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1.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(6): 2049-2055, 2022 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100937

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine has been administered to children and adolescents with cancer and hematologic diseases since they are at high risk of manifesting severe symptoms if they have COVID-19 infection but the adequate immune response after vaccination in these immunocompromised patients are questionable. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immune response of children and adolescents with cancer and hematologic diseases after receiving 2 doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of patients with cancer and hematologic disease, who aged 12- 18 years old and received 2 doses the BNT162b2 vaccines at 4 weeks apart were enrolled. Immunogenicity was determined by measuring serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin antibodies directed against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of S1 domain of the spike protein (Anti S-RBD), surrogated viral neutralization test (sVNT) of SARS-CoV-2 and Delta strain. Blood samples were collected and analyzed at 4 and 12 weeks after vaccination. The seroprotective rate was defined as sVNT ≥ 68%. RESULTS: From Oct 2021 to Jan 2022, 43 children were enrolled, 21 were on-therapy and 22 were off-therapy. 25 were hematologic malignancy, 15 solid tumor and 3 hematologic diseases with immunosuppressive drugs. The GMT (95%CI) of a anti S-RBD IgG level at 4 weeks after vaccination were 56.05 (13.2,238.2) and 3633 (2689,4908) BAU/mL in on-therapy and off-therapy group, respectively, p<0.001. The sVNT (95%CI) of delta strain were 26% (5.85-73.55%) and 97.05% (96.0-97.4%) as the seroprotective level which were 33.3% in on-therapy group and 100% in off-therapy group (p<0.001). 14 children in on-therapy group need an additional dose. CONCLUSION: After complete vaccination, the seroprotective rate and antibody level in pediatric and adolescent patients with cancer and hematologic disease who receive immunosuppressive agents are quite low, compared with patients who had complete treatment. Additional dose of primary series should be offered.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedades Hematológicas , Neoplasias , Vacunas Virales , Adolescente , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Vacuna BNT162 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/uso terapéutico , Niño , Humanos , Inmunidad , Neoplasias/terapia , Estudios Prospectivos , ARN Mensajero , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación , Vacunas Virales/genética
2.
Vaccine ; 40(48): 6971-6978, 2022 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082750

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent studies have reported poor humoral immune response to mRNA vaccines in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). However, the immunogenicity of ChAdOx1 (vector-based) and BBV152 (inactivated virus) vaccines in patients with CLD and liver transplant recipients (LTRs) is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the immunogenicity of ChAdOx1 and BBV152 vaccines in patients with CLD (including cirrhosis patients) and LTRs. METHODS: In this single-center prospective study, consecutive completely vaccinated (ChAdOx1 or BBV152) non-cirrhosis CLD patients, those with cirrhosis, and LTRs were compared with matched healthy controls for anti-spike antibody and cellular response. RESULTS: Sixty healthy individuals, 50 NCCLD patients, 63 compensated and 50 decompensated cirrhosis, and 17 LTRs were included. The proportion of non-responders was similar among the healthy control (8 %), non-cirrhosis CLD (16 %), and compensated cirrhosis groups (17.5 %;p = 0.3). However, a higher proportion of patients with decompensated cirrhosis (34 %) and LTRs (59 %) were non-responders than the healthy controls (p = 0.001). Cluster of differentiation (CD) 4-effector cells were lower in patients with non-cirrhosis CLD and compensated cirrhosis. CD4-naïve, CD4-effector, B, and B-memory cells were lower in the decompensated cirrhosis group. Although the central memory cells were higher in the decompensated cirrhosis group, they could not differentiate into effector cells. CD4- and CD8-naïve cells were higher in the marrow in the LTRs, while the CD4-effector memory cells and CD4- and CD8-effector cells were lower in the LTRs. Furthermore, B cells were more deficient in the LTRs, suggesting poor antibody response. CONCLUSION: Patients with decompensated cirrhosis and LTRs demonstrated suboptimal humoral and cellular immune responses against recombinant and inactivated COVID-19 vaccines.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Hepatopatías , Trasplante de Hígado , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Estudios Prospectivos , Cirrosis Hepática , Inmunidad , Receptores de Trasplantes
3.
Ups J Med Sci ; 1272022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081618

