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2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12640, 2020 07 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690878

RESUMEN

Aedes-borne diseases, such as dengue and chikungunya, are responsible for more than 50 million infections worldwide every year, with an overall increase of 30-fold in the last 50 years, mainly due to city population growth, more frequent travels and ecological changes. In the United States of America, the vast majority of Aedes-borne infections are imported from endemic regions by travelers, who can become new sources of mosquito infection upon their return home if the exposed population is susceptible to the disease, and if suitable environmental conditions for the mosquitoes and the virus are present. Since the susceptibility of the human population can be determined via periodic monitoring campaigns, the environmental suitability for the presence of mosquitoes and viruses becomes one of the most important pieces of information for decision makers in the health sector. We present a next-generation monitoring and forecasting system for [Formula: see text]-borne diseases' environmental suitability (AeDES) of transmission in the conterminous United States and transboundary regions, using calibrated ento-epidemiological models, climate models and temperature observations. After analyzing the seasonal predictive skill of AeDES, we briefly consider the recent Zika epidemic, and the compound effects of the current Central American dengue outbreak happening during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, to illustrate how a combination of tailored deterministic and probabilistic forecasts can inform key prevention and control strategies .


Asunto(s)
Aedes/virología , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Mosquitos Vectores/virología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores/patología , Animales , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Clima , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Toma de Decisiones , Monitoreo Epidemiológico/veterinaria , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/patología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores/virología
5.
Medwave ; 20(4): e7916, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651724

RESUMEN

Introduction: COVID-19 is a world public health problem due to its morbidity and mortality, especially in at-risk groups. The dental environment has a high risk of viral transmission; accordingly, this study aimed to identify recommendations based on the best available evidence for dental care during this pandemic. Methods: We performed a search for scientific evidence published since 2002 to March 23th 2020 in electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Epistemonikos) and the web pages of the American Dental Association, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Oral Health, the Ministry of Health in Chile and scientific societies. Results: We included nine published studies. The recommendations were the following: unrestricted use of personal protection elements, use of extraoral radiographic techniques, use of mouth rinses with 1% hydrogen peroxide or 0.2% iodine povidone, a four-hand technique with ongoing aspiration and the use of absorbable sutures. Furthermore, there is a consensus that non-urgent treatments should be postponed during periods of community transmission. Conclusions: Dental practitioners are exposed to a high risk of cross-infection, meaning they must implement recommendations based on the best available evidence to preserve the health of team members and the population they are caring for.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Atención Odontológica/normas , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Profesional a Paciente/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Humanos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21396, 2020 Jul 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684031

RESUMEN

A large number of healthcare workers have been infected with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate their clinical and chest computed tomography (CT) characteristics.The clinical, laboratory test and CT features of 43 medical and hospital staff with confirmed COVID-19 (MP group, 26-70 years old) were retrospectively analyzed, and compared to 43 non-medical related patients (non-MP group, 26-71 years old). Follow-up CT characteristics were analyzed to assess the disease progression in the period of hospitalization.At admission, the main complaints of the MP group, including fever (81.4%), fatigue (48.8%) and cough (41.9%), were similar to the non-MP group. The C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and lactate dehydrogenase levels were higher in the non-MP group than the MP group (17.5 ±â€Š22.4 mg/L, 20.2 ±â€Š23.4 mm/H and 219 ±â€Š66U/L, respectively, P < .05). Ground-grass opacities, consolidation, interstitial thickening were common CT features of both groups. The severity of opacities on initial CT were less in the MP group (5.3 ±â€Š3.9 scores) than in the non-MP group (9.1 ±â€Š4.8 scores, P < .05). Before regular treatments, the sum score of the opacities showed weak to moderate correlations with duration, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and lactate dehydrogenase levels (R ranged from 0.341-0.651, P < .05). In the study time window, the duration from illness onset to when the most obvious pulmonary opacities were observed, according to CT findings, were similar in the MP group (13.3 ±â€Š6.6 days) and the non-MP group (13.8 ±â€Š5.1 days, P = .69). Mild to moderate anxiety and depression were observed in both groups.Despite greater knowledge of how to protect themselves than the general population, healthcare workers are also susceptible to COVID-19 infection. Occupational exposure is a very important factor. Healthcare workers have a higher vigilance about the infection in the early stage of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades Profesionales/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Pulmón/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Profesionales/virología , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Estudios Retrospectivos
8.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(3): 362-365, 2020 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684002

RESUMEN

In a family experiencing coronavirus disease 2019, the parents and 2 children aged 2 and 5 years became infected but the youngest child was not infected. Both children initially shed infectious virus, but cleared the virus after 5 to 6 days in the nasopharynx. However, viral RNA was continuously detected in the children's stool for more than 4 weeks.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Familia , Neumonía Viral/patología , Adulto , Preescolar , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Periodo de Incubación de Enfermedades Infecciosas , Masculino , Nasofaringe/virología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Carga Viral , Esparcimiento de Virus
9.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 75, 2020 07 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676619

