Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.398
Filtrar
Añadir filtros

Intervalo de año
3.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 39(10): 1792-1798, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177766

RESUMEN

Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of adolescent mortality and injury in the United States. For young drivers, crash risk peaks immediately after licensure and declines during the next two years, making the point of licensure an important safety intervention opportunity. Legislation in Ohio established a unique health-transportation partnership among the State of Ohio, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and Diagnostic Driving, Inc., to identify underprepared driver license applicants through a virtual driving assessment system. The system, a computer-based virtual driving test, exposes drivers to common serious crash scenarios to identify critical skill deficits and is delivered in testing centers immediately before the on-road examination. A pilot study of license applicants who completed it showed that the virtual driving assessment system accurately predicted which drivers would fail the on-road examination and provided automated feedback that informed drivers on their skill deficits. At this time, the partnership's work is informing policy changes around integrating the virtual driving assessment system into licensing and driver training with the aim of reducing crashes in the first months of independent driving. The system can be developed to identify deficits in safety-critical skills that lead to crashes in new drivers and to address challenges that the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has introduced to driver testing and training.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil/legislación & jurisprudencia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Concesión de Licencias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Administración de la Seguridad/organización & administración , Interfaz Usuario-Computador , Adolescente , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Vehículos a Motor/estadística & datos numéricos , Ohio , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Philadelphia , Proyectos Piloto , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Transportes/métodos , Adulto Joven
4.
Soc Sci Med ; 274: 113779, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1176937

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, and consequent social distancing directives have been observed to negatively impact social relationships but the impact of these changes on the quality of social relationships at a population level has not been explored. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in social relationships in a U.S. population sample during a time of social distancing. METHODS: We deployed a matched, longitudinal survey design of the National Institutes of Health Adult Social Relationship Scales to assess the social aspects of emotional support, instrumental support, friendship, loneliness, perceived hostility, and perceived rejection from a time without social distancing (February 2018) to a time where social distancing directives were active (May 2020). Changes in social relationships were compared using paired t-tests, and generalized linear regression models were constructed to identify subpopulations experiencing differential changes in each subdomain of social relationships during social distancing. RESULTS: Within our sample population, individuals experienced an increased sense of emotional support, instrumental support, and loneliness, and decreased feelings of friendship and perceived hostility during a period of social distancing. Individuals with low self-rated health experienced a decreased sense of emotional support, and females experienced increased feelings of loneliness compared with males. CONCLUSIONS: Social distancing measurably impacts social relationships and may have a disproportionate impact on females and individuals with lower self-rated health. If novel emergent infectious diseases become more commonplace, social interventions may be needed to mitigate the potential adverse impact of social distancing on social relationships.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Pandemias/prevención & control , Cuarentena/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 686, 2021 04 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175314

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The government is the main body in charge of controlling epidemics; hence, expectations from the intention and capacities of the government would affect the flexibility and behaviors of citizens. Given the severity of COVID-19 pandemic and the urgent need for cooperation of people in the prevention and combat processes, understanding the public perspectives would be crucial and instructive. This study aimed to explore such perspectives towards the current pandemic among the Iranian. Indeed, we sought to provide a favorable platform for effective policies in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic through recognizing public expectations. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey used an open-ended online questionnaire to investigate the common perspectives of the Iranian towards the response of government to COVID-19 pandemic. The participants were selected using snowball and convenient sampling techniques across the country. The collected data were analyzed and described using a thematic analysis. RESULTS: In general, 2547 participants agreed to participate in this study and completed the online questionnaire. According to the findings, the Iranian exhibited several expectations regarding the response of the government to COVID-19 pandemic. Three main themes were extracted based on these expectations: (1) health-related expectations, (2) policy-related expectations, and (3) Information-related expectations. In this study, a majority of participants highlighted the need to consider and follow-up the patients and their families, providing the financial and hygiene support during the pandemic, applying strict restrictions, and using close monitoring and controlling procedures. Furthermore, they mentioned that authorities and news agencies should observe the principals honesty and transparency. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed that people expect the government and other responsible institutions to minimize the burden of this pandemic through adopting effective policies. Also, they could help policy-makers become aware of the expectations of people and develop better strategies.


