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1.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 26(4): 309-312, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172669

RESUMEN

This column anticipates challenges likely to be faced by psychotherapists and their patients after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic subsides. It looks beyond the current impact of loneliness, isolation, thwarted belongingness, and loss toward the longer term impact of moral injury and blocked opportunities for mourning.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pesar , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Psicoterapia , Sobrevivientes , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/psicología
4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(3)2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146196

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We characterised the impact of COVID-19 on the socioeconomic conditions, access to gender affirmation services and mental health outcomes in a sample of global transgender (trans) and non-binary populations. METHODS: Between 16 April 2020 and 3 August 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with a global sample of trans and non-binary people (n=849) through an online social networking app. We conducted structural equational modelling procedures to determine direct, indirect and overall effects between poor mental health (ie, depression and anxiety) and latent variables across socioecological levels: social (ie, reduction in gender affirming services, socioeconomic loss impact) and environmental factors (ie, COVID-19 pandemic environment). RESULTS: Anxiety (45.82%) and depression (50.88%) in this sample were prevalent and directly linked to COVID-19 pandemic environment. Adjusted for gender identity, age, migrant status, region, education and level of socioeconomic status, our final model showed significant positive associations between relationships of (1) COVID-19 pandemic environment and socioeconomic loss impact (ß=0.62, p<0.001), (2) socioeconomic loss impact and reduction in gender affirming services (ß=0.24, p<0.05) and (3) reduction in gender affirming services and poor mental health (ß=0.19, p<0.05). Moreover, socioeconomic loss impact and reduction in gender affirming services were found to be partial mediators in this model. CONCLUSION: The study results supported the importance of bolstering access to gender affirming services and strengthening socioeconomic opportunities and programmatic support to buffer the impact of COVID-19 pandemic environment on poor mental health among trans and non-binary communities globally.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Pandemias/economía , Personas Transgénero/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Prevalencia , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Factores Socioeconómicos
8.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(2): 327-334, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128199

RESUMEN

Since December 2019, 414,179 cases of people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported. As a result of the rapid increase in confirmed cases and deaths, population and health personnel, have experienced psychological problems, such as anxiety, depression, and stress. Although scientific information on COVID-19 is constantly increasing, it mainly focuses on genetic, epidemiological aspects, and public health measures, leaving aside possible effects on mental health. In order to summarize the current evidence, we present a narrative review of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. So far, the presence of anxiety, depression, and stress has been reported mostly in general population. Nonetheless, mental health issues have also been reported in health care workers, especially among female professionals, nurses, and those who work directly with suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19. In efforts to reduce the spread of the disease, attention should be paid to the diagnosis and treatment of mental health issues. We believe that addressing them adequately will empower Peru to contain and eradicate COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Salud Mental , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Perú/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 130, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106476

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has strained health care systems beyond capacity resulting in many people not having access to life-sustaining measures even in well-resourced countries. Palliative and end-of-life care are therefore essential to alleviate suffering and ensure a continuum of care for patients unlikely to survive. This is challenging in sub-Saharan Africa where lack of trained teams on basic palliative care and reduced access to opioids limit implementation of palliative and end-of-life care. At the same time, health care providers have to cope with local cultural conceptions of death and absence of advance care directives.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos/organización & administración , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Cuidado Terminal/organización & administración , Directivas Anticipadas , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Analgésicos Opioides/provisión & distribución , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Actitud Frente a la Muerte , Barreras de Comunicación , Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Cultura , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/psicología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/tratamiento farmacológico , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/etiología , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/mortalidad , Estigma Social , Cuidado Terminal/psicología
10.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(9): 686-691, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105010

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether job insecurity due to COVID-19 and financial concern were associated with worse mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Participants (N = 474 employed U.S. individuals) completed an online survey from April 6 to 12, 2020. Linear regressions were used to examine factors associated with mental health. RESULTS: After accounting for demographic characteristics, health status, other COVID-19 experiences, and anxiety symptoms, greater job insecurity due to COVID-19 was related to greater depressive symptoms. Conversely, after accounting for covariates and depressive symptoms, greater financial concern was related to greater anxiety symptoms. Further, greater job insecurity was indirectly related to greater anxiety symptoms due to greater financial concern. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that employers should aim to reduce job insecurity and financial concern among employees during the COVID-19 pandemic to address the associated mental health consequences.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Empleo/psicología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
11.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 45(18): 1285-1292, 2020 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104988

RESUMEN

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the clinical practices of spine surgeons within the Asia Pacific region. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: COVID-19 pandemic had changed spine surgeons' clinical practices and their concerns toward personal and family risk of infection. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was carried out from May 4, 2020 to June 4, 2020. The questionnaire was administered using REDCAP. The online questionnaire includes four sections. First section includes surgeon's demographics, background, type of clinical practice, and status of pandemic in their country. Second section includes volume and the type of spine surgery practice before the COVID pandemic. Third section includes changes of clinical practice during the pandemic and the last section was regarding their concern on COVID transmission. RESULTS: Total of 222 respondents from 19 countries completed the questionnaire. During the pandemic, 92.3% of the respondents felt their clinical practice was affected. 58.5% respondents reported reduced outpatient clinic hours and 74.6% respondents reported reduced operation theatre hours due to the enforcement by the hospital administration. The mean reduction of clinic volume for all countries was 48.1%. There was a significant reduction in the number of surgeries performed in Japan, Malaysia, India, Philippines, and South Korea. This was due to reduced patient load. More than 60% of respondents were worried being infected by COVID-19 virus and >68% were worried of transmission to their family members. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the clinical and surgical practice of spine surgeons in the Asia Pacific region. Clinics were closed or the practice hours reduced. Similarly, surgical theaters were closed, reduced, or limited to semi-emergency and emergency surgeries. Spine surgeons were moderately concerned of contracting COVID-19 during their clinical practice but were extremely concerned to transmit this disease to their family members. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Columna Vertebral/cirugía , Cirujanos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Operativos/estadística & datos numéricos , Asia , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Cirujanos/psicología , Cirujanos/estadística & datos numéricos
13.
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment ; 13(2): 90-94, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125044

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The world is currently undergoing an extremely stressful scenario due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This unexpected and dramatic situation could increase the incidence of mental health problems, among them, psychotic disorders. The aim of this paper was to describe a case series of brief reactive psychosis due to the psychological distress from the current coronavirus pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report on a case series including all the patients with reactive psychoses in the context of the COVID-19 crisis who were admitted to the Virgen del Rocío and Virgen Macarena University Hospitals (Seville, Spain) during the first two weeks of compulsory nationwide quarantine. RESULTS: In that short period, four patients met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria for a brief reactive psychotic disorder. All of the episodes were directly triggered by stress derived from the COVID-19 pandemic and half of the patients presented severe suicidal behavior at admission. CONCLUSIONS: We may now be witnessing an increasing number of brief reactive psychotic disorders as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. This type of psychosis has a high risk of suicidal behavior and, although short-lived, has a high rate of psychotic recurrence and low diagnostic stability over time. Therefore, we advocate close monitoring in both the acute phase and long-term follow-up of these patients.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Distrés Psicológico , Trastornos Psicóticos/etiología , Cuarentena/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/complicaciones , Adulto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Trastornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Trastornos Psicóticos/psicología , Factores de Riesgo , España , Suicidio/psicología
15.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241173, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067388

RESUMEN

It has been two months since Wuhan eased the lockdown and the people of Wuhan have been under great pressure during COVID-19. The psychological status among healthcare workers and residents were barely know due to the lack of research after Wuhan eased of the lockdown. The purpose of this study was to assess people's mental health and the changes after Wuhan eased the lockdown. A cross-sectional online study among citizens in Wuhan was conducted. Among 1417 participants, 387(27.0%) were frontline healthcare workers and 1035(73.0%) were residents from the general public. Their COVID-19 psychological status was evaluated using Patient Health Questionnaire-9(PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7), and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). Results show that 16.1%,22.3% and 17.2% healthcare workers and 21.2%, 16.7% and 17.2% general public had symptoms of depression, anxiety and PTSD ranging from moderate to severe. Anxiety levels were not significantly different between healthcare workers and the general public. The decreased income and the frequent social media exposure are the risk factors for general public. Compared to the early COVID-19 epidemic period, the proportion of anxiety and depression among both the general public and health workers decreased after Wuhan eased the lockdown. Our finding can be used to help the government of Wuhan to develop psychological interventions to improve the mental health of the population and work as a reference of public health guidelines for other cities with severe COVID-19 outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Salud Mental , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Distrés Psicológico , Cuarentena/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , China , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Adulto Joven
16.
Clin Obes ; 10(6): e12412, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066643

RESUMEN

Recent studies report negative mental health effects of the COVID-19 related lockdown measures in general paediatric cohorts. Since obesity is a risk factor for COVID-19 in adults, children (including adolescents) with obesity might perceive themselves to be vulnerable. Using a combined quantitative and qualitative approach, we explored COVID-19 related anxiety in paediatric patients with severe obesity in the Netherlands using semi-structured telephone interviews and the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) questionnaire, which had also been completed by the study population at baseline in the year prior to the COVID-19 outbreak. In total, 75 families participated in the semi-structured telephone interviews during the lockdown, April 2020. Characteristics of included patients were: median age 10.5 years (interquartile range = 7.6-15.2); 52% female; mean BMI standard deviation score 3.8 (SD = 1.0). COVID-19 related anxiety was reported for 24/75 (32%) children. The mean decrease in PedsQL score between baseline visit and COVID-19 outbreak did not differ between children for whom anxiety was reported vs those for whom it was not (mean change -10.3 ± 36.5 vs -3.3 ± 24.4, P = .54). Self-imposed strict quarantine measures were taken by 19/75 (25%) families. During follow-up, several families reported that the previous contact alleviated their anxiety. In conclusion, healthcare professionals should address possible COVID-19 related anxiety in children with severe obesity. Addressing COVID-19 related anxiety could mitigate its potential negative effects.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Obesidad Mórbida/psicología , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Bajos , Pandemias
17.
Clin Obes ; 10(6): e12406, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066642

RESUMEN

Obesity is emerging as a risk factor for COVID-19 disease severity. The impact of the pandemic and knowledge of obesity as a risk factor on the lived experience of people with obesity is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people living with severe obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2 ), currently engaged in multi-modal treatment. The primary objectives were to examine the impact of the pandemic on their lived experience from a treatment and psychosocial standpoint and additionally explore their awareness of obesity as a risk factor for COVID-19 disease severity. An in-depth qualitative study was adopted employing semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions. Interpretive thematic analysis was adopted to analyse the data and identify key themes taking a grounded approach. Themes that emerged from the perspective of impact on lived experience were (a) challenge sustaining treatment and (b) psychosocial impact. There was an even split regarding awareness and lack of awareness of obesity as risk factor which itself contributes towards a negative psychosocial impact in most patients. The COVID-19 pandemic is posing a diverse challenge to people with obesity. This has implications for their on-going treatment. From an ethical standpoint, there is a need to fully elucidate the link between obesity and COVID-19, disseminate this information using people friendly language and imagery in a manner that does not exacerbate a harmful psychosocial response or lead to stigmatization.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Obesidad/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad , Betacoronavirus , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Miedo , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Investigación Cualitativa , Factores de Riesgo , Estrés Psicológico
18.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S107-S113, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065060

RESUMEN

Emerging infectious diseases like Covid-19 cause a major threat to global health. When confronted with new pathogens, individuals generate several beliefs about the epidemic phenomenon. Many studies have shown that individual protective behaviors largely depend on these beliefs. Due to the absence of treatment and vaccine against these emerging pathogens, the relation between these beliefs and these behaviors represents a crucial issue for public health policies. In the premises of the Covid-19 pandemic, several preliminary studies have highlighted a delay in the perception of risk by individuals, which potentially holds back the implementing of the necessary precautionary measures: people underestimated the risks associated with the virus, and therefore also the importance of complying with sanitary guidelines. During the peak of the pandemic, the salience of the threat and of the risk of mortality could then have transformed the way people generate their beliefs. This potentially leads to upheavals in the way they understand the world. Here, we propose to explore the evolution of beliefs and behaviors during the Covid-19 crisis, using the theory of predictive coding and the theory of terror management, two influential frameworks in cognitive science and in social psychology.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Encéfalo/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Cultura , Miedo/psicología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Negación en Psicología , Adhesión a Directriz , Guías como Asunto , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Humanos , Higiene , Modelos Psicológicos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Equipos de Seguridad , Gestión de Riesgos , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Precauciones Universales
19.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S93-S98, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065058

