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3.
Vaccine ; 38(34): 5418-5423, 2020 07 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752766

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 disease as a pandemic requiring a rapid response. Through online search, direct communication with network members and an internal survey, engagements of developing countries' vaccine manufacturers' network members in the research and development of COVID-19 vaccines and their capacities in the manufacturing, fill-finish and distribution of vaccines were assessed. Currently, 19 network members engaged in research and development of COVID-19 vaccines, using six principal technology platforms. In addition, an internal survey showed that the number of vaccines supplied collectively by 37 members, in 2018-19, was about 3.5 billion doses annually. Almost a third of network members having vaccines prequalified by the World Health Organization comply with international regulations and mechanisms to distribute vaccines across borders. The use of existing manufacturing, fill-finish and distribution capabilities can support an efficient roll-out of vaccines against COVID-19, while maintaining supply security of existing vaccines for on-going immunization programmes.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Industria Farmacéutica/organización & administración , Cooperación Internacional , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Vacunas Virales/provisión & distribución , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Organización Mundial de la Salud
5.
J Int Med Res ; 48(8): 300060520938943, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737613

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 and continues to spread worldwide. Rapid and accurate identification of suspected cases is critical in slowing spread of the virus that causes the disease. We aimed to highlight discrepancies in the various criteria used by international agencies and highly impacted individual countries around the world. METHODS: We reviewed the criteria for identifying a suspected case of COVID-19 used by two international public health agencies and 10 countries across Asia, Europe, and North America. The criteria included information on the clinical causes of illness and epidemiological risk factors. Non-English language guidelines were translated into English by a co-author who is fluent in that particular language. RESULTS: Although most criteria are modifications of World Health Organization recommendations, the specific clinical features and epidemiological risks for triggering evaluation of patients with suspected COVID-19 differed widely among countries. The rationale for these differences may be related to each country's resources, politics, experience with previous outbreaks or pandemics, health insurance system, COVID-19 outbreak severity, and other undetermined factors. CONCLUSION: We found no consensus regarding the best diagnostic criteria for identifying a suspected case of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Asia/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , América del Norte/epidemiología , Pandemias , Estados Unidos , Organización Mundial de la Salud
7.
PLoS Med ; 17(5): e1003167, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729558

RESUMEN

The PLOS Medicine editors discuss the role of the World Health Organization in pandemic responses.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Pandemias , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Humanos , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Gripe Humana/terapia , Pandemias/prevención & control
8.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(3): 204-216, 2020 08 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725509

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is used to treat respiratory failure in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PURPOSE: To review multiple streams of evidence regarding the benefits and harms of ventilation techniques for coronavirus infections, including that causing COVID-19. DATA SOURCES: 21 standard, World Health Organization-specific and COVID-19-specific databases, without language restrictions, until 1 May 2020. STUDY SELECTION: Studies of any design and language comparing different oxygenation approaches in patients with coronavirus infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), or with hypoxemic respiratory failure. Animal, mechanistic, laboratory, and preclinical evidence was gathered regarding aerosol dispersion of coronavirus. Studies evaluating risk for virus transmission to health care workers from aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Independent and duplicate screening, data abstraction, and risk-of-bias assessment (GRADE for certainty of evidence and AMSTAR 2 for included systematic reviews). DATA SYNTHESIS: 123 studies were eligible (45 on COVID-19, 70 on SARS, 8 on MERS), but only 5 studies (1 on COVID-19, 3 on SARS, 1 on MERS) adjusted for important confounders. A study in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 reported slightly higher mortality with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) than with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), but 2 opposing studies, 1 in patients with MERS and 1 in patients with SARS, suggest a reduction in mortality with NIV (very-low-certainty evidence). Two studies in patients with SARS report a reduction in mortality with NIV compared with no mechanical ventilation (low-certainty evidence). Two systematic reviews suggest a large reduction in mortality with NIV compared with conventional oxygen therapy. Other included studies suggest increased odds of transmission from AGPs. LIMITATION: Direct studies in COVID-19 are limited and poorly reported. CONCLUSION: Indirect and low-certainty evidence suggests that use of NIV, similar to IMV, probably reduces mortality but may increase the risk for transmission of COVID-19 to health care workers. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: World Health Organization. (PROSPERO: CRD42020178187).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Respiración Artificial/efectos adversos , Respiración Artificial/métodos , Aerosoles , Animales , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/transmisión , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Organización Mundial de la Salud
11.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 61(2): E130-E136, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721657