Asunto(s)
Gobierno , Pandemias , Opinión Pública , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e19969, 2020 07 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172934

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the absence of vaccines and established treatments, nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) are fundamental tools to control coronavirus disease (COVID-19) transmission. NPIs require public interest to be successful. In the United States, there is a lack of published research on the factors that influence public interest in COVID-19. Using Google Trends, we examined the US level of public interest in COVID-19 and how it correlated to testing and with other countries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine how public interest in COVID-19 in the United States changed over time and the key factors that drove this change, such as testing. US public interest in COVID-19 was compared to that in countries that have been more successful in their containment and mitigation strategies. METHODS: In this retrospective study, Google Trends was used to analyze the volume of internet searches within the United States relating to COVID-19, focusing on dates between December 31, 2019, and March 24, 2020. The volume of internet searches related to COVID-19 was compared to that in other countries. RESULTS: Throughout January and February 2020, there was limited search interest in COVID-19 within the United States. Interest declined for the first 21 days of February. A similar decline was seen in geographical regions that were later found to be experiencing undetected community transmission in February. Between March 9 and March 12, 2020, there was a rapid rise in search interest. This rise in search interest was positively correlated with the rise of positive tests for SARS-CoV-2 (6.3, 95% CI -2.9 to 9.7; P<.001). Within the United States, it took 52 days for search interest to rise substantially after the first positive case; in countries with more successful outbreak control, search interest rose in less than 15 days. CONCLUSIONS: Containment and mitigation strategies require public interest to be successful. The initial level of COVID-19 public interest in the United States was limited and even decreased during a time when containment and mitigation strategies were being established. A lack of public interest in COVID-19 existed in the United States when containment and mitigation policies were in place. Based on our analysis, it is clear that US policy makers need to develop novel methods of communicating COVID-19 public health initiatives.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Opinión Pública , Motor de Búsqueda/tendencias , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Comparación Transcultural , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
8.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e19831, 2020 07 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172930

RESUMEN

Before the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), 1 in 3 women and girls, globally, were victimized by an abusive partner in intimate relationships. However, the current pandemic has amplified cases of domestic violence (DV) against women and girls, with up to thrice the prevalence in DV cases compared to the same time last year. Evidence of the adverse effects of the pandemic on DV is still emerging, even as violence prevention strategies are iteratively being refined by service providers, advocacy agencies, and survivors to meet stay-at-home mandates. Emotional and material support for survivors is a critical resource increasingly delivered using digital and technology-based modalities, which offer several advantages and challenges. This paper rapidly describes current DV mitigation approaches using digital solutions, signaling emerging best practices to support survivors, their children, and abusers during stay-at-home advisories. Some examples of technology-based strategies and solutions are presented. An immediate priority is mapping out current digital solutions in response to COVID-19-related DV and outlining issues with uptake, coverage, and meaningful use of digital solutions.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Violencia Doméstica/prevención & control , Violencia de Pareja/prevención & control , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Telemedicina/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Violencia Doméstica/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Prevalencia , Apoyo Social , Sobrevivientes/psicología
12.
J Adhes Dent ; 23(2): 87, 2021 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171064
17.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167412

RESUMEN

Understanding food safety hazard risks is essential to avoid potential negative heath impacts in the food supply chain in a post-COVID-19 pandemic era. Development of strategies for virus direction in foods plays an important role in food safety and verification. Early warning, tracing, and detection should be implemented as an integrated system in order to mitigate thecoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, in which the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical as it not only concerns screening of populations but also monitoring of possible contaminated sources such as the food supply chain. In this review, we point out the consequences in different aspects of our daily life in the post-COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of the food supply chain and the food industry. We summarize the possible transmission routes of COVID-19 in the food supply chain before exploring the development of corresponding detection tools of SARS-CoV-2. Accordingly, we compare different detection methods for the virus in foods, including different pretreatments of food matrices in the virus detection. Finally, the future perspectives are proposed.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Alimentos/virología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Animales , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Humanos , /patogenicidad
18.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249423, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167117

