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1.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 37(4): 232-236, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180679

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to describe the clinical characteristics of febrile infants younger than 90 days with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, to investigate the prevalence of serious bacterial infections (SBIs) in these infants, and to compare the risk of SBI in SARS-CoV-2-positive febrile infants with sex- and age-matched SARS-CoV- 2-negative febrile infants. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted from March to November 2020 in a tertiary children's hospital. Patients were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes and included if age was younger than 90 days, a SARS-CoV-2 test was performed, and at least 1 bacterial culture was collected. Positive cases of SARS-CoV-2 were age- and sex-matched to negative controls for analysis. Serious bacterial infection was defined as a urinary tract infection, bacterial enteritis, bacteremia, and/or bacterial meningitis. RESULTS: Fifty-three SARS-CoV-2-positive infants were identified with a higher rate of respiratory symptoms and lower white blood cell and C-reactive protein values than their SARS-CoV-2 matched controls. The rate of SBI in the SARS-CoV-2-positive infants was 8% compared with 34% in the controls; the most common infections were urinary tract infections (6% vs 23%). There were no cases of bacteremia or bacterial meningitis in the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) infants and 2 (4%) cases of bacteremia in the controls. The relative risk of any SBI between the 2 groups was 0.22 (95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.6; P ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that febrile infants younger than 90 days with COVID-19 have lower rates of SBI than their matched SARS-CoV-2-negative controls. These data are consistent with previous studies describing lower risks of SBI in febrile infants with concomitant viral respiratory tract infections.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/etiología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
2.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175190

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: History of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) may influence the prognosis of patients hospitalised for COVID-19. We investigated whether patients with previous CVD have increased risk of death and major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) when hospitalised for COVID-19. METHODS: We included 839 patients with COVID-19 hospitalised at the University Hospitals of Geneva. Demographic characteristics, medical history, laboratory values, ECG at admission and medications at admission were collected based on electronic medical records. The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality or MACE. RESULTS: Median age was 67 years, 453 (54%) were males and 277 (33%) had history of CVD. In total, 152 (18%) died and 687 (82%) were discharged, including 72 (9%) who survived a MACE. Patients with previous CVD were more at risk of composite outcomes 141/277 (51%) compared with those without CVD 83/562 (15%) (OR=6.0 (95% CI 4.3 to 8.4), p<0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that history of CVD remained an independent risk factor of in-hospital death or MACE (OR=2.4; (95% CI 1.6 to 3.5)), as did age (OR for a 10-year increase=2.2 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.6)), male gender (OR=1.6 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.3)), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR=2.1 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.2)) and lung infiltration associated with COVID-19 at CT scan (OR=1.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.0)). History of CVD (OR=2.9 (95% CI 1.7 to 5)), age (OR=2.5 (95% CI 2.0 to 3.2)), male gender (OR=1.6 (95% CI 0.98 to 2.6)) and elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels on admission (OR for a 10 mg/L increase=1.1 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.2)) were independent risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: History of CVD is associated with higher in-hospital mortality and MACE in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. Other factors associated with higher in-hospital mortality are older age, male sex and elevated CRP on admission.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Hospitalización , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /terapia , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/terapia , Causas de Muerte , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Suiza , Factores de Tiempo
5.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248357, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169999

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic disease that can rapidly progress into acute respiratory failure and death. Timely identification of these patients is crucial for a proper administration of health-care resources. OBJECTIVE: To develop a predictive score that estimates the risk of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) among patients with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of 401 COVID-19 patients diagnosed from March 12, to August 10, 2020. The score development cohort comprised 211 patients (52.62% of total sample) whereas the validation cohort included 190 patients (47.38% of total sample). We divided participants according to the need of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and looked for potential predictive variables. RESULTS: We developed two predictive scores, one based on Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the other one on the Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio (NLR), using the following variables: respiratory rate, SpO2/FiO2 ratio and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). The area under the curve (AUC) in the development cohort was 0.877 (0.823-0.931) using the NLR based score and 0.891 (0.843-0.939) using the IL-6 based score. When compared with other similar scores developed for the prediction of adverse outcomes in COVID-19, the COVID-IRS scores proved to be superior in the prediction of IMV. CONCLUSION: The COVID-IRS scores accurately predict the need for mechanical ventilation in COVID-19 patients using readily available variables taken upon admission. More studies testing the applicability of COVID-IRS in other centers and populations, as well as its performance as a triage tool for COVID-19 patients are needed.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Hospitalización , Intubación , Respiración Artificial , Adulto , Anciano , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , México , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/patología , Frecuencia Respiratoria , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Triaje
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(13): 483-489, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168278

