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1.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(4): 886-896, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171152

RESUMEN

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. It can lead to multiorgan failure, including respiratory and cardiovascular decompensation, and kidney injury, with significant associated morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with underlying metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory or kidney disease. Dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, has shown significant cardio- and renoprotective benefits in patients with type 2 diabetes (with and without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease), heart failure and chronic kidney disease, and may provide similar organ protection in high-risk patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DARE-19 (NCT04350593) is an investigator-initiated, collaborative, international, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study testing the dual hypotheses that dapagliflozin can reduce the incidence of cardiovascular, kidney and/or respiratory complications or all-cause mortality, or improve clinical recovery, in adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 but not critically ill on admission. Eligible patients will have ≥1 cardiometabolic risk factor for COVID-19 complications. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to dapagliflozin 10 mg or placebo. Primary efficacy endpoints are time to development of new or worsened organ dysfunction during index hospitalization, or all-cause mortality, and the hierarchical composite endpoint of change in clinical status through day 30 of treatment. Safety of dapagliflozin in individuals with COVID-19 will be assessed. CONCLUSIONS: DARE-19 will evaluate whether dapagliflozin can prevent COVID-19-related complications and all-cause mortality, or improve clinical recovery, and assess the safety profile of dapagliflozin in this patient population. Currently, DARE-19 is the first large randomized controlled trial investigating use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in patients with COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Bencidrilo/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Glucósidos/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades Renales/prevención & control , Mortalidad , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores del Cotransportador de Sodio-Glucosa 2/uso terapéutico , Aterosclerosis/epidemiología , /epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Causas de Muerte , Comorbilidad , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Método Doble Ciego , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/epidemiología , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Enfermedades Renales/etiología , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/etiología , Resultado del Tratamiento
2.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 391-398, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168263

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To determine the demographic and clinical characteristics, underlying comorbidities, and outcomes of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reported 62 pediatric patients (age <14 years) with confirmed COVID-19 between March 2 and July 1, 2020, at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: Comorbid conditions, including cardiac, neurological, respiratory, and malignant disorders, were reported in 9 patients (14.5%). The most prominent presenting complaints were fever (80.6%) and cough (48.4%). Most of our patients (80.6%) had mild disease, 11.3% had moderate disease, and 8.1% exhibited severe and critical illness. Twenty-one patients (33.9%) were hospitalized, with 4 patients (6.5%) admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, and 3 (4.8%) patients died. CONCLUSION: All pediatric age groups are susceptible to COVID-19, with no gender difference. COVID-19 infection may result in critical illness and even mortality in subsets of pediatric patients.


Asunto(s)
/fisiopatología , Dolor Abdominal/fisiopatología , Adolescente , Asma/epidemiología , Atrofia , Encéfalo/patología , Bronquiolitis Obliterante/epidemiología , /epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Comorbilidad , Tos/fisiopatología , Diarrea/fisiopatología , Disnea/fisiopatología , Femenino , Fiebre/fisiopatología , Cardiopatías Congénitas/epidemiología , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Hospitalización , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/epidemiología , Lactante , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Pediátrico , Masculino , Faringitis/fisiopatología , Respiración Artificial , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/fisiopatología , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/terapia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Vómitos/fisiopatología
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(4)2021 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154448

RESUMEN

Background: Establishing the diagnosis of COVID-19 and Pneumocystisjirovecii pulmonary coinfection is difficult due to clinical and radiological similarities that exist between the two disorders. For the moment, fungal coinfections are underestimated in COVID-19 patients. Case presentation: We report the case of a 52-year-old male patient, who presented to the emergency department for severe dyspnea and died 17 h later. The RT-PCR test performed at his admission was negative for SARS-CoV-2. Retesting of lung fragments collected during autopsy revealed a positive result for SARS-CoV-2. Histopathological examination showed preexisting lesions, due to comorbidities, as well as recent lesions: massive lung thromboses, alveolar exudate rich in foam cells, suprapleural and intra-alveolar Pneumocystisjirovecii cystic forms, and bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. Conclusion: COVID-19 and P.jirovecii coinfection should be considered, particularly in critically ill patients, and we recommend the systematic search for P. jirovecii in respiratory samples.


