Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 30.214
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 41(4): 280-286, 2023 Apr 20.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245733


Objective: To investigate the wearing of masks and the knowledge of masks among high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission. Methods: From May 14 to 17, 2022, a convenient sampling method was used to conduct an online survey among 963 workers in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission in Beijing. The behaviors of individual use and wearing masks, the distribution and supervision of the unit, the knowledge of personal mask protection and the subjective feelings of wearing masks were analyzed. The χ(2) test and logistic regression model were used to analyze the influencing factors of the correct selection of masks. Results: The majority of the workers in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission were male (86.0%, 828/963), age concentration in 18-44 years old (68.2%, 657/963), and the majority of them had college or bachelor degrees (49.4%, 476/963). 79.4%(765/963) of the workers chose the right type of masks, female, 45-59 years old and high school education or above were the risk factors for correct selection of masks (P <0.05). Workers had good behaviors such as wearing/removing masks, but only 10.5% (101/963) could correctly rank the protective effect of different masks. 98.4% (948/963) of the workers believed that their work units had provided masks to their employees, and 99.1% (954/963) and 98.2%(946/963) of them had organized training and supervision on the use of masks, respectively. 47.4%(456/963) of the workers were uncomfortable while wearing masks. Conclusion: The overall selection and use of masks among occupational groups in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission in China need to be further standardized. It is necessary to strengthen supervision and inspection on the use of masks among occupational groups, and take improvement measures to improve the comfort of wearing masks.

Máscaras , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Transversales , China , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Beijing
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(3): 458-466, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242956


OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the spectrum, characteristics and outcomes of neurologic manifestations associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre retrospective study during the French coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in March-April 2020. All COVID-19 patients with de novo neurologic manifestations were eligible. RESULTS: We included 222 COVID-19 patients with neurologic manifestations from 46 centres in France. Median (interquartile range, IQR) age was 65 (53-72) years and 136 patients (61.3%) were male. COVID-19 was severe or critical in 102 patients (45.2%). The most common neurologic diseases were COVID-19-associated encephalopathy (67/222, 30.2%), acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome (57/222, 25.7%), encephalitis (21/222, 9.5%) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (15/222, 6.8%). Neurologic manifestations appeared after the first COVID-19 symptoms with a median (IQR) delay of 6 (3-8) days in COVID-19-associated encephalopathy, 7 (5-10) days in encephalitis, 12 (7-18) days in acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome and 18 (15-28) days in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Brain imaging was performed in 192 patients (86.5%), including 157 magnetic resonance imaging (70.7%). Among patients with acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome, 13 (22.8%) of 57 had multiterritory ischaemic strokes, with large vessel thrombosis in 16 (28.1%) of 57. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of encephalitis patients showed heterogeneous acute nonvascular lesions in 14 (66.7%) of 21. Cerebrospinal fluid of 97 patients (43.7%) was analysed, with pleocytosis found in 18 patients (18.6%) and a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result in two patients with encephalitis. The median (IQR) follow-up was 24 (17-34) days with a high short-term mortality rate (28/222, 12.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical spectrum and outcomes of neurologic manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were broad and heterogeneous, suggesting different underlying pathogenic processes.

COVID-19/complicaciones , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/etiología , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/patología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/diagnóstico , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/epidemiología , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
Br J Surg ; 108(12): 1448-1464, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239571


BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the impact of pulmonary complications on death after surgery both before and during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. METHODS: This was a patient-level, comparative analysis of two, international prospective cohort studies: one before the pandemic (January-October 2019) and the second during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (local emergence of COVID-19 up to 19 April 2020). Both included patients undergoing elective resection of an intra-abdominal cancer with curative intent across five surgical oncology disciplines. Patient selection and rates of 30-day postoperative pulmonary complications were compared. The primary outcome was 30-day postoperative mortality. Mediation analysis using a natural-effects model was used to estimate the proportion of deaths during the pandemic attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: This study included 7402 patients from 50 countries; 3031 (40.9 per cent) underwent surgery before and 4371 (59.1 per cent) during the pandemic. Overall, 4.3 per cent (187 of 4371) developed postoperative SARS-CoV-2 in the pandemic cohort. The pulmonary complication rate was similar (7.1 per cent (216 of 3031) versus 6.3 per cent (274 of 4371); P = 0.158) but the mortality rate was significantly higher (0.7 per cent (20 of 3031) versus 2.0 per cent (87 of 4371); P < 0.001) among patients who had surgery during the pandemic. The adjusted odds of death were higher during than before the pandemic (odds ratio (OR) 2.72, 95 per cent c.i. 1.58 to 4.67; P < 0.001). In mediation analysis, 54.8 per cent of excess postoperative deaths during the pandemic were estimated to be attributable to SARS-CoV-2 (OR 1.73, 1.40 to 2.13; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Although providers may have selected patients with a lower risk profile for surgery during the pandemic, this did not mitigate the likelihood of death through SARS-CoV-2 infection. Care providers must act urgently to protect surgical patients from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

This study compared death rates in patients who developed pulmonary complications of surgery before and during the pandemic in two large, international studies. Patients who underwent surgery during the pandemic tended to be younger and fitter. Overall, 4.3 per cent were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection after surgery in the pandemic cohort. Deaths within 30 days after surgery tripled during the first wave of the pandemic (from 0.7 to 2.0 per cent), whereas the rate of pulmonary complications remained the similar (7.1 to 6.3 per cent). Over half of these excess deaths (54.8 per cent) were estimated to be related to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

COVID-19/mortalidad , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Electivos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/mortalidad , Respiración Artificial/estadística & datos numéricos , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria/mortalidad , Neoplasias Abdominales/cirugía , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(1): 91-97, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235799


Regulatory T cell can protect against severe forms of coronaviral infections attributable to host inflammatory responses. But its role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is still unclear. In this study, frequencies of total and multiple subsets of lymphocytes in peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients and discharged individuals were analyzed using a multicolor flow cytometry assay. Plasma concentration of IL-10 was measured using a microsphere-based immunoassay kit. Comparing to healthy controls, the frequencies of total lymphocytes and T cells decreased significantly in both acutely infected COVID-19 patients and discharged individuals. The frequencies of total lymphocytes correlated negatively with the frequencies of CD3- CD56+ NK cells. The frequencies of regulatory CD8+ CD25+ T cells correlated with CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratios positively, while the frequencies of regulatory CD4+ CD25+ CD127- T cells correlated negatively with CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratios. Ratios of CD4+ /CD8+ T cells increased significantly in patients beyond age of 45 years. And accordingly, the frequencies of regulatory CD8+ CD25+ T cells were also found significantly increased in these patients. Collectively, the results suggest that regulatory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells may play distinct roles in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Moreover, the data indicate that NK cells might contribute to the COVID-19 associated lymphopenia.

Linfocitos T CD8-positivos , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Linfocitos T Reguladores , Adulto , Anciano , Antígenos CD/sangre , Antígenos CD/inmunología , Relación CD4-CD8 , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/inmunología , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/metabolismo , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/patología , COVID-19/sangre , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Células Asesinas Naturales/inmunología , Células Asesinas Naturales/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Linfocitos T Reguladores/inmunología , Linfocitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Linfocitos T Reguladores/patología
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(8): 2937-2947, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232909


Routine immunization during pandemics can be harmed. This study estimated the influenza vaccination coverage in older adults during the COVID-19 through the EPICOVID-19, a population-based study conducted in 133 cities from the 26 Brazilian states and Federal District. We selected 25 census tracts per city, with probability proportional to the tract's size, ten households by census tract, and one random individual interviewed. A total of 8,265 older adults (≥60 years old) were interviewed and asked whether they had been vaccinated against flu in 2020. Vaccination coverage was 82.3% (95% CI: 80.1-84.2) with no difference by gender, age, and region; higher vaccination coverage was observed among the wealthiest (84.7% versus 80.1% in the poorest) and among the more educated (87.3% versus 83.2% less educated); lower coverage among indigenous (56.9% versus > 80% among other ethnic groups). A positive association was identified with the number of comorbidities among men but not among women. Most of the population was vaccinated (97.5%) in the public health system. The private network was chosen mainly in the South by the wealthiest and more educated. Vaccination coverage was seven percentage points lower than the government target (90%), and inequalities should be reversed in future campaigns.

