276]) and cough (78.0% [218/276]). 38.4% (106/276) of the patients had a fever at the time of admission. Most patients (94.9% [204/276]) were cured and discharged; 3.6% (10/276) deteriorated to a critical condition and were transferred to another hospital. The median COVID-19 treatment duration and hospital stay were 14.0 and 18.0 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the COVID-19 patients in Zengdu had mild disease. Older patients with underlying diseases were at a higher risk of progression to severe disease. The length of hospital-stay and antiviral treatment duration for COVID-19 were slightly longer than those in Wuhan. This work will contribute toward an understanding of COVID-19 characteristics in the areas around the core COVID-19 outbreak region and serve as a reference for decision-making for epidemic prevention and control in similar areas.

Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Tos/epidemiología , Femenino , Fiebre/epidemiología , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
Circulation ; 142(2): 114-128, 2020 07 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684109


BACKGROUND: To investigate deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we performed a single institutional study to evaluate its prevalence, risk factors, prognosis, and potential thromboprophylaxis strategies in a large referral and treatment center. METHODS: We studied a total of 143 patients with COVID-19 from January 29, 2020 to February 29, 2020. Demographic and clinical data, laboratory data, including ultrasound scans of the lower extremities, and outcome variables were obtained, and comparisons were made between groups with and without DVT. RESULTS: Of the 143 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 (age 63±14 years, 74 [51.7%] men), 66 patients developed lower extremity DVT (46.1%: 23 [34.8%] with proximal DVT and 43 [65.2%] with distal DVT). Compared with patients who did not have DVT, patients with DVT were older and had a lower oxygenation index, a higher rate of cardiac injury, and worse prognosis, including an increased proportion of deaths (23 [34.8%] versus 9 [11.7%]; P=0.001) and a decreased proportion of patients discharged (32 [48.5%] versus 60 [77.9%]; P<0.001). Multivariant analysis showed an association only between CURB-65 (confusion status, urea, respiratory rate, and blood pressure) score 3 to 5 (odds ratio, 6.122; P=0.031), Padua prediction score ≥4 (odds ratio, 4.016; P=0.04), D-dimer >1.0 µg/mL (odds ratio, 5.818; P<0.014), and DVT in this cohort, respectively. The combination of a CURB-65 score 3 to 5, a Padua prediction score ≥4, and D-dimer >1.0 µg/mL has a sensitivity of 88.52% and a specificity of 61.43% for screening for DVT. In the subgroup of patients with a Padua prediction score ≥4 and whose ultrasound scans were performed >72 hours after admission, DVT was present in 18 (34.0%) patients in the subgroup receiving venous thromboembolism prophylaxis versus 35 (66.0%) patients in the nonprophylaxis group (P=0.010). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DVT is high and is associated with adverse outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism may be protective in patients with a Padua protection score ≥4 after admission. Our data seem to suggest that COVID-19 is probably an additional risk factor for DVT in hospitalized patients.

Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Trombosis de la Vena/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anciano , Anticoagulantes/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Presión Sanguínea , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Femenino , Productos de Degradación de Fibrina-Fibrinógeno/análisis , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Extremidad Inferior/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Prevalencia , Pronóstico , Frecuencia Respiratoria , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Trombosis de la Vena/complicaciones , Trombosis de la Vena/tratamiento farmacológico , Trombosis de la Vena/epidemiología
J Breath Res ; 14(4): 041001, 2020 07 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-682126


The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of rapid, cost effective, accurate, and non-invasive testing for viral infections. Volatile compounds (VCs) have been suggested for several decades as fulfilling these criteria. However currently very little work has been done in trying to diagnose viral infections using VCs. Much of the work carried out to date involves the differentiation of bacterial and viral sources of infection and often the detection of bacterial and viral co-infection. However, this has usually been done in vitro and very little work has involved the use of human participants. Viruses hijack the host cell metabolism and do not produce their own metabolites so identifying virus specific VCs is at best a challenging task. However, there are proteins and lipids that are potential candidates as markers of viral infection. The current understanding is that host cell glycolysis is upregulated under viral infection to increase the available energy for viral replication. There is some evidence that viral infection leads to the increase of production of fatty acids, alkanes, and alkanes related products. For instance, 2,3-butandione, aldehydes, 2,8-dimethyl-undecane and n-propyl acetate have all been correlated with viral infection. Currently, the literature points to markers of oxidative stress (e.g. nitric oxide, aldehydes etc) being the most useful in the determination of viral infection. The issue, however, is that there are also many other conditions that can lead to oxidative stress markers being produced. In this review a range of (mainly mass spectrometric) methods are discussed for viral detection in breath, including breath condensate. Currently MALDI-ToF-MS is likely to be the preferred method for the identification of viral strains and variants of those strains, however it is limited by its need for the viral strains to have been sequenced and logged in a database.