RESUMEN

Despite the wide adoption of emergency remote learning (ERL) in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic, there is insufficient understanding of influencing factors predicting student satisfaction for this novel learning environment in crisis. The present study investigated important predictors in determining the satisfaction of undergraduate students (N = 425) from multiple departments in using ERL at a self-funded university in Hong Kong while Moodle and Microsoft Team are the key learning tools. By comparing the predictive accuracy between multiple regression and machine learning models before and after the use of random forest recursive feature elimination, all multiple regression, and machine learning models showed improved accuracy while the most accurate model was the elastic net regression with 65.2% explained variance. The results show only neutral (4.11 on a 7-point Likert scale) regarding the overall satisfaction score on ERL. Even majority of students are competent in technology and have no obvious issue in accessing learning devices or Wi-Fi, face-to-face learning is more preferable compared to ERL and this is found to be the most important predictor. Besides, the level of efforts made by instructors, the agreement on the appropriateness of the adjusted assessment methods, and the perception of online learning being well delivered are shown to be highly important in determining the satisfaction scores. The results suggest that the need of reviewing the quality and quantity of modified assessment accommodated for ERL and structured class delivery with the suitable amount of interactive learning according to the learning culture and program nature.


Asunto(s)
Educación a Distancia , Satisfacción Personal , Psicología Educacional , Estudiantes/psicología , /prevención & control , Femenino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Masculino , Pandemias/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades
19.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248828, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167100

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: On January 30th 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a international health emergency due to the unprecedented phenomenon of COVID-19. After this declaration countries swiftly implemented a variety of health policies. In this work we examine how rapid countries responded to this pandemic using two events: the day in which the first case of COVID-19 was reported, and first day in which countries used school closure as one of the measures to avoid outbreaks. We also assessed how countries' health systems, globalization, economic development, political systems, and economic integration to China, Republic of Korea and Italy increased the speed of adoption. METHODS: We compiled information from multiple sources, from December 31st 2019 to June 1st 2020, to trace when 172 countries reported their first COVID-19 case and implemented school closure to contain outbreaks. We applied cross-national Weibull survival analysis to evaluate the global speed of detection of first COVID-19 reported cases and school closure. RESULTS: Ten days after WHO declared COVID-19 to be an international emergency, relative to seven days from this declaration, countries were 28 (95% CI: 12-77) times more likely to report first COVID-19 cases and 42 (95% CI: 22-90) times more likely to close schools. One standard deviation increase in the epidemic security index rises the rate of report first cases by 37% (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.37 (95% CI: 1.09-1.72) and delays the adoption for school closures by 36% (HR 0.64 (95% CI:0.50-0.82). One standard deviation increase in the globalization index augments the adoption for school closures by 74% (HR 1.74 (95% CI:1.34-2.24). CONCLUSION: After the WHO declared a global emergency, countries were unprecedently acting very rapidly. While countries more globally integrated were swifter in closing schools, countries with better designed health systems to tackle epidemics were slower in adopting it. More studies are needed to assess how the speed of school closures and other policies will affect the development of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones Académicas , /epidemiología , China , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Italia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , República de Corea , Instituciones Académicas/organización & administración , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos
20.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248703, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167094

RESUMEN

During the Covid-19 pandemic, the Vietnamese government has actively implemented various policies to achieve dual objectives: (i) to minimize the loss of life due to the infection; and (ii) to support economic growth. This paper is conducted to examine the effect of the government's containment and closure policy on the stock market quality in Vietnam. Unlike other papers, we focus exclusively on market quality during the pandemic. We find that the policies appear to positively affect the market quality, except for closing-school policy (negative effect) and international travel (no effect). We argue that the government should sustain the policies until the wide availability of the vaccine to support the stock market quality in the near future.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud/economía , Pandemias/prevención & control , /epidemiología , Desarrollo Económico , Gobierno , Humanos , Cuarentena , Vietnam
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA