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2.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 51, 2021 02 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069590

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 strain, was first identified in late 2019 in China. The outcomes of patients affected by the virus can worsen, developing acute respiratory failure and other serious complications, especially in older individuals and people with obesity and comorbidities. Thus, obese patients tend to have a more severe course of COVID-19. Thus, this review aims to synthesize the evidence in the literature that associates COVID-19 and the severity of clinical outcomes in infected obese patients. METHODS: This protocol was designed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols Statement. Scientific and gray literature will be systematically selected from PubMed/MEDLINE, Latin American Literature in Health Sciences, Online Scientific Electronic Library, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane. The selection of articles will be limited to studies published in English, Portuguese, and Spanish from December 2019 onwards. The main clinical outcomes will be clinical severity in obese patients with COVID-19 as tachypnea (respiratory rate, ≥ 30 breaths per minute), hypoxemia (oxygen saturation, ≤ 93%), the ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (< 300), lung infiltrate (> 50% of the lung field involved within 24-48 h), diagnosis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome, need of invasive mechanical ventilation, and mortality. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract data. Selection bias will be minimized by excluding studies published before December 2019. Conflicts will be resolved through a third reviewer and consensus-building. Moreover, findings will be reported using narrative synthesis and tabulation of the summaries. DISCUSSION: Given the need for early detection of the possible implications and treatment for patients with obesity diagnosed with COVID-19, the scoping review will be useful to capture the state of the current literature, identify the gaps, and make recommendations for future research for directing the conduct and optimization of therapies in these patients by the multiprofessional teams. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/xrkec.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Obesidad/complicaciones , Proyectos de Investigación , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(1)2021 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067710

RESUMEN

(1) Background: The present study aims to assess the level of professional burnout and secondary traumatic stress (STS), and to identify potential risk or protective factors among health care workers (HCWs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak.; (2) Methods: This cross-sectional study, based on an online survey, collected demographic data and mental distress outcomes from 184 HCWs from 1 May 2020, to 15 June 2020, from 45 different countries. The degree of STS, perceived stress and burnout was assessed using the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale (STSS), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Service Survey (MBI-HSS) respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to identify potential risk and protective factors for STS; (3) Results: 184 HCWs (M = 90; Age mean: 46.45; SD: 11.02) completed the survey. A considerable proportion of HCWs had symptoms of STS (41.3%), emotional exhaustion (56.0%), and depersonalization (48.9%). The prevalence of STS was 47.5% in frontline HCWs while in HCWs working in other units it was 30.3% (p < 0.023); 67.1% for the HCWs exposed to patients' death and 32.9% for those HCWs which were not exposed to the same condition (p < 0.001). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, perceived stress, emotional exhaustion, and exposure to patients' death remained as significant predictors in the final model for STS (adjusted R2 = 0.537, p < 0.001); (4) Conclusions: During the current COVID-19 pandemic, HCWs facing patients' physical pain, psychological suffering, and death are more likely to develop STS.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , Desgaste por Empatía , Personal de Salud/psicología , Pandemias , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Internacionalidad
4.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 9(1): 76, 2020 12 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067274

RESUMEN

In 2019, a conference in Israel showcased new frontiers in technology in healthcare, highlighting research conducted in Israel as well as across the globe. At the time, no one realized how critical-and ubiquitous-some of these technologies would become. In the wake of a global pandemic, the ability to provide healthcare remotely has become ever more important. We explore some Israeli innovations and consider how healthcare may be permanently changed.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Difusión de Innovaciones , Política de Salud , Informática Médica/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Israel , Pandemias
5.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(1): 114-122, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067145

RESUMEN

As a large international consortium of 26 countries and 110 higher-education institutions (HEIs), we successfully developed and executed an online student survey during or directly after the initial peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 International Student Well-being Study (C19 ISWS) is a cross-sectional multicountry study that collected data on higher-education students during the COVID-19 outbreak in the spring of 2020. The dataset allows description of: (1) living conditions, financial conditions, and academic workload before and during the COVID-19 outbreak; (2) the current level of mental well-being and effects on healthy lifestyles; (3) perceived stressors; (4) resources (e.g., social support and economic capital); (5) knowledge related to COVID-19; and (6) attitudes toward COVID-19 measures implemented by the government and relevant HEI. The dataset additionally includes information about COVID-19 measures taken by the government and HEI that were in place during the period of data collection. The collected data provide a comprehensive and comparative dataset on student well-being. In this article, we present the rationale for this study, the development and content of the survey, the methodology of data collection and sampling, and the limitations of the study. In addition, we highlight the opportunities that the dataset provides for advancing social science research on student well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic in varying policy contexts. Thus far, this is, to our knowledge, the first cross-country student well-being survey during the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in a unique dataset that enables high-priority socially relevant research.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Internacionalidad , Salud Mental , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063397