RESUMEN

Background: The hemodialysis (HD) population has been a vulnerable group during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Advanced chronic kidney disease with uremia is associated with weaker immune response to infections and an attenuated response to vaccines. The aim of this study was to study the humoral and cellular response to the second and third doses of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in HD patients and to follow the response over time. Methods: The patients received their first two vaccine doses from 28 December 2020 within a 4-week interval and the third dose in September 2021 and were followed-up for humoral and cellular immune response at 1) 7-15 weeks and 2) 6-8 months after dose two (no t-cell reactivity measured), and 3) 3 weeks and 4) 3 months after dose three. Fifty patients were initially enrolled, and 40 patients were followed during the entire study. Levels of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG antibody against the Spike antigen (anti-S) and T-cell reactivity testing against the Spike protein using Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot (ELISPOT) technology were evaluated. Results: IgG antibodies to anti-S were detected in 35 (88%) of the 40 patients 7-15 weeks after vaccine dose two, 31 (78%) were positive, and 4 (10%) borderline. The median anti-S titer was 606 Abbott Units/milliliter (AU/mL) (interquartile range [IQR] 134-1,712). Three months after the third dose, anti-S was detected in 38 (95%) of 40 patients (P < 0.01 compared to after dose two), and the median anti-S titer was 9,910 AU/mL (IQR 2,325-26,975). Cellular reactivity was detected in 22 (55%), 34 (85%), and 28 (71%) of the 40 patients, and the median T-cell response was 9.5 (IQR 3.5-80), 51.5 (14.8-132), and 19.5 (8.8-54.2) units, respectively, for 6-8 months after dose two, 3 weeks, and 3 months after dose three. Conclusions: Our data show that a third dose of SARS­CoV­2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine gives a robust and improved immunological response in HD patients, but a few patients did not develop any anti-S response during the entire study, indicating the importance to monitor the vaccine response since those who do not respond could now be given monoclonal antibodies if they contract a COVID-19 infection or in the future antivirals.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas Virales , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacuna BNT162 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas Virales/efectos adversos , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Inmunoglobulina G , Inmunidad , Diálisis Renal
4.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071660

RESUMEN

A rise in the incidence of infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has sparked the search for protective strategies against the new pathogen. It is known that individual food components can interact with different immune cells, modulating the immune response of the body. The aim of this study was to develop an index assessing the immunomodulatory potential of diet (POLA index) and to test its utility for the prediction of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a group of healthy young people following a traditional or vegetarian diet. Data on body composition, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, dietary intake, and gut microbiota were obtained from 95 adults (mean age, 34.66 ± 5.76 years). There was a strong correlation between the dietary inflammatory index and the POLA index (r = 0.90; p < 0.0001). Based on Cohen's kappa statistic, there was a good agreement in qualitative interpretation between the two indices (kappa = 0.61; p < 0.0001). People on a diet with beneficial immunomodulatory effects had a lower risk of COVID-19 of approximately 80%, as compared with those on a diet with highly unbeneficial immunomodulatory effects. In daily practice, the POLA index might serve as a useful tool for dietitians to identify individuals whose diet is deficient in ingredients for optimal immune system function and change their dietary behavior to ensure optimal immune function that reduces the risk of infection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiología , Incidencia , Dieta , Inmunidad
5.
Korean J Intern Med ; 37(6): 1234-1240, 2022 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066712

