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1.
Vaccine ; 38(35): 5564-5568, 2020 07 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-650590

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is affecting different countries all over the world with great variation in infection rate and death ratio. Some reports suggested a relation between the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and the malaria treatment to the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Some reports related infant's lower susceptibility to the COVID-19. Some other reports a higher risk in males compared to females in such COVID-19 pandemic. Also, some other reports claimed the possible use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as prophylactic in such a pandemic. The present commentary is to discuss the possible relation between those factors and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Vacuna BCG/inmunología , Quimioprevención , Cloroquina/farmacología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Caracteres Sexuales , Antivirales/farmacología , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Cloroquina/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/inmunología , Femenino , Mapeo Geográfico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Lactante , Internacionalidad , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión
3.
BMJ ; 370: m2743, 2020 07 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-645530

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between physical distancing interventions and incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) globally. DESIGN: Natural experiment using interrupted time series analysis, with results synthesised using meta-analysis. SETTING: 149 countries or regions, with data on daily reported cases of covid-19 from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and data on the physical distancing policies from the Oxford covid-19 Government Response Tracker. PARTICIPANTS: Individual countries or regions that implemented one of the five physical distancing interventions (closures of schools, workplaces, and public transport, restrictions on mass gatherings and public events, and restrictions on movement (lockdowns)) between 1 January and 30 May 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of covid-19 before and after implementation of physical distancing interventions, estimated using data to 30 May 2020 or 30 days post-intervention, whichever occurred first. IRRs were synthesised across countries using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: On average, implementation of any physical distancing intervention was associated with an overall reduction in covid-19 incidence of 13% (IRR 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 0.89; n=149 countries). Closure of public transport was not associated with any additional reduction in covid-19 incidence when the other four physical distancing interventions were in place (pooled IRR with and without public transport closure was 0.85, 0.82 to 0.88; n=72, and 0.87, 0.84 to 0.91; n=32, respectively). Data from 11 countries also suggested similar overall effectiveness (pooled IRR 0.85, 0.81 to 0.89) when school closures, workplace closures, and restrictions on mass gatherings were in place. In terms of sequence of interventions, earlier implementation of lockdown was associated with a larger reduction in covid-19 incidence (pooled IRR 0.86, 0.84 to 0.89; n=105) compared with a delayed implementation of lockdown after other physical distancing interventions were in place (pooled IRR 0.90, 0.87 to 0.94; n=41). CONCLUSIONS: Physical distancing interventions were associated with reductions in the incidence of covid-19 globally. No evidence was found of an additional effect of public transport closure when the other four physical distancing measures were in place. Earlier implementation of lockdown was associated with a larger reduction in the incidence of covid-19. These findings might support policy decisions as countries prepare to impose or lift physical distancing measures in current or future epidemic waves.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Aislamiento Social , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Incidencia , Internacionalidad , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido
7.
Vaccine ; 38(35): 5564-5568, 2020 07 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622017

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is affecting different countries all over the world with great variation in infection rate and death ratio. Some reports suggested a relation between the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and the malaria treatment to the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Some reports related infant's lower susceptibility to the COVID-19. Some other reports a higher risk in males compared to females in such COVID-19 pandemic. Also, some other reports claimed the possible use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as prophylactic in such a pandemic. The present commentary is to discuss the possible relation between those factors and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Vacuna BCG/inmunología , Quimioprevención , Cloroquina/farmacología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Caracteres Sexuales , Antivirales/farmacología , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Cloroquina/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/inmunología , Femenino , Mapeo Geográfico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Lactante , Internacionalidad , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión
10.
Global Health ; 16(1): 51, 2020 06 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613024