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 is a new form of ß-coronavirus that has been recently discovered and is responsible for COVID 19 pandemic. The earliest infection can be traced back to Wuhan, China. From there it has spread all over the world. Keeping in view the above perspective, an attempt is made in order to find out the epidemiological pattern of COVID 19 pandemic, if any, in different geo-climatological regions of the world in terms of case incidence and mortality. This study is also an endeavor to review and analyze the gradual changes of the genetic makeup of SARS-CoV from evolutionary and epidemiological perspectives. The raw data of COVID-19 cases and death incidences were collected from the World Health Organization (WHO) website from the time period: 1st April to 6th April, 2020. The data that are utilized here for general and Case fatality rate (CFR) based analysis. Western pacific region, European region and Americas have the greatest number of infected cases (P < 0.001); whereas deaths have been found to be significantly higher in Europe (P < 0.001). Total number of confirmed cases and deaths in south-east Asia are comparatively lower (P < 0.001). Case fatality rate (CFR) has also found significant for European region. SARS-CoV-2 is considered to be a strain of SARS-CoV that has a high rate of pathogenicity and transmissibility. Result indicated that the European region has been affected mostly for both cases and death incidences. The novel mutations in SARS-CoV-2 possibly increase the virus infectivity. Genetic heterogeneity of this virus within the human population might originate as the representatives of naturally selected virus quasispecies. In this context, the presence of the asymptomatic individuals could be a significant concern for SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology. Further studies are required to understand its genetic evolution and epidemiological significance.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Organización Mundial de la Salud
12.
Euro Surveill ; 25(32)2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721443

RESUMEN

We show the distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) genetic clades over time and between countries and outline potential genomic surveillance objectives. We applied three genomic nomenclature systems to all sequence data from the World Health Organization European Region available until 10 July 2020. We highlight the importance of real-time sequencing and data dissemination in a pandemic situation, compare the nomenclatures and lay a foundation for future European genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Coronavirus/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , ARN Replicasa/genética , ARN Viral/análisis , Secuencia de Bases , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Humanos , Filogeografía , Neumonía Viral/virología , ARN Viral/genética , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Organización Mundial de la Salud
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(7): 1592-1595, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712728

RESUMEN

Infection control instructions call for use of alcohol-based hand rub solutions to inactivate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We determined the virucidal activity of World Health Organization-recommended hand rub formulations, at full strength and multiple dilutions, and of the active ingredients. All disinfectants demonstrated efficient virus inactivation.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholes/farmacología , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Desinfectantes/farmacología , Desinfección de las Manos/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Inactivación de Virus , Humanos , Organización Mundial de la Salud
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 875-878, 2020 07 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709645

RESUMEN

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread to all 7 continents. Due to yet unknown reasons, the African continent has remained relatively unaffected. We discuss the importance of mitigating pan-continental spread in light of the fragile healthcare systems.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Adulto , África/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Organización Mundial de la Salud
16.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(8): 516-517, 2020 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-708651

RESUMEN

Why governments need to test their messages on novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) before disseminating them. Baruch Fischhoff talks to Fiona Fleck.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Comunicación en Salud/métodos , Comunicación en Salud/normas , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Conducta , Betacoronavirus , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Pandemias , Política , Medición de Riesgo , Organización Mundial de la Salud
18.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 129, 2020 08 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704995

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Hand sanitisers are urgently needed in the time of COVID-19, and as a result of shortages, some people have resorted to making their own formulations, including the repurposing of distilleries. We wish to highlight the importance of those producing hand sanitisers to avoid methylated spirits containing methanol and to follow WHO recommended formulations. METHODS: We explore and discuss reports of methanol toxicity through ingestion and transdermal absorption. We discuss the WHO formulations and explain the rationale behind the chosen ingredients. SHORT CONCLUSION: We advise those producing hand sanitisers to follow WHO recommended formulations, and advise those producing hand sanitisers using methylated spirits, to avoid formulations which contain methanol.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Desinfectantes/farmacología , Etanol/farmacología , Metanol/farmacología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Desinfectantes/química , Desinfectantes/normas , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Composición de Medicamentos , Etanol/química , Desinfección de las Manos/instrumentación , Humanos , Metanol/química , Metanol/toxicidad , Neumonía Viral/virología , Organización Mundial de la Salud
20.
Korean J Radiol ; 21(10): 1138-1149, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695912

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a transmissible respiratory disease that was initially reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. With the alarming levels of COVID-19 spread worldwide, the World Health Organization characterized COVID-19 as a pandemic. Over the past several months, chest CT has played a vital role in early identification, disease severity assessment, and dynamic disease course monitoring of COVID-19. The published data has enriched our knowledge on the etiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and pathologic findings of COVID-19. Additionally, as the imaging spectrum of the disease continues to be defined, extrapulmonary infections or other complications will require further attention. This review aims to provide an updated framework and essential knowledge with which radiologists can better understand COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía Viral/etiología , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Organización Mundial de la Salud
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