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The rapidity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific memory B or T cell response in vaccinated individuals is important for our understanding of immunopathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We therefore compared the timing of adequate immune responses between the first and booster doses of COVID-19 vaccines in infection-naïve healthcare workers. METHODS: We enrolled healthcare workers who received two doses of either the BNT162b2 vaccine or the ChAdOx1 vaccine, all of whom received the BNT162b2 vaccine as the booster (the third) dose. Spike 1 (S1)-immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and interferon gamma producing T cell responses were measured at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days after the first dose, and at 0 and between 2 to 7 days after the booster dose. RESULTS: After the first-dose vaccination, the S1-IgG antibody responses were elicited within 14 days in the BNT162b2 group and within 21 days in the ChAdOx1 group. After the booster dose, the S1-IgG antibody responses were elicited within 5 days in both groups. The SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses appeared at 7 days after the first dose and at 4 days after the booster dose. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses by memory B cells and T cells may be expected to appear around 4 to 5 days after the booster dose.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas Virales , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Vacuna BNT162 , Inmunoglobulina G , Vacunación , Inmunidad
6.
J Immunol ; 209(8): 1465-1473, 2022 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055636

RESUMEN

Widespread SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant individuals has led to a generation of fetuses exposed in utero, but the long-term impact of such exposure remains unknown. Although fetal infection is rare, children born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection may be at increased risk for adverse neurodevelopmental and cardiometabolic outcomes. Fetal programming effects are likely to be mediated at least in part by maternal immune activation. In this review, we discuss recent evidence regarding the effects of prenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection on the maternal, placental, and fetal immune response, as well as the implications for the long-term health of offspring. Extrapolating from what is known about the impact of maternal immune activation in other contexts (e.g., obesity, HIV, influenza), we review the potential for neurodevelopmental and cardiometabolic morbidity in offspring. Based on available data suggesting potential increased neurodevelopmental risk, we highlight the importance of establishing large cohorts to monitor offspring born to SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers for neurodevelopmental and cardiometabolic sequelae.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunidad , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Placenta , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Acta Biomater ; 151: 491-500, 2022 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048831

RESUMEN

Current vaccination schedules, including COVID-19 vaccines, require multiple doses to be administered. Single injection vaccines eliciting equivalent immune response are highly desirable. Unfortunately because unconventional release kinetics are difficult to achieve it still remains a huge challenge. Herein a single-injection COVID-19 vaccine was designed using a highly programmable release system based on dynamic layer-by-layer (LBL) films. The antigen, S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, was loaded in CaCO3 microspheres, which were further coated with tannic acid (TA)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) LBL films. The single-injection vaccine was obtained by mixing the microspheres coated with different thickness of TA/PEG films. Because of the unique constant-rate erosion behavior of the TA/PEG coatings, this system allows for distinct multiple pulsatile release of antigen, closely mimicking the release profile of antigen in conventional multiple dose vaccines. Immunization with the single injection vaccine induces potent and persistent S1-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. The sera from the vaccinated animal exhibit robust in vitro viral neutralization ability. More importantly, the immune response and viral inhibition induced by the single injection vaccine are as strong as that induced by the corresponding multiple dose vaccine, because they share the same antigen release profile. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Vaccines are the most powerful and cost-effective weapons against infectious diseases such as COVID-19. However, current vaccination schedules, including the COVID-19 vaccines, require multiple doses to be administered. Herein a single-injection COVID-19 vaccine is designed using a highly programmable release system. This vaccine releases antigens in a pulsatile manner, closely mimicking the release pattern of antigens in conventional multiple dose vaccines. As a result, one single injection of the new vaccine induces an immune response and viral inhibition similar to that induced by the corresponding multiple-dose vaccine approach.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas Virales , Animales , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Humanos , Inmunidad , Ratones , Polietilenglicoles , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus , Taninos , Vacunas de Subunidad
9.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(10): 100781, 2022 10 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042207