Imunizações de rotina durante pandemias podem ser prejudicadas. Este estudo estimou a cobertura vacinal para influenza em idosos durante a COVID-19 através do EPICOVID-19, inquérito populacional realizado em 133 cidades sentinelas dos 26 estados brasileiros e Distrito Federal. Selecionou-se 25 setores censitários por cidade, amostragem proporcional ao tamanho, dez domicílios por setor e uma pessoa por domicílio, aleatoriamente. O quantitativo de 8.265 idosos (≥ 60 anos) foram entrevistados e responderam se haviam sido vacinados contra gripe em 2020. A cobertura foi 82,3% (IC95% 80,1; 84,2), sem diferenças por sexo, idade ou região. Maiores coberturas ocorreram nos mais ricos (84,7% versus 80,1% nos mais pobres) e nos mais escolarizados (87,3% versus 83,2% nos menos escolarizados). Menor cobertura nos indígenas (56,9% versus coberturas superiores a 80% nos demais grupos étnicos). Houve associação positiva com número de comorbidades entre homens, mas não entre mulheres. A maioria vacinou-se na rede pública (97,5%), sendo a rede privada mais utilizada na região Sul, pelos mais escolarizados e mais ricos. Conclui-se que a cobertura vacinal ficou sete pontos percentuais abaixo da meta governamental (90%), e que desigualdades devem ser revertidas em futuras campanhas.

COVID-19 , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Anciano , Ciudades , Femenino , Humanos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 22: e20236627, 01 jan 2023. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | WHO COVID, LILACS (Américas) | ID: covidwho-20234718


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida do residente de enfermagem em meio à pandemia da COVID-19. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, descritivo, de abordagem quantitativa com 57 residentes de enfermagem no município do Rio de Janeiro, por meio de questionário contendo dados socioeconômicos e o World Health Organization Quality of Life, versão abreviada (WHOQOL-bref). RESULTADOS: Participantes consideram possuir uma Qualidade de Vida satisfatória (58,11), dado ratificado através da interpretação dos Domínios que apresentou um Score Geral de 53,46, onde o Domínio Físico foi o mais satisfatório (58,33) e o Meio Ambiente (48,63) o menos satisfatório. CONCLUSÃO: Os residentes apresentaram uma Qualidade de Vida Satisfatória, contudo percebeu-se que alterações nos padrões de sono/repouso podem estar ligados diretamente à diminuição da qualidade de vida dos residentes durante a pandemia.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of life of nursing residents in the covid-19 pandemic. METHOD: Cross-sectional, descriptive, quantitative study with 57 nursing residents in the city of Rio de Janeiro, through a questionnaire containing socioeconomic data and the World Health Organization Quality of Life, abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF). RESULTS: Participants consider having a satisfactory Quality of Life (58.11), data ratified through the interpretation of the Domains that presented a General Score of 53.46, where the Physical Domain was the most satisfactory (58.33) and the Environment (48.63) the least satisfactory. CONCLUSION: Residents had a Satisfactory Quality of Life, however it was noticed that changes in sleep/ rest patterns may be directly linked to the decrease in Quality of Life of residents during the pandemic.

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida , Enfermería , COVID-19 , Internado no Médico , Estudios Transversales
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(6): 1-13, nov. 3, 2022. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | WHO COVID, LILACS (Américas) | ID: covidwho-20234393