RESUMEN

Long-standing systemic social, economic, and environmental inequities in the United States have put many communities of color (racial and ethnic minority groups) at increased risk for exposure to and infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, as well as more severe COVID-19-related outcomes (1-3). Because race and ethnicity are missing for a proportion of reported COVID-19 cases, counties with substantial missing information often are excluded from analyses of disparities (4). Thus, as a complement to these case-based analyses, population-based studies can help direct public health interventions. Using data from the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC), CDC identified counties where five racial and ethnic minority groups (Hispanic or Latino [Hispanic], non-Hispanic Black or African American [Black], non-Hispanic Asian [Asian], non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native [AI/AN], and non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander [NH/PI]) might have experienced high COVID-19 impact during April 1-December 22, 2020. These counties had high 2-week COVID-19 incidences (>100 new cases per 100,000 persons in the total population) and percentages of persons in five racial and ethnic groups that were larger than the national percentages (denoted as "large"). During April 1-14, a total of 359 (11.4%) of 3,142 U.S. counties reported high COVID-19 incidence, including 28.7% of counties with large percentages of Asian persons and 27.9% of counties with large percentages of Black persons. During August 5-18, high COVID-19 incidence was reported by 2,034 (64.7%) counties, including 92.4% of counties with large percentages of Black persons and 74.5% of counties with large percentages of Hispanic persons. During December 9-22, high COVID-19 incidence was reported by 3,114 (99.1%) counties, including >95% of those with large percentages of persons in each of the five racial and ethnic minority groups. The findings of this population-based analysis complement those of case-based analyses. In jurisdictions with substantial missing race and ethnicity information, this method could be applied to smaller geographic areas, to identify communities of color that might be experiencing high potential COVID-19 impact. As areas with high rates of new infection change over time, public health efforts can be tailored to the needs of communities of color as the pandemic evolves and integrated with longer-term plans to improve health equity.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Minoritarios/estadística & datos numéricos , /etnología , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , Medición de Riesgo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(3)2021 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167649

RESUMEN

The current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic warrants an imperative necessity for effective and safe vaccination, to restrain Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) including transmissibility, morbidity, and mortality. In this regard, intensive medical and biological research leading to the development of an arsenal of vaccines, albeit incomplete preconditioned evaluation, due to emergency. The subsequent scientific gap raises some concerns in the medical community and the general public. More specifically, the accelerated vaccine development downgraded the value of necessary pre-clinical studies to elicit medium- and long-term beneficial or harmful consequences. Previous experience and pathophysiological background of coronaviruses' infections and vaccine technologies, combined with the global vaccines' application, underlined the obligation of a cautious and qualitative approach, to illuminate potential vaccination-related adverse events. Moreover, the high SARS-CoV-2 mutation potential and the already aggregated genetical alterations provoke a rational vagueness and uncertainty concerning vaccines' efficacy against dominant strains and the respective clinical immunity. This review critically summarizes existing evidence and queries regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, to motivate scientists' and clinicians' interest for an optimal, individualized, and holistic management of this unprecedented pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/uso terapéutico , /prevención & control , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Autoinmunes/inducido químicamente , Aprobación de Drogas , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Juramento Hipocrático , Humanos , Efectos Adversos a Largo Plazo/inducido químicamente , Modelos Animales , Medición de Riesgo , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados/uso terapéutico , Vacunas Sintéticas/uso terapéutico
10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(4): 47002, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166983