RESUMEN

Patients with blood cancer continue to have a greater risk of inadequate immune responses following three COVID-19 vaccine doses and risk of severe COVID-19 disease. In the context of the CAPTURE study (NCT03226886), we report immune responses in 80 patients with blood cancer who received a fourth dose of BNT162b2. We measured neutralizing antibody titers (NAbTs) using a live virus microneutralization assay against wild-type (WT), Delta, and Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 and T cell responses against WT and Omicron BA.1 using an activation-induced marker (AIM) assay. The proportion of patients with detectable NAb titers and T cell responses after the fourth vaccine dose increased compared with that after the third vaccine dose. Patients who received B cell-depleting therapies within the 12 months before vaccination have the greatest risk of not having detectable NAbT. In addition, we report immune responses in 57 patients with breakthrough infections after vaccination.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Humanos , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Vacuna BNT162 , Estudios Clínicos como Asunto , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , Inmunidad , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Life Sci ; 308: 120981, 2022 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042005

RESUMEN

The emergence of beta-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 gets entry into its host cells by recognizing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRESS2) receptors, which are responsible for coronavirus diseases-2019 (COVID-19). Global communities have been affected by COVID-19, especially caused the neurological complications and other critical medical issues. COVID-19 associated complications appear in aged people with underlying neurological states, especially in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). ACE2 receptors abundantly expressed in dopamine neurons may worsen the motor symptoms in PD and upregulates in SARS-CoV-2 infected aged patients' brain with AD. Immune-mediated cytokines released in SARS-CoV-2 infection lead to an indirect immune response that damages the central nervous system. Extreme cytokines release (cytokine storm) occurs due to aberrant immune pathways, and activation in microglial propagates CNS damage in COVID-19 patients. Here, we have explored the pathophysiology, immune responses, and long-term neurological impact on PD and AD patients with COVID-19. It is also a crucial step to understanding COVID-19 pathogenesis to reduce fatal outcomes of neurodegenerative diseases.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso , Anciano , Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2 , COVID-19/complicaciones , Citocinas , Humanos , Inmunidad , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/etiología , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Serina Proteasas
11.
J Exp Med ; 219(12)2022 Dec 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037305

RESUMEN

Severity of COVID-19 shows an extraordinary correlation with increasing age. We generated a mouse model for severe COVID-19 and show that the age-dependent disease severity is caused by the disruption of a timely and well-coordinated innate and adaptive immune response due to impaired interferon (IFN) immunity. Aggravated disease in aged mice was characterized by a diminished IFN-γ response and excessive virus replication. Accordingly, adult IFN-γ receptor-deficient mice phenocopied the age-related disease severity, and supplementation of IFN-γ reversed the increased disease susceptibility of aged mice. Further, we show that therapeutic treatment with IFN-λ in adults and a combinatorial treatment with IFN-γ and IFN-λ in aged Ifnar1-/- mice was highly efficient in protecting against severe disease. Our findings provide an explanation for the age-dependent disease severity and clarify the nonredundant antiviral functions of type I, II, and III IFNs during SARS-CoV-2 infection in an age-dependent manner. Our data suggest that highly vulnerable individuals could benefit from immunotherapy combining IFN-γ and IFN-λ.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Animales , Antivirales , Inmunidad , Interferones , Ratones , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032987

RESUMEN

Since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in late 2019, the virus has been mutating continuously, resulting in the continuous emergence of variants and creating challenges for epidemic prevention and control. Here, we immunized mice with different vaccine candidates, revealing the immune, protein, and metabolomic changes that take place in vaccines composed of different variants. We found that the prototype strain and Delta- and Omicron-variant inactivated vaccine candidates could all induce a high level of neutralizing antibodies and cellular immunity responses in mice. Next, we found that the metabolic and protein profiles were changed, showing a positive association with immune responses, and the level of the change was distinct in different inactivated vaccines, indicating that amino acid variations could affect metabolomics and proteomics. Our findings reveal differences between vaccines at the metabolomic and proteomic levels. These insights provide a novel direction for the immune evaluation of vaccines and could be used to guide novel strategies for vaccine design.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas Virales , Aminoácidos , Animales , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Humanos , Inmunidad , Ratones , Proteómica , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 960852, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032776