Asunto(s)
/patología , Pulmón/patología , Neumonía por Pneumocystis/patología , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/patología , Trombosis/patología , Lesión Renal Aguda/complicaciones , Insuficiencia Hepática Crónica Agudizada/complicaciones , Enfermedades de las Glándulas Suprarrenales/complicaciones , Enfermedades de las Glándulas Suprarrenales/patología , Autopsia , Coinfección/patología , Exudados y Transudados , Resultado Fatal , Fibrosis , Células Espumosas/patología , Hemorragia/complicaciones , Hemorragia/patología , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hepatopatías Alcohólicas/complicaciones , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicaciones , Neumonía por Pneumocystis/complicaciones , Arteria Pulmonar/patología , Venas Pulmonares/patología , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/etiología , Trombosis/etiología
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153656

RESUMEN

COVID-19 affects a wide spectrum of organ systems. We report a 52-year-old man with hypertension and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus who presented with hypoxic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 and developed severe brachial plexopathy. He was not treated with prone positioning respiratory therapy. Associated with the flaccid, painfully numb left upper extremity was a livedoid, purpuric rash on his left hand and forearm consistent with COVID-19-induced microangiopathy. Neuroimaging and electrophysiological data were consistent with near diffuse left brachial plexitis with selective sparing of axillary, suprascapular and pectoral fascicles. Given his microangiopathic rash, elevated D-dimers and paucifascicular plexopathy, we postulate a patchy microvascular thrombotic plexopathy. Providers should be aware of this significant and potentially under-recognised neurologic complication of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Neuropatías del Plexo Braquial/etiología , /complicaciones , Brazo/patología , Neuropatías del Plexo Braquial/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus , Exantema/complicaciones , Productos de Degradación de Fibrina-Fibrinógeno/análisis , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neuralgia/complicaciones , Posicionamiento del Paciente/efectos adversos , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/etiología , /aislamiento & purificación
8.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 106, 2021 03 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136238

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented pressure on healthcare system globally. Lack of high-quality evidence on the respiratory management of COVID-19-related acute respiratory failure (C-ARF) has resulted in wide variation in clinical practice. METHODS: Using a Delphi process, an international panel of 39 experts developed clinical practice statements on the respiratory management of C-ARF in areas where evidence is absent or limited. Agreement was defined as achieved when > 70% experts voted for a given option on the Likert scale statement or > 80% voted for a particular option in multiple-choice questions. Stability was assessed between the two concluding rounds for each statement, using the non-parametric Chi-square (χ2) test (p < 0·05 was considered as unstable). RESULTS: Agreement was achieved for 27 (73%) management strategies which were then used to develop expert clinical practice statements. Experts agreed that COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is clinically similar to other forms of ARDS. The Delphi process yielded strong suggestions for use of systemic corticosteroids for critical COVID-19; awake self-proning to improve oxygenation and high flow nasal oxygen to potentially reduce tracheal intubation; non-invasive ventilation for patients with mixed hypoxemic-hypercapnic respiratory failure; tracheal intubation for poor mentation, hemodynamic instability or severe hypoxemia; closed suction systems; lung protective ventilation; prone ventilation (for 16-24 h per day) to improve oxygenation; neuromuscular blocking agents for patient-ventilator dyssynchrony; avoiding delay in extubation for the risk of reintubation; and similar timing of tracheostomy as in non-COVID-19 patients. There was no agreement on positive end expiratory pressure titration or the choice of personal protective equipment. CONCLUSION: Using a Delphi method, an agreement among experts was reached for 27 statements from which 20 expert clinical practice statements were derived on the respiratory management of C-ARF, addressing important decisions for patient management in areas where evidence is either absent or limited. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered with Clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT04534569.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/terapia , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/virología , Humanos
10.
Crit Care Med ; 49(3): 490-502, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135909