RESUMEN

Dental academic institutions are affected by COVID-19. We assessed the perceived COVID-19 preparedness of these institutions and the characteristics of institutions with greater perceived preparedness. An international cross-sectional survey of dental academics was conducted from March to August 2020 to assess academics' and institutional attributes, perceived preparedness, and availability of infection prevention and control (IPC) equipment. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified perceived preparedness components. Multilevel linear regression analysis assessed the association between perceived preparedness and fixed effect factors (academics' and institutions' attributes) with countries as random effect variable. Of the 1820 dental academics from 28 countries, 78.4% worked in public institutions and 75.2% reported temporary closure. PCA showed five components: clinic apparel, measures before and after patient care, institutional policies, and availability of IPC equipment. Significantly less perceived preparedness was reported in lower-middle income (LMICs) (B = -1.31, p = 0.006) and upper-middle income (UMICs) (B = -0.98, p = 0.02) countries than in high-income countries (HICs), in teaching only (B = -0.55, p < 0.0001) and in research only (B = -1.22, p = 0.003) than teaching and research institutions and in institutions receiving ≤100 patients daily than those receiving >100 patients (B = -0.38, p < 0.0001). More perceived preparedness was reported by academics with administrative roles (B = 0.59, p < 0.0001). Academics from low-income countries (LICs) and LMICs reported less availability of clinic apparel, IPC equipment, measures before patient care, and institutional policies but more measures during patient care. There was greater perceived preparedness in HICs and institutions with greater involvement in teaching, research, and patient care.


Asunto(s)
Control de Infecciones/organización & administración , Pandemias , Facultades de Odontología/organización & administración , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Internacionalidad
8.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(2): 138-147, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063300

RESUMEN

Objective: To assess the current state of national ethics committees and the challenges they face. Methods: We surveyed national ethics committees between 30 January and 21 February 2018. Findings: In total, representatives of 87 of 146 national ethics committees (59.6%) participated. The 84 countries covered were in all World Bank income categories and all World Health Organization regions. Many national ethics committees lack resources and face challenges in several domains, like independence, funding or efficacy. Only 40.2% (35/87) of committees expressed no concerns about independence. Almost a quarter (21/87) of committees did not make any ethics recommendations to their governments in 2017, and the median number of reports, opinions or recommendations issued was only two per committee Seventy-two (82.7%) national ethics committees included a philosopher or a bioethicist. Conclusion: National ethics (or bioethics) committees provide recommendations and guidance to governments and the public, thereby ensuring that public policies are informed by ethical concerns. Although the task is seemingly straightforward, implementation reveals numerous difficulties. Particularly in times of great uncertainty, such as during the current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, governments would be well advised to base their actions not only on technical considerations but also on the ethical guidance provided by a national ethics committee. We found that, if the advice of national ethics committees is to matter, they must be legally mandated, independent, diverse in membership, transparent and sufficiently funded to be effective and visible.


Asunto(s)
Bioética , Comités de Ética/organización & administración , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estudios Transversales , Gobierno , Humanos , Internacionalidad
10.
Front Public Health ; 8: 561198, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045492

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 outbreak has affected the sports field unprecedentedly. The emergency alert has deprived athletes of training in a suitable environment, as they are faced with cancellations of relevant events in their sports careers. This situation can cause stress levels and other emotional disorders similar to those experienced by athletes during periods of injury. Since the relationship between psychological factors and sports injuries is well-studied, the Global Psychological Model of Sports Injury (MGPLD) is applied to this historical situation for athletes. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between perfectionism and trait anxiety with indicators of mental health (mood, depression, state anxiety, and stress) in high-performance athletes during confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as to explore the coping strategies that athletes have applied and whether they are perceived as useful for managing negative emotional states. A cross-sectional study was conducted through online questionnaires during April 2020, adapting the Psychological Assessment Protocol of the High-Performance Sports Center of Murcia (Spain), to assess the psychological effects of confinement in a cross-cultural sample of 310 athletes (141 women and 169 men) from different countries in Europe, Asia, and America, and from diverse sports disciplines. The protocol comprised six instruments that test perfectionism, trait anxiety, mood states, stress, depression, coping strategies, and sleep. It was answered online via Google Forms. The results show that maladaptive perfectionism was related to all the indicators of athletes' mental health. However, athletes' levels of anxiety, stress, and depressive symptoms are relatively low, and the use of coping strategies such as cognitive restructuring and emotional calm was associated with lower levels of negative emotional states. Besides, the Iceberg Profile, a suitable fit for the mental health model, is observed in the mood of athletes, both in men and in women, although women showed higher levels of anxiety, stress, and depression than men. A strong relationship was observed between maladaptive perfectionism and martial arts sports discipline, superior to other sports. In short, it can be concluded that high-performance athletes in the studied sample showed negative emotional state values below the expected average. Finally, the proposals for practical applications of the results collected are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Atletas , Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Salud Mental , Personalidad , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Atletas/psicología , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Masculino , Perfeccionismo , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Front Public Health ; 8: 580619, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045486