RESUMEN

In recent studies, NKG2A is revealed to be a key immune checkpoint for both natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells. It form heterodimer receptors with CD94, and targets the peptide-presenting human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) molecules. Upon crosslinking, NKG2A/CD94 delivers inhibitory signals for NK cells and CD8+ T cells, while blocking NKG2A can effectively unleash functions of these cytotoxic lymphocytes. The interaction between NKG2A and HLA-E contributes to tumor immune escape, and NKG2A-mediated mechanisms are currently being exploited to develop potential antitumor therapeutic strategies. In addition, growing evidence shows that NKG2A also plays important roles in other immune-related diseases including viral infections, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, parasite infections and transplant rejection. Therefore, the current work focuses on describing the effect of NKG2A on immune regulation and exploring its potential role in immune-mediated disorders.


Asunto(s)
Inmunidad , Subfamília C de Receptores Similares a Lectina de Células NK , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos , Antígenos HLA , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidad Clase I , Humanos , Células Asesinas Naturales , Subfamília C de Receptores Similares a Lectina de Células NK/inmunología
14.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 933: 175267, 2022 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031262

RESUMEN

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is still a challenging problem in the case of infection treatment. The immunomodulatory effect of Nanocurcumin was investigated in the present study in an attempt to counterbalance the immune response and improve the patients' clinical symptoms. 60 confirmed COVID-19 patients and 60 healthy controls enrolled in the study. COVID-19 patients were divided into Nanocurcumin and placebo received groups. Due to the importance of the role of NK cells in this disease, the frequency, cytotoxicity, receptor gene expression of NK cells, and serum secretion levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, as well as circulating C5a as a chemotactic factor an inflammatory mediator was evaluated by flow cytometry, real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both experimental groups before and after the intervention. Given the role of measured factors in the progression and pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease, the results can help find appropriate treatments. The results of this study indicated that the Nanocurcumin could significantly increase the frequency and function of NK cells compared to the placebo-treated group. As an immunomodulatory agent, Nanocurcumin may be a helpful choice to improve NK cell function in COVID-19 patients and improve the clinical outcome of patients.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Factores Quimiotácticos/farmacología , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inmunidad , Mediadores de Inflamación/farmacología , Interleucina-6 , Células Asesinas Naturales , Pandemias , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15485, 2022 09 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028718

RESUMEN

Secondary infections have been shown to complicate the clinical course and worsen the outcome of critically ill patients. Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be accompanied by a pronounced cytokine release, and immune competence of these patients towards most pathogenic antigens remains uncompromised early in the disease. Patients with bacterial sepsis also exhibit excessive cytokine release with systemic hyper-inflammation, however, typically followed by an anti-inflammatory phase, causing immune paralysis. In a second hit immune response model, leukocyte activation capacity of severely ill patients with pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 or by bacteria were compared upon ICU admission and at days 4 and 7 of the ICU stay. Blood cell count and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, IFNγ and TNF were assessed after whole-blood incubation with the potent immune stimulus pokeweed mitogen (PWM). For comparison, patients with bacterial sepsis not originating from pneumonia, and healthy volunteers were included. Lymphopenia and granulocytosis were less pronounced in COVID-19 patients compared to bacterial sepsis patients. After PWM stimulation, COVID-19 patients showed a reduced release of IFNγ, while IL-2 levels were found similar and TNF levels were increased compared to healthy controls. Interestingly, concentrations of all three cytokines were significantly higher in samples from COVID-19 patients compared to samples from patients with bacterial infection. This fundamental difference in immune competence during a second hit between COVID-19 and sepsis patients may have implications for the selection of immune suppressive or enhancing therapies in personalized medicine.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Neumonía Bacteriana , Sepsis , Citocinas , Humanos , Inmunidad , Interleucina-2 , Mitógenos de Phytolacca americana , SARS-CoV-2
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2231778, 2022 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027280