Pruebas Respiratorias/métodos , Virosis/diagnóstico , Aldehídos/metabolismo , Animales , Betacoronavirus , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Hepatitis B/diagnóstico , Hepatitis B/metabolismo , Humanos , Gripe Humana/diagnóstico , Gripe Humana/metabolismo , Espectrometría de Masas , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Pandemias , Infecciones por Picornaviridae/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Picornaviridae/metabolismo , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/metabolismo , Infecciones por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Rotavirus/metabolismo , Espectrometría de Masa por Ionización de Electrospray , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción , Porcinos , Virosis/metabolismo , Virus
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(2): 53-55, jun. 2020. ilus
Artículo en Español | LILACS (Américas) | ID: covidwho-679083


Una de las características de la afección pulmonar por enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19) es la disociación entre la gravedad de la hipoxemia y el mantenimiento de una mecánica respiratoria relativamente conservada. En este contexto se ha establecido una teoría en relación con dos fenotipos de pacientes con síndrome de distrés respiratorio del adulto (SDRA): un fenotipo Low, caracterizado por baja elastancia y baja reclutabilidad, y un fenotipo High, con características de alta elastancia y alta reclutabilidad. Presentamos el caso de un paciente que cursó internación en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva de Adultos de nuestro hospital, con clínica, mecánica ventilatoria y patrón tomográfico compatible con el fenotipo Low de SDRA por COVID-19. (AU)

Dissociation between severity of hypoxemia and relative preserved respiratory mechanics is a characteristic observed in lung impairment due to coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Patients with COVID-19 that present adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are identified for one of two phenotypes according to a theory recently established. The Low phenotype is distinguished by low elastance and low recruitability; and the High phenotype, by high elastance and high recruitability. The case describes a patient admitted in the adult Intensive Care Unit of Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires with observed symptoms, ventilatory mechanics and tomographic pattern that are compatible with Low phenotype of ARDS due to COVID-19. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/microbiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Fenotipo , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/genética , Mecánica Respiratoria , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Tos/etiología , Disnea/etiología , Fiebre/etiología , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Hipoxia/fisiopatología , Obesidad/complicaciones
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 31(1): 35-38, mayo 2020.
Artículo en Español | LILACS (Américas) | ID: covidwho-678085


The pandemic of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has caused more than 2.5 millions of confirmed cases worldwide, with a mortality rate around 7%. Most cases appear to be mild with the most common symptoms being fever, dry cough, myalgia, fatigue, and dyspnea but can result in more severe disease. Also, there are described gastrointestinal manifestations: anorexia 27%, diarrhea 12%, nausea/vomiting 10%, and abdominal pain 9%. In Chile, diarrhea has been described in 7.3%, and abdominal pain 3.7%. The primary mechanism proposed is the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the enterocytes binding the Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is widely distributed among the gastrointestinal tract. Also, SARS-CoV-2 can cause elevated liver enzymes in up to 40% of cases. This alteration could also be caused by the binding to the ACE2 receptor in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Gastrointestinal symptoms and elevated liver enzymes are more frequent in severe cases. Viral RNA has been detected in stools, which may suggest a possible fecal-oral transmission. It is essential to pay attention to gastrointestinal manifestations because they are frequent and more prevalent in severe cases. The presence of viral RNA in stool forces us to take preventive measures faced with a possible mechanism of fecal-oral transmission, mainly in the gastroenterology and endoscopy services.

La pandemia por el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 ha causado más de 2,5 millones de casos confirmados en el mundo, con una mortalidad cercana al 7%. La mayoría de los casos parecen ser leves y los síntomas más comunes son fiebre, tos seca, mialgia, fatiga y disnea, pero pueden provocar una enfermedad más grave. También se han descrito síntomas gastrointestinales: anorexia 27%, diarrea 12%, náuseas/vómitos 10%, y dolor abdominal 9%. En Chile, se ha descrito diarrea en 7,3%, y dolor abdominal 3,7%. El principal mecanismo fisiopatológico propuesto es el ingreso al enterocito utilizando la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2 (ECA2) como receptor, el cual es ampliamente distribuido a lo largo del tracto gastrointestinal. También se ha descrito alteración de pruebas hepáticas hasta en 40% de los casos. Esta alteración también podría ser causada por el ingreso a los hepatocitos y colangiocitos mediante la ECA2. Los síntomas gastrointestinales, y las alteraciones de pruebas hepáticas son más frecuentes en los pacientes graves. Se ha detectado la presencia de ARN viral en deposiciones de pacientes, lo que podría sugerir una posible vía de transmisión fecal-oral. Es importante prestar atención a las manifestaciones gastrointestinales, ya que son comunes y más frecuentes en pacientes graves. La presencia viral en las heces nos obliga a tomar medidas de precaución y prevención de un posible mecanismo de transmisión fecal-oral, especialmente en los servicios de gastroenterología y endoscopia.

Humanos , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/etiología , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/diagnóstico