RESUMEN

Due to its excessive capacity for human-to-human transmission, the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has now been declared a global public health emergency. Here we propose a simple model based on exponential infectious growth, but with a time-varying, largely damping, transmission rate. This model provides an excellent fit to the existing data for 46 countries with 10,000+ cases by 16 May 2020, five continents and the entire world. Hence, the model has largely captured the transmission patterns of the COVID-19 outbreak under a variety of intervention and control measures. The damping rate ranged from -0.0228 to 0.1669 d-1 globally (a negative damping rate represents acceleration in spread) and can greatly affect the duration of the outbreak and the eventual number of infections. Our model suggests that it is possible to defeat the COVID-19 pandemic by the end of 2020 through achieving a high damping rate (0.0615 d-1). However, the global damping rate is rather low (0.0504 d-1 before 26 April) and has dropped even further since late April (0.0168 d-1). Easing currently implemented control measures in countries with weak or no damping in transmission could lead to an exponential rebound of COVID-19 spread.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Internacionalidad , Modelos Estadísticos , Humanos , Salud Pública
18.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(11): 1721-1726, 2020 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024117

RESUMEN

Global pandemics call for large and diverse healthcare data to study various risk factors, treatment options, and disease progression patterns. Despite the enormous efforts of many large data consortium initiatives, scientific community still lacks a secure and privacy-preserving infrastructure to support auditable data sharing and facilitate automated and legally compliant federated analysis on an international scale. Existing health informatics systems do not incorporate the latest progress in modern security and federated machine learning algorithms, which are poised to offer solutions. An international group of passionate researchers came together with a joint mission to solve the problem with our finest models and tools. The SCOR Consortium has developed a ready-to-deploy secure infrastructure using world-class privacy and security technologies to reconcile the privacy/utility conflicts. We hope our effort will make a change and accelerate research in future pandemics with broad and diverse samples on an international scale.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Seguridad Computacional , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Difusión de la Información , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Privacidad , Humanos , Difusión de la Información/ética , Internacionalidad , Aprendizaje Automático
20.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e046620, 2020 12 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004175

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Essential healthcare workers (HCW) uniquely serve as both COVID-19 healers and, potentially, as carriers of SARS-CoV-2. We assessed COVID-19-related stigma and bullying against HCW controlling for social, psychological, medical and community variables. DESIGN: We nested an analytical cross-sectional study of COVID-19-related stigma and bullying among HCW within a larger mixed-methods effort assessing COVID-19-related lived experience and impact. Adjusted OR (aOR) and 95% CIs evaluated the association between working in healthcare settings and experience of COVID-19-related bullying and stigma, controlling for confounders. Thematic qualitative analysis provided insight into lived experience of COVID-19-related bullying. SETTING: We recruited potential participants in four languages (English, Spanish, French, Italian) through Amazon Mechanical Turk's online workforce and Facebook. PARTICIPANTS: Our sample included 7411 people from 173 countries who were aged 18 years or over. FINDINGS: HCW significantly experienced more COVID-19-related bullying after controlling for the confounding effects of job-related, personal, geographic and sociocultural variables (aOR: 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0). HCW more frequently believed that people gossip about others with COVID-19 (OR: 2.2; 95% CI 1.9 to 2.6) and that people with COVID-19 lose respect in the community (OR: 2.3; 95% CI 2.0 to 2.7), both which elevate bullying risk (OR: 2.7; 95% CI 2.3 to 3.2, and OR: 3.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 4.2, respectively). The lived experience of COVID-19-related bullying relates frequently to public identities as HCW traverse through the community, intersecting with other domains (eg, police, racism, violence). INTERPRETATION: After controlling for a range of confounding factors, HCW are significantly more likely to experience COVID-19-related stigma and bullying, often in the intersectional context of racism, violence and police involvement in community settings.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar , Personal de Salud , Estrés Laboral/epidemiología , Racismo , Estigma Social , Violencia , Adulto , Acoso Escolar/prevención & control , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , /prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Salud Global , Personal de Salud/psicología , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Masculino , Racismo/prevención & control , Racismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia/legislación & jurisprudencia , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos
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