RESUMEN

Importance: The BNT162b2 two-dose vaccine (BioNTech/Pfizer) has high effectiveness that wanes within several months. The third dose is effective in mounting a significant immune response, but its durability is unknown. Objective: To compare antibody waning after second and third doses and estimate the association of antibody kinetics with susceptibility to infection with the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a prospective longitudinal cohort study in a tertiary medical center in Israel, health care workers who received the BNT162b2 vaccine were followed up monthly for IgG and neutralizing antibody levels. Linear mixed models were used to compare antibody titer waning of second and third doses and to assess whether antibody dynamics were associated with Omicron transmission. Avidity, T cell activation, and microneutralization of sera against different variants of concern were assessed for a subgroup. Exposure: Vaccination with a booster dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the rate of antibody titer change over time, and the secondary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Overall, 4868 health care workers (mean [SD] age, 46.9 [13.7] years; 3558 [73.1%] women) and 3972 health care workers (mean [SD] age, 48.5 [14.1] years; 996 [74.9%] women) were followed up for 5 months after their second and third vaccine doses, respectively. Waning of IgG levels was slower after the third compared with the second dose (1.32%/d [95% CI, 1,29%/d to 1.36%/d] vs 2.26% [95% CI, 2.13%/d 2.38%/d]), as was waning of neutralizing antibody levels (1.32%/d [95% CI, 1.21%/d to 1.43%/d] vs 3.34%/d [95% CI, 3.11%/d to 3.58%/d]). Among 2865 health care workers assessed for Omicron incidence during an additional 2 months of follow-up, lower IgG peak (ratio of means 0.86 [95% CI, 0.80-0.91]) was associated with Omicron infection, and among participants aged 65 years and older, faster waning of IgG and neutralizing antibodies (ratio of mean rates, 1.40; [95% CI, 1.13-1.68] and 3.58 [95% CI, 1.92-6.67], respectively) were associated with Omicron infection. No waning in IgG avidity was observed 112 days after the third dose. Live neutralization of Omicron was lower compared with previous strains, with a geometric mean titer at the peak of 111 (95% CI, 75-166), compared with 942 (95% CI, 585-1518) for WT, 410 (95% CI, 266-634) for Delta; it demonstrated similar waning to 26 (95% CI, 16-42) within 4 months. Among 77 participants tested for T cell activity, mean (SD) T cell activity decreased from 98 (5.4) T cells/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells to 59 (9.3) T cells/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that the third vaccine dose was associated with greater durability than the second dose; however, Omicron was associated with greater resistance to neutralization than wild type and Delta variants of concern. Humoral response dynamics were associated with susceptibility to Omicron infection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adulto , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Vacuna BNT162 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunidad , Inmunoglobulina G , Leucocitos Mononucleares , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , ADN Polimerasa Dirigida por ARN , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 994173, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022760

RESUMEN

Individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) belong to the group of people most vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infections and the associated disease COVID-19. Here we describe SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and cellular immune responses in a small cohort of immunological non-responder HIV-1 patients (HIV-INRs) after receiving the COVID-19 mRNA-based BioNTech/Pfizer vaccine. Compared to the control group of vaccinated healthy individuals that all developed a virus-specific immune response, 5 of 10 vaccinated HIV-1 patients showed insufficient immune responses. The lack of response was not directly correlated with patients CD4 cell counts. Three of the five non-responders that agreed to receive a booster vaccination subsequently generated a virus-specific response. Thus, even HIV-INRs can be efficiently vaccinated against COVID-19 but may require a follow-up by virus-specific immune monitoring to guarantee clinical vaccine benefits.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , Vacunas Virales , Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Humanos , Inmunidad , ARN Mensajero/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 992743, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022759