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Prone position ventilation is a potentially life-saving ancillary intervention but is not widely adopted for coronavirus disease 2019 or acute respiratory distress syndrome from other causes. Implementation of lung-protective ventilation including prone positioning for coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome is limited by isolation precautions and personal protective equipment scarcity. We sought to determine the safety and associated clinical outcomes for coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome treated with prolonged prone position ventilation without daily repositioning. DESIGN: Retrospective single-center study. SETTING: Community academic medical ICU. PATIENTS: Sequential mechanically ventilated patients with coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: Lung-protective ventilation and prolonged protocolized prone position ventilation without daily supine repositioning. Supine repositioning was performed only when Fio2 less than 60% with positive end-expiratory pressure less than 10 cm H2O for greater than or equal to 4 hours. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Primary safety outcome: proportion with pressure wounds by Grades (0-4). Secondary outcomes: hospital survival, length of stay, rates of facial and limb edema, hospital-acquired infections, device displacement, and measures of lung mechanics and oxygenation. Eighty-seven coronavirus disease 2019 patients were mechanically ventilated. Sixty-one were treated with prone position ventilation, whereas 26 did not meet criteria. Forty-two survived (68.9%). Median (interquartile range) time from intubation to prone position ventilation was 0.28 d (0.11-0.80 d). Total prone position ventilation duration was 4.87 d (2.08-9.97 d). Prone position ventilation was applied for 30.3% (18.2-42.2%) of the first 28 days. Pao2:Fio2 diverged significantly by day 3 between survivors 147 (108-164) and nonsurvivors 107 (85-146), mean difference -9.632 (95% CI, -48.3 to 0.0; p = 0·05). Age, driving pressure, day 1, and day 3 Pao2:Fio2 were predictive of time to death. Thirty-eight (71.7%) developed ventral pressure wounds that were associated with prone position ventilation duration and day 3 Sequential Organ Failure Assessment. Limb weakness occurred in 58 (95.1%) with brachial plexus palsies in five (8.2%). Hospital-acquired infections other than central line-associated blood stream infections were infrequent. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged prone position ventilation was feasible and relatively safe with implications for wider adoption in treating critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients and acute respiratory distress syndrome of other etiologies.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Posicionamiento del Paciente , Respiración Artificial/métodos , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/terapia , Centros Médicos Académicos , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Posición Prona , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
Rev Neurol ; 72(6): 203-212, 2021 03 16.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134737

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major worldwide health disorder. There is an increasing number of neurological complications recognized with COVID-19 including patients with GBS and its variants. DEVELOPMENT: A review of the clinical cases of GBS associated to COVID-19 infection published in the last months has been developed. We included 48 patients (31 men, mean age 56.4 years). The most common COVID-19 symptoms were cough (60.4%) and fever (56.3%). Mean time from COVID-19 symptoms to neurologic manifestations was 12.1 days, but in nine patients (18.8%) developed GBS within seven days. Eleven patients (22.9%) presented cranial nerve involvement in the absence of muscle weakness; 36 presented the classic sensory motor variant (75%) and one had a pure motor variant (2.1%). The electrodiagnostic pattern was considered demyelinating in 82.4% of the generalized variants. The presence of hyposmia/dysgeusia was associated with a latency shorter than seven days to GBS onset of symptoms (30% vs 15.6%), and cranial nerve involvement in the absence of weakness (30.8% vs 17.1%). Most patients (87.5%) were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. Neurological outcome was favorable in 64.6%; 29.2% had respiratory failure and 4.2% died shortly after being admitted. CONCLUSIONS: GBS in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection resembles clinically and electrophysiology the classical forms. Further studies are necessary to understand whether GBS frequency is actually increased due to SARS-CoV-2 infection and explore pathogenic mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiología , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Autoanticuerpos/sangre , Autoanticuerpos/inmunología , Autoantígenos/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Nervios Craneales/etiología , Disgeusia/etiología , Femenino , Gangliósidos/inmunología , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/inmunología , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/terapia , Humanos , Inmunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Plasmaféresis , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Evaluación de Síntomas , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123593

RESUMEN

A 35-year-old nurse, who was 27 weeks pregnant at the time, was admitted to hospital with a short history of cough, fever and worsening shortness of breath. Oral and nasopharyngeal swabs were positive for SARS-CoV-2 on real-time viral PCR. During her admission, her breathing further deteriorated and she developed type 1 respiratory failure. A decision was made to trial treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as a means of avoiding intubation. The patient tolerated this well and made rapid improvements on this therapy. She was quickly weaned off and fully recovered before being discharged home. This case highlights the potential for CPAP to be used as a means of avoiding mechanical ventilation and iatrogenic preterm birth in COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnancy. Furthermore, it highlights the need for robust evidence to support this treatment.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Presión de las Vías Aéreas Positiva Contínua , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/terapia , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/terapia , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/virología , Adulto , /diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/diagnóstico por imagen , Radiografía , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/diagnóstico por imagen , Resultado del Tratamiento
13.
Elife ; 102021 03 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121691

RESUMEN

Background: It was studied if early suPAR-guided anakinra treatment can prevent severe respiratory failure (SRF) of COVID-19. Methods: A total of 130 patients with suPAR ≥6 ng/ml were assigned to subcutaneous anakinra 100 mg once daily for 10 days. Primary outcome was SRF incidence by day 14 defined as any respiratory ratio below 150 mmHg necessitating mechanical or non-invasive ventilation. Main secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality and inflammatory mediators; 28-day WHO-CPS was explored. Propensity-matched standard-of care comparators were studied. Results: 22.3% with anakinra treatment and 59.2% comparators (hazard ratio, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.20-0.46) progressed into SRF; 30-day mortality was 11.5% and 22.3% respectively (hazard ratio 0.49; 95% CI 0.25-0.97). Anakinra was associated with decrease in circulating interleukin (IL)-6, sCD163 and sIL2-R; IL-10/IL-6 ratio on day 7 was inversely associated with SOFA score; patients were allocated to less severe WHO-CPS strata. Conclusions: Early suPAR-guided anakinra decreased SRF and restored the pro-/anti-inflammatory balance. Funding: This study was funded by the Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis, Technomar Shipping Inc, Swedish Orphan Biovitrum, and the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. Clinical trial number: NCT04357366.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/administración & dosificación , Proteína Antagonista del Receptor de Interleucina 1/administración & dosificación , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/prevención & control , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antígenos CD/sangre , Antígenos de Diferenciación Mielomonocítica/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Inyecciones Subcutáneas , Interleucina-10/sangre , Interleucina-6/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Receptores de Superficie Celular/sangre , Receptores del Activador de Plasminógeno Tipo Uroquinasa/sangre , Receptores del Activador de Plasminógeno Tipo Uroquinasa/metabolismo , Respiración Artificial , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/epidemiología , Nivel de Atención , Resultado del Tratamiento
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD010172, 2021 03 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116499

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannulae (HFNC) deliver high flows of blended humidified air and oxygen via wide-bore nasal cannulae and may be useful in providing respiratory support for adults experiencing acute respiratory failure, or at risk of acute respiratory failure, in the intensive care unit (ICU). This is an update of an earlier version of the review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of HFNC compared to standard oxygen therapy, or non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), for respiratory support in adults in the ICU. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane COVID-19 Register (17 April 2020), clinical trial registers (6 April 2020) and conducted forward and backward citation searches. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled studies (RCTs) with a parallel-group or cross-over design comparing HFNC use versus other types of non-invasive respiratory support (standard oxygen therapy via nasal cannulae or mask; or NIV or NIPPV which included continuous positive airway pressure and bilevel positive airway pressure) in adults admitted to the ICU. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures as expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included 31 studies (22 parallel-group and nine cross-over designs) with 5136 participants; this update included 20 new studies. Twenty-one studies compared HFNC with standard oxygen therapy, and 13 compared HFNC with NIV or NIPPV; three studies included both comparisons. We found 51 ongoing studies (estimated 12,807 participants), and 19 studies awaiting classification for which we could not ascertain study eligibility information. In 18 studies, treatment was initiated after extubation. In the remaining studies, participants were not previously mechanically ventilated. HFNC versus standard oxygen therapy HFNC may lead to less treatment failure as indicated by escalation to alternative types of oxygen therapy (risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45 to 0.86; 15 studies, 3044 participants; low-certainty evidence). HFNC probably makes little or no difference in mortality when compared with standard oxygen therapy (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.11; 11 studies, 2673 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). HFNC probably results in little or no difference to cases of pneumonia (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.09; 4 studies, 1057 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), and we were uncertain of its effect on nasal mucosa or skin trauma (RR 3.66, 95% CI 0.43 to 31.48; 2 studies, 617 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We found low-certainty evidence that HFNC may make little or no difference to the length of ICU stay according to the type of respiratory support used (MD 0.12 days, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.27; 7 studies, 1014 participants). We are uncertain whether HFNC made any difference to the ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) within 24 hours of treatment (MD 10.34 mmHg, 95% CI -17.31 to 38; 5 studies, 600 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether HFNC made any difference to short-term comfort (MD 0.31, 95% CI -0.60 to 1.22; 4 studies, 662 participants, very low-certainty evidence), or to long-term comfort (MD 0.59, 95% CI -2.29 to 3.47; 2 studies, 445 participants, very low-certainty evidence). HFNC versus NIV or NIPPV We found no evidence of a difference between groups in treatment failure when HFNC were used post-extubation or without prior use of mechanical ventilation (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.22; 5 studies, 1758 participants; low-certainty evidence), or in-hospital mortality (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.31; 5 studies, 1758 participants; low-certainty evidence). We are very uncertain about the effect of using HFNC on incidence of pneumonia (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.52; 3 studies, 1750 participants; very low-certainty evidence), and HFNC may result in little or no difference to barotrauma (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.42 to 3.14; 1 study, 830 participants; low-certainty evidence). HFNC may make little or no difference to the length of ICU stay (MD -0.72 days, 95% CI -2.85 to 1.42; 2 studies, 246 participants; low-certainty evidence). The ratio of PaO2/FiO2 may be lower up to 24 hours with HFNC use (MD -58.10 mmHg, 95% CI -71.68 to -44.51; 3 studies, 1086 participants; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether HFNC improved short-term comfort when measured using comfort scores (MD 1.33, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.92; 2 studies, 258 participants) and responses to questionnaires (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.53; 1 study, 168 participants); evidence for short-term comfort was very low certainty. No studies reported on nasal mucosa or skin trauma. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: HFNC may lead to less treatment failure when compared to standard oxygen therapy, but probably makes little or no difference to treatment failure when compared to NIV or NIPPV. For most other review outcomes, we found no evidence of a difference in effect. However, the evidence was often of low or very low certainty. We found a large number of ongoing studies; including these in future updates could increase the certainty or may alter the direction of these effects.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Intubación/métodos , Terapia por Inhalación de Oxígeno/métodos , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/terapia , Enfermedad Aguda , Adulto , Barotrauma/epidemiología , Sesgo , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Intubación/efectos adversos , Intubación/instrumentación , Tiempo de Internación , Máscaras , Mucosa Nasal/lesiones , Ventilación no Invasiva/métodos , Terapia por Inhalación de Oxígeno/efectos adversos , Terapia por Inhalación de Oxígeno/instrumentación , Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente , Neumonía/epidemiología , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Respiración Artificial/efectos adversos , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4814, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112009

RESUMEN

Corticosteroids, anti-CD20 agents, immunotherapies, and cytotoxic chemotherapy are commonly used in the treatment of patients with cancer. It is unclear how these agents affect patients with cancer who are infected with SARS-CoV-2. We retrospectively investigated associations between SARS-CoV-2-associated respiratory failure or death with receipt of the aforementioned medications and with pre-COVID-19 neutropenia. The study included all cancer patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center until June 2, 2020 (N = 820). We controlled for cancer-related characteristics known to predispose to worse COVID-19 as well as level of respiratory support during corticosteroid administration. Corticosteroid administration was associated with worse outcomes prior to use of supplemental oxygen; no statistically significant difference was observed in sicker cohorts. In patients with metastatic thoracic cancer, 9 of 25 (36%) and 10 of 31 (32%) had respiratory failure or death among those who did and did not receive immunotherapy, respectively. Seven of 23 (30%) and 52 of 187 (28%) patients with hematologic cancer had respiratory failure or death among those who did and did not receive anti-CD20 therapy, respectively. Chemotherapy itself was not associated with worse outcomes, but pre-COVID-19 neutropenia was associated with worse COVID-19 course. Relative prevalence of chemotherapy-associated neutropenia in previous studies may account for different conclusions regarding the risks of chemotherapy in patients with COVID-19. In the absence of prospective studies and evidence-based guidelines, our data may aid providers looking to assess the risks and benefits of these agents in caring for cancer patients in the COVID-19 era.


Asunto(s)
Corticoesteroides/administración & dosificación , Antineoplásicos Inmunológicos/administración & dosificación , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Factores Inmunológicos/administración & dosificación , Anciano , /mortalidad , Femenino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidad , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neutropenia/tratamiento farmacológico , Neutropenia/mortalidad , Insuficiencia Respiratoria , Estudios Retrospectivos
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e210414, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111150

RESUMEN

Importance: Face masks have been associated with effective prevention of diffusion of viruses via droplets. However, the use of face masks among children, especially those aged younger than 3 years, is debated, and the US Centers for Disease Control and American Academy of Physicians recommend the use of face mask only among individuals aged 3 years or older. Objective: To examine whether the use of surgical facial masks among children is associated with episodes of oxygen desaturation or respiratory distress. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted from May through June 2020 in a secondary-level hospital pediatric unit in Italy. Included participants were 47 healthy children divided by age (ie, group A, aged ≤24 months, and group B, aged >24 months to ≤144 months). Data were analyzed from May through June 2020. Interventions: All participants were monitored every 15 minutes for changes in respiratory parameters for the first 30 minutes while not wearing a surgical face mask and for the next 30 minutes while wearing a face mask. Children aged 24 months and older then participated in a walking test for 12 minutes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in respiratory parameters during the use of surgical masks were evaluated. Results: Among 47 children, 22 children (46.8%) were aged 24 months or younger (ie, group A), with 11 boys (50.0%) and median (interquartile range [IQR]) age 12.5 (10.0-17.5) months, and 25 children (53.2%) were aged older than 24 months to 144 months or younger, with 13 boys (52.0%) and median (IQR) age 100.0 (72.0-120.0) months. During the first 60 minutes of evaluation in the 2 groups, there was no significant change in group A in median (IQR) partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (Petco2; 33.0 [32.0-34.0] mm Hg; P for Kruskal Wallis = .59), oxygen saturation (Sao2; 98.0% [97.0%-99.0%]; P for Kruskal Wallis = .61), pulse rate (PR; 130.0 [115.0-140.0] pulsations/min; P for Kruskal Wallis = .99), or respiratory rate (RR; 30.0 [28.0-33.0] breaths/min; P for Kruskal Wallis = .69) or for group B in median (IQR) Petco2 (36.0 [34.0-38.0] mm Hg; P for Kruskal Wallis = .97), Sao2 (98.0% [97.0%-98.0%]; P for Kruskal Wallis = .52), PR (96.0 [84.0-104.5] pulsations/min; P for Kruskal Wallis test = .48), or RR (22.0 [20.0-25.0] breaths/min; P for Kruskal Wallis = .55). After the group B walking test, compared with before the walking test, there was a significant increase in median (IQR) PR (96.0 [84.0-104.5] pulsations/min vs 105.0 [100.0-115.0] pulsations/min; P < .02) and RR (22.0 [20.0-25.0] breaths/min vs 26.0 [24.0-29.0] breaths/min; P < .05). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study among infants and young children in Italy found that the use of facial masks was not associated with significant changes in Sao2 or Petco2, including among children aged 24 months and younger.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Máscaras/efectos adversos , Pandemias , Respiración , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/etiología , Dióxido de Carbono/fisiología , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Italia , Masculino , Oxígeno/sangre , Oxígeno/fisiología , Presión Parcial , Pruebas de Función Respiratoria , Frecuencia Respiratoria
20.
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