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has ushered in a new climate of uncertainty which is fuelling protectionism and playing into nationalist narratives. Globalisation is under significant threat as governments scramble to reduce their vulnerability to the virus by limiting global trade and flows of people. With the imposition of border closures and strict migration measures, there have been major disruptions in Africa's global supply chains with adverse impacts on employment and poverty. The African economies overly reliant on single export-orientated industries, such as oil and gas, are expected to be severely hit. This situation is further aggravated by tumbling oil prices and a lowered global demand for African non-oil products. The agricultural sector, which should buffer these shocks, is also being affected by the enforcement of lockdowns which threaten people's livelihoods and food security. Lockdowns may not be the answer in Africa and the issue of public health pandemic response will need to be addressed by enacting context-specific policies which should be implemented in a humane way. In addressing the socioeconomic impact of COVID-19 on African nations, we argue that governments should prioritize social protection programmes to provide people with resources to maintain economic productivity while limiting job losses. International funders are committing assistance to Africa for this purpose, but generally as loans (adding to debt burdens) rather than as grants. G20 agreement so suspend debt payments for a year will help, but is insufficient to fiscal need. Maintaining cross-border trade and cooperation to continue generating public revenues is desirable. New strategies for diversifying African economies and limiting their dependence on external funding by promoting trade with a more regionalised (continental) focus as promoted by the African Continental Free Trade Agreement, while not without limitations, should be explored. While it is premature to judge the final economic and death toll of COVID-19, African leaders' response to the pandemic, and the support they receive from wealthier nations, will determine its eventual outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Internacionalidad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , África/epidemiología , Comercio/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16118-16120, 2020 07 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612671

RESUMEN

Based on harmonized census data from 81 countries, we estimate how age and coresidence patterns shape the vulnerability of countries' populations to outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We estimate variation in deaths arising due to a simulated random infection of 10% of the population living in private households and subsequent within-household transmission of the virus. The age structures of European and North American countries increase their vulnerability to COVID-related deaths in general. The coresidence patterns of elderly persons in Africa and parts of Asia increase these countries' vulnerability to deaths induced by within-household transmission of COVID-19. Southern European countries, which have aged populations and relatively high levels of intergenerational coresidence, are, all else equal, the most vulnerable to outbreaks of COVID-19. In a second step, we estimate to what extent avoiding primary infections for specific age groups would prevent subsequent deaths due to within-household transmission of the virus. Preventing primary infections among the elderly is the most effective in countries with small households and little intergenerational coresidence, such as France, whereas confining younger age groups can have a greater impact in countries with large and intergenerational households, such as Bangladesh.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Composición Familiar , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Internacionalidad , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Características de la Residencia , Adulto Joven
12.
Med Educ Online ; 25(1): 1783784, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607032

RESUMEN

The repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic for medical students are enormous and not limited to the interruption of courses in medical schools and/or hospital training rotations, the introduction of teaching exclusively online, postponement of examinations, and of the new academic year, but extend beyond that. The mobility of students within the framework of the International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) is also strongly affected by the unexpected interruption of this program and the deprivation of thousands of students worldwide of this fine opportunity for training, exchange and sharing. The International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) was founded in 1951 and currently maintains 135 National Member Organizations (NMOs) from 125 countries, representing a network of 1.3 million medical students around the globe. Moroccan students, members of IFMSA like students from other countries, are also concerned. Clinical and research exchanges, carried out under the auspices of the IFMSA, allow all the students to discover the health care and medical education systems of another country in a different sociocultural environment. To maintain student motivation and deal with the repercussions of cancelled exchanges, IFMSA could propose online training programs, adapted to student needs during this period of confinement and deconfinement from June to September 2020.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Internacionalidad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Sociedades Médicas/organización & administración , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudiantes de Medicina
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(11)2020 06 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-536771

RESUMEN

Virus outbreaks are threats to humanity, and coronaviruses are the latest of many epidemics in the last few decades in the world. SARS-CoV (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Associated Coronavirus) is a member of the coronavirus family, so its study is useful for relevant virus data research. In this work, we conduct a proposed approach that is non-medical/clinical, generate graphs from five features of the SARS outbreak data in five countries and regions, and offer insights from a visual analysis perspective. The results show that prevention measures such as quarantine are the most common control policies used, and areas with strict measures did have fewer peak period days; for instance, Hong Kong handled the outbreak better than other areas. Data conflict issues found with this approach are discussed as well. Visual analysis is also proved to be a useful technique to present the SARS outbreak data at this stage; furthermore, we are proceeding to apply a similar methodology with more features to future COVID-19 research from a visual analysis perfective.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de Datos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Internacionalidad , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/prevención & control , Conferencias de Consenso como Asunto , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Control de Infecciones , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/transmisión , Factores de Tiempo , Organización Mundial de la Salud
16.
Head Neck ; 42(7): 1382-1385, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-529129