RESUMEN

Background and aim: Patients with COVID-19 and tuberculosis coinfection are at an increased risk of severe disease and death. We therefore sought to evaluate the current evidence which assessed the immune response in COVID-19 and tuberculosis coinfection. Methods: We searched Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science to identify articles published between 2020 and 2021. We included observational studies evaluating the immune response in patients with tuberculosis and COVID-19 compared to patients with COVID-19 alone. Results: Four cross-sectional studies (372 participants) were identified. In patients with asymptomatic COVID-19 and latent tuberculosis (LTBI), increased cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and humoral responses were found. In addition, patients with symptomatic COVID-19 and LTBI had higher leukocytes counts and less inflammation. Regarding patients with COVID-19 and active tuberculosis (aTB), they exhibited decreased total lymphocyte counts, CD4 T cells specific against SARS-CoV-2 and responsiveness to SARS-CoV-2 antigens compared to patients with only COVID-19. Conclusion: Although the evidence is limited, an apparent positive immunomodulation is observed in patients with COVID-19 and LTBI. On the other hand, patients with COVID-19 and aTB present a dysregulated immune response. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings and expand knowledge.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfección , Tuberculosis Latente , Tuberculosis , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Inmunidad , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 973070, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022754

RESUMEN

During an infectious disease progression, it is crucial to understand the cellular heterogeneity underlying the differential immune response landscape that will augment the precise information of the disease severity modulators, leading to differential clinical outcome. Patients with COVID-19 display a complex yet regulated immune profile with a heterogeneous array of clinical manifestation that delineates disease severity sub-phenotypes and worst clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is necessary to elucidate/understand/enumerate the role of cellular heterogeneity during COVID-19 disease to understand the underlying immunological mechanisms regulating the disease severity. This article aims to comprehend the current findings regarding dysregulation and impairment of immune response in COVID-19 disease severity sub-phenotypes and relate them to a wide array of heterogeneous populations of immune cells. On the basis of the findings, it suggests a possible functional correlation between cellular heterogeneity and the COVID-19 disease severity. It highlights the plausible modulators of age, gender, comorbidities, and hosts' genetics that may be considered relevant in regulating the host response and subsequently the COVID-19 disease severity. Finally, it aims to highlight challenges in COVID-19 disease that can be achieved by the application of single-cell genomics, which may aid in delineating the heterogeneity with more granular understanding. This will augment our future pandemic preparedness with possibility to identify the subset of patients with increased diseased severity.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Genómica , Humanos , Inmunidad , Fenotipo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 956369, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022739

RESUMEN

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused significant loss of life and property. In response to the serious pandemic, recently developed vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been administrated to the public. Nevertheless, the research on human immunization response against COVID-19 vaccines is insufficient. Although much information associated with vaccine efficacy, safety and immunogenicity has been reported by pharmaceutical companies based on laboratory studies and clinical trials, vaccine evaluation needs to be extended further to better understand the effect of COVID-19 vaccines on human beings. Methods: We performed a comparative peptidome analysis on serum samples from 95 participants collected at four time points before and after receiving CoronaVac. The collected serum samples were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to profile the serum peptides, and also subjected to humoral and cellular immune response analyses to obtain typical immunogenicity information. Results: Significant difference in serum peptidome profiles by MALDI-TOF MS was observed after vaccination. By supervised statistical analysis, a total of 13 serum MALDI-TOF MS feature peaks were obtained on day 28 and day 42 of vaccination. The feature peaks were identified as component C1q receptor, CD59 glycoprotein, mannose-binding protein C, platelet basic protein, CD99 antigen, Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein, integral membrane protein 2B, platelet factor 4 and hemoglobin subunits. Combining with immunogenicity analysis, the study provided evidence for the humoral and cellular immune responses activated by CoronaVac. Furthermore, we found that it is possible to distinguish neutralizing antibody (NAbs)-positive from NAbs-negative individuals after complete vaccination using the serum peptidome profiles by MALDI-TOF MS together with machine learning methods, including random forest (RF), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), linear support vector machine (SVM) and logistic regression (LR). Conclusions: The study shows the promise of MALDI-TOF MS-based serum peptidome analysis for the assessment of immune responses activated by COVID-19 vaccination, and discovered a panel of serum peptides biomarkers for COVID-19 vaccination and for NAbs generation. The method developed in this study can help not only in the development of new vaccines, but also in the post-marketing evaluation of developed vaccines.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/prevención & control , Glicoproteínas , Humanos , Inmunidad , Péptidos/química , SARS-CoV-2
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