RESUMEN

Background: Researchers across the world are emphasising the importance of hand-washing and limited touching of face to curb the spread of COVID-19. However, access to safe water and hygiene is inadequate in many places around the globe; hence T-zone touching restriction is considered more worthwhile compared to other prevention strategies. Aim: A systematic review was carried out to appraise the frequency of T-zone (eyes, nose, mouth, chin) touching in humans to comprehend the challenge of its restriction, and thus support public health professionals to produce evidence synthesis guidance for public.For this systemic review, data were collected by keyword searching, and several online databases were searched. The PRISMA checklist, PECO protocol and STROBE guideline were followed in this review, and pooled data were analysed in R version 4. Result: Total of 10 single arms observational studies were included. The pooled average (SD) facial self-touch per hour was 50.06 (±47) times, and a specific touch of T-zone was 68.7 (±27). T-zone self-touch within the total facial self-touch was found higher R = 0.680, with 95% CI 0.14, 0.91, P = 0.02 and X2 = 167.63, P < 0.0001. Conclusion: The review found that face-touch is a type of consistent regulatory movements. Control of T-zone touch requires extensive behaviour intervention and community awareness.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Cara , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Tacto , Betacoronavirus , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , Pandemias
11.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(33): 7093-7101, 2020 08 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646748

RESUMEN

For estimating the infection risk from virus-containing airborne droplets, it is crucial to consider the interplay of all relevant physical-chemical effects that affect droplet evaporation and sedimentation times. For droplet radii in the range 70 nm < R < 60 µm, evaporation can be described in the stagnant-flow approximation and is diffusion-limited. Analytical equations are presented for the droplet evaporation rate, the time-dependent droplet size, and the sedimentation time, including evaporation cooling and solute osmotic-pressure effects. Evaporation makes the time for initially large droplets to sediment much longer and thus significantly increases the viral air load. Using recent estimates for SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in sputum and droplet production rates while speaking, a single infected person that constantly speaks without a mouth cover produces a total steady-state air load of more than 104 virions at a given time. In a midsize closed room, this leads to a viral inhalation frequency of at least 2.5 per minute. Low relative humidity, as encountered in airliners and inside buildings in the winter, accelerates evaporation and thus keeps initially larger droplets suspended in air. Typical air-exchange rates decrease the viral air load from droplets with an initial radius larger than 20 µm only moderately.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Habla , Aerosoles , Microbiología del Aire , Algoritmos , Difusión , Humanos , Pandemias , Tamaño de la Partícula , Medición de Riesgo , Agua
12.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 37(7): 1567-1577, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617321

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The state of limited resource settings that Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has created globally should be taken seriously into account especially in healthcare sector. In oncofertility, patients should receive their fertility preservation treatments urgently even in limited resource settings before initiation of anticancer therapy. Therefore, it is very crucial to learn more about oncofertility practice in limited resource settings such as in developing countries that suffer often from shortage of healthcare services provided to young patients with cancer. METHODS: As an extrapolation during the global crisis of COVID-19 pandemic, we surveyed oncofertility centers from 14 developing countries (Egypt, Tunisia, Brazil, Peru, Panama, Mexico, Colombia, Guatemala, Argentina, Chile, Nigeria, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, and India). Survey questionnaire included questions on the availability and degree of utilization of fertility preservation options in case of childhood cancer, breast cancer, and blood cancer. RESULTS: All surveyed centers responded to all questions. Responses and their calculated oncofertility scores showed different domestic standards for oncofertility practice in case of childhood cancer, breast cancer, and blood cancer in the developing countries under limited resource settings. CONCLUSIONS: Medical practice in limited resource settings has become a critical topic especially after the global crisis of COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the resources necessary to provide oncofertility treatments is important until the current COVID-19 pandemic resolves. Lessons learned will be valuable to future potential worldwide disruptions due to infectious diseases or other global crises.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Prestación de Atención de Salud/normas , Preservación de la Fertilidad/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/economía , Países en Desarrollo , Femenino , Preservación de la Fertilidad/economía , Preservación de la Fertilidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias/virología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
F1000Res ; 9: 232, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769909

RESUMEN

Since the first identified case of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, the disease has developed into a pandemic, imposing a major challenge for health authorities and hospitals worldwide. Mathematical transmission models can help hospitals to anticipate and prepare for an upcoming wave of patients by forecasting the time and severity of infections. Taking the city of Heidelberg as an example, we predict the ongoing spread of the disease for the next months including hospital and ventilator capacity and consider the possible impact of currently imposed countermeasures.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Modelos Teóricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Betacoronavirus , Ciudades/epidemiología , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias
15.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(17)2020 08 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767717