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented need for critical care intervention. Prolonged intubation and mechanical ventilation has resulted in the need for tracheostomy in some patients. The purpose of this international survey was to assess optimal timing, technique and outcome for this intervention. METHODS: An online survey was generated. Otorhinolaryngologists from both the United Kingdom and Abroad were polled with regards to their experience of tracheostomy in COVID-19 positive ventilated patients. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 50 respondents from 16 nations. The number of ventilated patients totalled 3403, on average 9.7% required a tracheostomy. This was on average performed on day 14 following intubation. The majority of patients were successfully weaned (mean 7.4 days following tracheostomy). CONCLUSION: The results of this brief survey suggest that tracheostomy is of benefit in selected patients. There was insufficient data to suggest improved outcomes with either percutaneous vs an open surgical technique.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Traqueostomía/métodos , Manejo de la Vía Aérea/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Femenino , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Internacionalidad , Internet , Intubación Intratraqueal/métodos , Masculino , Otolaringología/métodos , Respiración Artificial/métodos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Traqueotomía/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Reino Unido
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20137, 2020 May 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-488132

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The infectious pneumonia caused by the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, from December 2019 and spread the whole country and even other 24 countries. Coronavirus research is of significance to overcome the epidemic. Our study aims to investigate the global status and trends of coronavirus research. METHOD: Publications related to the studies of coronavirus research from January 1, 2003 to February 6, 2020 were retrieved from the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-E) of the Web of Science database. A total of 9294 publications were included. The data source was studied and indexed by bibliometric methodology. For visualized study, bibliographic coupling analysis, co-authorship analysis, co-citation analysis, co-occurrence analysis and the analysis of publication trends in coronavirus research were conducted by VOS (visualization of similarities) viewer and GraphPadPrism 6 software. RESULTS: The number of publications about coronavirus research increased sharply in 2004 for SARS outbreak and increased again in 2012 for MERS outbreak. The USA made the highest contributions to the global research with the most total number of publications, total citation frequency, and the highest H-index, while Netherlands had the highest average citation per item. Journal of Virology had the largest publication numbers. The University of Hong Kong is the most contributive institution with the most publications. The main research orientation and funding agency were virology and United States Department of Health Human Services. Keywords of all related studies could be divided into 4 clusters: "Pathological research," "Epidemiology research," "Clinical research," and "Mechanism research." CONCLUSIONS: The outbreak of the epidemic could promote coronavirus research, meanwhile, coronavirus research contributes to overcoming the epidemic. Attention should be drawn to the latest popular research, including "Spike protein," "Receptor binding domain," and "Vaccine." Therefore, more and more efforts will be put into mechanism research and vaccine research and development, which can be helpful to deal with the epidemic.


Asunto(s)
Bibliometría , Investigación Biomédica/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación Biomédica/tendencias , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Internacionalidad
20.
MEDICC Rev ; 22(2): 14-18, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-483597

RESUMEN

The current pandemic has rocked the lives of human beings every-where in ways never imagined, forcing us to question where our civilization is headed. In this article, we explore and discuss scien-tifi c evidence that helps explain recent events in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.COVID-19 is caused by infection with a zoonotic-origin novel virus, SARS-CoV-2, that is genetically close to two coronavirus types iso-lated in bats. The transmission dynamics to humans from the original and intermediary hosts remain poorly understood, but it is highly likely that the SARS-CoV-2 virus infected humans after undergoing an inter-species transfer from bats to an intermediate species, and from there to human beings. Crossing the species barrier is largely fostered by industrial-scale agricultural practices that simplify original ecosystem connections by reducing biodiversity, facilitating the emergence of new infectious diseases. The scientifi c community has played an exemplary role in responding to this global emergency, working to fi nd timely, relevant solutions for governments and society as a whole. We need to take this opportunity to promote a global and open science that delves into the interrelation-ships of the biological, environmental, social and economic dimen-sions of this and other diseases while questioning current modes of production and their impact on the environment, and thus on human health worldwide. Keywords: Coronavirus infections; communicable diseases; zoonoses; ecosystems; technology, industry, and agriculture; pandemics; global health; Mexico.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Investigación Biomédica , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Internacionalidad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Humanos
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