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence for indoor airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is accumulating. OBJECTIVES: We assessed of the risk of illness due to airborne SARS-CoV-2 particles from breathing, speaking, singing, coughing, and sneezing in indoor environments. METHODS: A risk assessment model, AirCoV2, for exposure to SARS-CoV-2 particles in aerosol droplets was developed. Previously published data on droplets expelled by breathing, speaking, singing, coughing, and sneezing by an infected person were used as inputs. Scenarios encompassed virus concentration, exposure time, and ventilation. Newly collected data of virus RNA copies in mucus from patients are presented. RESULTS: The expelled volume of aerosols was highest for a sneeze, followed by a cough, singing, speaking, and breathing. After 20 min of exposure, at 107 RNA copies/mL in mucus, all mean illness risks were largely estimated to be below 0.001, except for the "high" sneeze scenario. At virus concentrations above 108 RNA copies/mL, and after 2 h of exposure, in the high and "low" sneeze scenarios, the high cough scenario and the singing scenario, risks exceeded 0.01 and may become very high, whereas the low coughing scenario, the high and low speaking scenarios and the breathing scenario remained below 0.1. After 2 h of exposure, singing became the second highest risk scenario. One air exchange per hour reduced risk of illness by about a factor of 2. Six air exchanges per hour reduced risks of illness by a factor of 8-13 for the sneeze and cough scenarios and by a factor of 4-9 for the other scenarios. DISCUSSION: The large variation in the volume of expelled aerosols is discussed. The model calculations indicated that SARS-CoV-2 transmission via aerosols outside of the 1.5-m social distancing norm can occur. Virus concentrations in aerosols and/or the amount of expelled aerosol droplets need to be high for substantial transmission via this route. AirCoV2 is made available as interactive computational tool. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7886.


Asunto(s)
Aerosoles , Pandemias/prevención & control , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Microbiología del Aire , Tos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Humanos , Canto , Estornudo
11.
Virol J ; 18(1): 67, 2021 03 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166917

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Risk scores are needed to predict the risk of death in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in the context of rapid disease progression. METHODS: Using data from China (training dataset, n = 96), prediction models were developed by logistic regression and then risk scores were established. Leave-one-out cross validation was used for internal validation and data from Iran (test dataset, n = 43) was used for external validation. RESULTS: A NSL model (area under the curve (AUC) 0.932) and a NL model (AUC 0.903) were developed based on neutrophil percentage and lactate dehydrogenase with and without oxygen saturation (SaO2) using the training dataset. AUCs of the NSL and NL models in the test dataset were 0.910 and 0.871, respectively. The risk scoring systems corresponding to these two models were established. The AUCs of the NSL and NL scores in the training dataset were 0.928 and 0.901, respectively. At the optimal cut-off value of NSL score, the sensitivity and specificity were 94% and 82%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of NL score were 94% and 75%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These scores may be used to predict the risk of death in severe COVID-19 patients and the NL score could be used in regions where patients' SaO2 cannot be tested.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa/sangre , Modelos Teóricos , Neutrófilos/citología , Oxígeno/sangre , Anciano , China , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Irán , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo
13.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166562

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the prevalence and outcome of occult infection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza in patients presenting with myocardial infarction (MI) without COVID-19 symptoms. METHODS: We conducted an observational study from 28 June to 11 August 2020, enrolling patients admitted to the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh, with ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) or non-ST-segment elevation MI who did not meet WHO criteria for suspected COVID-19. Samples were collected by nasopharyngeal swab to test for SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. We followed up patients at 3 months (13 weeks) postadmission to record adverse cardiovascular outcomes: all-cause death, new MI, heart failure and new percutaneous coronary intervention or stent thrombosis. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: We enrolled 280 patients with MI, 79% male, mean age 54.5±11.8 years, 140 of whom were diagnosed with STEMI. We found 36 (13%) to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 and 1 with influenza. There was no significant difference between mortality rate observed among SARS-CoV-2 infected patients compared with non-infected (5 (14%) vs 26 (11%); p=0.564). A numerically shorter median time to a recurrent cardiovascular event was recorded among SARS-CoV-2 infected compared with non-infected patients (21 days, IQR: 8-46 vs 27 days, IQR: 7-44; p=0.378). CONCLUSION: We found a substantial rate of occult SARS-CoV-2 infection in the studied cohort, suggesting SARS-CoV-2 may precipitate MI. Asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 admitted with MI may contribute to disease transmission and warrants widespread testing of hospital admissions.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infarto del Miocardio sin Elevación del ST/epidemiología , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Diagnosticadas , Adulto , Anciano , Bangladesh/epidemiología , /mortalidad , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infarto del Miocardio sin Elevación del ST/diagnóstico , Infarto del Miocardio sin Elevación del ST/mortalidad , Infarto del Miocardio sin Elevación del ST/terapia , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Prevalencia , Pronóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Recurrencia , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/diagnóstico , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/mortalidad , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/terapia , Factores de Tiempo
15.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol ; 72(1): 36-41, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1161088