RESUMEN

The infection of health care workers during the 2013 to 2016 Ebola outbreak raised concerns about fomite transmission. In the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, investigations are ongoing to determine the role of fomites in coronavirus transmission as well. The bacteriophage phi 6 has a phospholipid envelope and is commonly used in environmental studies as a surrogate for human enveloped viruses. The persistence of phi 6 was evaluated as a surrogate for Ebola virus (EBOV) and coronaviruses on porous and nonporous hospital surfaces. Phi 6 was suspended in a body fluid simulant and inoculated onto 1-cm2 coupons of steel, plastic, and two fabric curtain types. The coupons were placed at two controlled absolute humidity (AH) levels: a low AH of 3.0 g/m3 and a high AH of 14.4 g/m3 Phi 6 declined at a lower rate on all materials under low-AH conditions, with a decay rate of 0.06-log10 PFU/day to 0.11-log10 PFU/day, than under the higher AH conditions, with a decay rate of 0.65-log10 PFU/h to 1.42-log10 PFU/day. There was a significant difference in decay rates between porous and nonporous surfaces at both low AH (P < 0.0001) and high AH (P < 0.0001). Under these laboratory-simulated conditions, phi 6 was found to be a conservative surrogate for EBOV under low-AH conditions in that it persisted longer than Ebola virus in similar AH conditions. Additionally, some coronaviruses persist longer than phi 6 under similar conditions; therefore, phi 6 may not be a suitable surrogate for coronaviruses.IMPORTANCE Understanding the persistence of enveloped viruses helps inform infection control practices and procedures in health care facilities and community settings. These data convey to public health investigators that enveloped viruses can persist and remain infective on surfaces, thus demonstrating a potential risk for transmission. Under these laboratory-simulated Western indoor hospital conditions, we assessed the suitability of phi 6 as a surrogate for environmental persistence research related to enveloped viruses, including EBOV and coronaviruses.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriófago phi 6/aislamiento & purificación , Bacteriófago phi 6/fisiología , Coronavirus/fisiología , Ebolavirus/fisiología , Microbiología Ambiental , Fómites/virología , Inactivación de Virus , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Ebolavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/transmisión , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/virología , Hospitales , Humanos , Humedad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Porosidad , Temperatura
16.
Epidemiol Health ; 42: e2020059, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761000

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new emerging pandemic, which has so far infected more than 20 million people throughout the world. Typically, this infection is transmitted from humans to humans via respiratory contact. However, the possibility that COVID-19 might be transmitted via atypical modes of transmission is an important public health consideration. In this short review article, the author summarizes and discusses the data on atypical modes of COVID-19 transmission. Based on the available data, it seems that there is still no evidence that COVID-19 can be transmitted via atypical modes of transmission.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Salud Pública
17.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(6): e661-e663, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760077

RESUMEN

Coronavírus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a virus of mass dissemination, with an impact on international public health, leading to hospitalizations and death. The main symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, fatigue, dry cough; however, myalgia and dyspnea and the transmission routes include direct transmission by cough, sneeze, droplet inhalation, or contact transmission with the oral, nasal, or eye mucous membranes. The dental professionals are the main risk group to COVID-19 due to the transmission routes that are directly related to the dental practice. In addition, the oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMFS) are even more exposed, due to increased contact with the population in hospitals and emergency services. OMFS should be able to identify a suspected case of COVID-19, its symptoms, risk groups, disease severity, laboratorial and computed tomography alterations, and treatment guidelines. In the present study, the authors performed a nationwide survey with Brazilian OMFS to evaluate the knowledge of these professionals about the pandemic status of the COVID-19. A total of 142 OMFS replied the survey and the results brings light to an incomparable health public problem that the OMFS in Brazil are no able to protect itself, diagnose the suspicious and probable cases, request and interpret the correct laboratorial examinations for the treatment of the COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Cirujanos Oromaxilofaciales , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Brasil , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(6): e622-e624, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760076

RESUMEN

In order to summarize the experience of neurosurgery in The Third People's Hospital of Hubei Province after the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2019, 28 patients were admitted from January 5, 2020 to February 17, 2020. A series of department formulates and constant improvements were made, including elective operation cancellation, altered conventional outpatient service into online outpatient service, strict control of inter department consultation prevention and entering the department, improvements in operation and treatment processes, and strict ward management. As a result, 1 patient with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage and deep vein thrombosis of the right lower extremity died suddenly due to pulmonary embolism during anticoagulation treatment. Two patients with deep coma gave up treatment and died. No patient was confirmed to be infected with COVID-19 in hospital. One doctor had a low fever and cough in January, and CT showed a small nodule in the lower left lung. After 2 weeks isolation and oral anti-infective drugs, the chest nodule disappeared. One nurse was isolated as a close contact with infected parents. One nurse was confirmed to be infected with COVID-19 in a mild symptom. She was discharged after being cured in the infected department. In conclusion, measures like sufficient theoretical training and protection upgrading for medical staff, continuous improvement on the understanding of COVID-19 characteristics and transmission routes, formulation of strict department management system, monitoring of patients and their families, could effectively deal with the epidemic situation in the neurosurgery department.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Femenino , Hospitales , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Prevalencia , Derivación y Consulta
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