RESUMEN

Although the "panic" word has been abundantly linked to the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic in the press, in the scientific literature very few studies have considered whether the current epidemic could predispose to the onset or the aggravation of panic attacks or panic disorder. Indeed, most studies thus far have focused on the risk of increase and aggravation of other psychiatric disorders as a consequence of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Yet, risk of onset or aggravation of panic disorder, especially the subtype with prominent respiratory symptoms, which is characterized by a fear response conditioning to interoceptive sensations (e.g., respiratory), and hypervigilance to these interoceptive signals, could be expected in the current situation. Indeed, respiratory symptoms, such as coughs and dyspnea, are among the most commonly associated with the SARS-CoV-2 (59-82% and 31-55%, respectively), and respiratory symptoms are associated with a poor illness prognosis. Hence given that some etiological and maintenance factors associated with panic disorder - i.e., fear conditioning to abnormal breathing patterns attributable or not to the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), as well as hypervigilance towards breathing abnormalities - are supposedly more prevalent, one could expect an increased risk of panic disorder onset or aggravation following the COVID-19 epidemic in people who were affected by the virus, but also those who were not. In people with the comorbidity (i.e., panic disorder or panic attacks and the COVID-19), it is particularly important to be aware of the risk of hypokalemia in specific at-risk situations or prescriptions. For instance, in the case of salbutamol prescription, which might be overly used in patients with anxiety disorders and COVID-19, or in patients presenting with diarrhea and vomiting. Hypokalemia is associated with an increased risk of torsade de pointe, thus caution is required when prescribing specific psychotropic drugs, such as the antidepressants citalopram and escitalopram, which are first-line treatments for panic disorder, but also hydroxyzine, aiming at anxiety reduction. The results reviewed here highlight the importance of considering and further investigating the impact of the current pandemic on the diagnosis and treatment of panic disorder (alone or comorbid with the COVID-19).


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Pandemias , Trastorno de Pánico/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Ansiedad/etiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Catastrofización , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Disnea/etiología , Disnea/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipopotasemia/etiología , Masculino , Trastorno de Pánico/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastorno de Pánico/epidemiología , Trastorno de Pánico/fisiopatología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Psicotrópicos/efectos adversos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapéutico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiología , Respiración/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/fisiopatología , Terminología como Asunto , Torsades de Pointes/inducido químicamente , Torsades de Pointes/etiología
20.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S99-S106, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065056

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a multi-organ disease due to an infection with the SARS-CoV2 virus. It has become a pandemic in early 2020. The disease appears less devastating in children and adolescents. However, stress, quarantine and eventually mourning have major impacts on development. It is difficult to describe what this pandemic implies for a child psychiatrist, other than by giving a first-hand account. I propose to go through the main ethical questions that have arisen; to describe how my hospital team has reorganized itself to meet the new demands and questions, in particular by opening a unit dedicated to people with autism and challenging behaviors affected by COVID-19; and to address, in a context of national discussion, how the discipline has sought to understand the conditions of a certain well-being during quarantine. Finally, I will try to conclude with more speculative reflections on re-opening.


Asunto(s)
Psiquiatría del Adolescente , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Trastorno Autístico/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Psiquiatría Infantil , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Psiquiatría , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente , Psiquiatría del Adolescente/ética , Trastorno Autístico/complicaciones , Trastorno Autístico/psicología , Niño , Conducta Infantil , Psiquiatría Infantil/ética , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infección Hospitalaria/complicaciones , Infección Hospitalaria/psicología , Infección Hospitalaria/terapia , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Francia , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Reestructuración Hospitalaria , Unidades Hospitalarias/organización & administración , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Servicios de Salud Mental/ética , Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Trastornos del Olfato/etiología , Trastornos del Olfato/psicología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Aislamiento de Pacientes/psicología , Ludoterapia , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Práctica Profesional/ética , Equipos de Seguridad , Factores de Riesgo , Estrés Psicológico/etiología
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