RESUMEN

Healthcare workers (HCWs) are considered to run a higher occupational risk of becoming infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and develop coronavirus disease (COVID-19) than the rest of the population. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the characteristics of work-related COVID-19 in Croatian HCWs. Study participants were HCWs who contacted their occupational physician between 1 May 2020 and 12 November 2020 with a request for the registration of COVID-19 as an occupational disease. All participants filled out our online Occupational COVID-19 in Healthcare Workers Questionnaire. The study included 59 HCWs (median age 45.0, interquartile range 36.0-56.0 years). Most (78 %) were nurses or laboratory technicians, and almost all (94.9 %) worked in hospitals. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed three clusters of COVID-19-related symptoms: 1) elevated body temperature with general weakness and fatigue, 2) diarrhoea, and 3) headache, muscle and joint pain, anosmia, ageusia, and respiratory symptoms (nasal symptoms, burning throat, cough, dyspnoea, tachypnoea). Almost half (44.6 %) reported comorbidities. Only those with chronic pulmonary conditions were more often hospitalised than those without respiratory disorders (57.1 % vs. 2.5 %, respectively; P=0.001). Our findings suggest that work-related COVID-19 among Croatian HCWs is most common in hospital nurses/laboratory technicians and takes a mild form, with symptoms clustering around three clinical phenotypes: general symptoms of acute infection, specific symptoms including neurological (anosmia, ageusia) and respiratory symptoms, and diarrhoea as a separate symptom. They also support evidence from other studies that persons with chronic pulmonary conditions are at higher risk for developing severe forms of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Croacia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
17.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 158, 2021 03 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159221

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The cause-and-effect relationship of QTc prolongation in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has not been studied well. OBJECTIVE: We attempt to better understand the relationship of QTc prolongation in COVID-19 patients in this study. METHODS: This is a retrospective, hospital-based, observational study. All patients with normal baseline QTc interval who were hospitalized with the diagnosis of COVID-19 infection at two hospitals in Ohio, USA were included in this study. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients had QTc prolongation, and 210 patients continued to have normal QTc during hospitalization. The baseline QTc intervals were comparable in the two groups. Patients with QTc prolongation were older (mean age 67 vs. 60, P 0.003), more likely to have underlying cardiovascular disease (48% versus 26%, P 0.001), ischemic heart disease (29% versus 17%, P 0.026), congestive heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (16% versus 8%, P 0.042), chronic kidney disease (23% versus 10%, P 0.005), and end-stage renal disease (12% versus 1%, P < 0.001). Patients with QTc prolongation were more likely to have received hydroxychloroquine (75% versus 59%, P 0.018), azithromycin (18% vs. 14%, P 0.034), a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (29% vs 7%, P < 0.001), more than 1 QT prolonging agents (59% vs. 32%, P < 0.001). Patients who were on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) were less likely to develop QTc prolongation (11% versus 26%, P 0.014). QTc prolongation was not associated with increased ventricular arrhythmias or mortality. CONCLUSION: Older age, ESRD, underlying cardiovascular disease, potential virus mediated cardiac injury, and drugs like hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin, contribute to QTc prolongation in COVID-19 patients. The role of ACEi in preventing QTc prolongation in COVID-19 patients needs to be studied further.


Asunto(s)
/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Electrocardiografía , Síndrome de QT Prolongado , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Anciano , /complicaciones , /fisiopatología , Comorbilidad , Correlación de Datos , Electrocardiografía/métodos , Electrocardiografía/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Síndrome de QT Prolongado/diagnóstico , Síndrome de QT Prolongado/epidemiología , Síndrome de QT Prolongado/etiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Análisis de Supervivencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1942, 2021 03 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157906

RESUMEN

In early 2020 many countries closed schools to mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Since then, governments have sought to relax the closures, engendering a need to understand associated risks. Using address records, we construct a network of schools in England connected through pupils who share households. We evaluate the risk of transmission between schools under different reopening scenarios. We show that whilst reopening select year-groups causes low risk of large-scale transmission, reopening secondary schools could result in outbreaks affecting up to 2.5 million households if unmitigated, highlighting the importance of careful monitoring and within-school infection control to avoid further school closures or other restrictions.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Composición Familiar , Instituciones Académicas/organización & administración , Adolescente , /virología , Niño , Preescolar , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos
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