Introduction: The consumption of alcoholic beverages reduces the body's ability to deal with dangerous situations and exposes people to trauma. Objective: To determine the association between the consumption of alcoholic beverages and the characteristics of maxillofacial fractures treated at a Cuban university hospital in the context of COVID-19. Material and Methods: An observational, analytical, and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Maxillofacial Surgery unit at the "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" General University Hospital during the year 2020. Prevalence ratios, 95% confidence intervals and p-values were obtained using generalized linear models. Results: In 58.23% of the cases, fractures were related to the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The fundamental etiology was interpersonal violence (47.75%), regardless of the consumption of alcoholic beverages. There was a prevalence of patients with nasal fractures (n=98; 55.06%), among which, 35.71% had consumed alcoholic beverages at the time of the trauma. Being male (p=0.005), the lack of university studies (p=0.007), the need for surgical treatment (p<0.001), the fractures of the zygomaticomaxillary complex (p=0.023), and the traumas that occurred during the weekends (p<0.001) or during the month of June (p=0.029) were factors associated with a higher frequency of fractures related to the consumption of alcoholic beverages. There was a lower frequency of fractures associated with alcohol consumption during the months of January (p=0.006) and March (p=0.001). Conclusion: Six out of ten cases were under the influence of alcoholic beverages. There was a greater number of young and male patients, mainly due to interpersonal violence.

Introducción: La ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas disminuye la capacidad del organismo para enfrentar situaciones de peligro y lo predispone a sufrir traumatismos diversos. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas y las características de las fracturas maxilofaciales atendidas en un hospital universitario cubano en el contexto de la COVID-19. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional, analítico y transversal realizado en el servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital General Universitario "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" durante el 2020. Se obtuvieron razones de prevalencia, intervalos de confianza a 95% y valores p mediante modelos lineales generalizados. Resultados: En el 58.23% de los casos las fracturas se relacionaron con la ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas. La etiología fundamental fue la violencia interpersonal (47.75%), independientemente del consumo o no de bebidas alcohólicas. Predominaron los pacientes con fracturas nasales (n=98; 55.06%), en los que el 35.71% había consumido bebidas alcohólicas en el momento del trauma. El sexo masculino (p=0.005), la carencia de estudios universitarios (p=0.007), la necesidad de tratamiento quirúrgico (p<0.001), las fracturas del complejo cigomático-maxilar (p=0.023), los traumas sucedidos durante los fines de semanas (p<0.001) o durante el mes de junio (p=0.029) fueron factores asociados a una mayor frecuencia de fracturas relacionadas con el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas. Hubo menor frecuencia de fracturas asociadas a este consumo durante los meses de enero (p=0.006) y marzo (p= 0.001). Conclusión: Seis de cada diez casos estuvieron bajo los efectos de la ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas. Existió una mayor afectación de pacientes jóvenes, masculinos, a causa principalmente de la violencia interpersonal.

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Adulto Joven , Fracturas Craneales/etiología , Accidentes por Caídas/estadística & datos numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/fisiopatología , COVID-19 , Traumatismos Maxilofaciales/etiología , Estudios Transversales , Cuba/epidemiología , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Alcoholismo/complicaciones , Pandemias
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e238271, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | WHO COVID, LILACS (Américas) | ID: covidwho-20233806


Aim: This study determined whether COVID-19 fear is correlated with sociodemographic characteristics, general health, mental health, and sleep quality in an elderly Brazilians. Methods: Elderly people aged ≥ 60 years replied to an online survey containing questions about their sociodemographic characteristics; general health; levels of stress, anxiety, and depression; sleep quality; and COVID fear. Results: Data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics (α = 5%). In total, 705 elderly people with mean age of 66 ± 5 years, and most (82.7%) respondents were women, graduated and from southeastern Brazil. COVID-19 fear correlated positively and moderately with sleep quality and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress (all p < 0.001). It was associated with females. Elderly people from northern and northeastern Brazil and diabetics had increased COVID-19 fear (all p < 0.05). Conclusion: The fear of COVID-19 exists among Brazilian female old people, diabetics, increases anxiety and stress symptoms, and worsen sleep quality in elderly people

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Miedo/psicología , COVID-19/psicología , Calidad del Sueño , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores Sociodemográficos
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22847, 2020 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238619


Numerous cases of pneumonia from a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China during December 2019.We determined the correlations of patient parameters with disease severity in patients with COVID-19.A total of 132 patients from Wuhan Fourth Hospital who had COVID-19 from February 1 to February 29 in 2020 were retrospectively analyzed.Ninety patients had mild disease, 32 had severe disease, and 10 had critical disease. The severe/critical group was older (P < .05), had a higher proportion of males (P < .05), and had a greater mortality rate (0% vs 61.9%, P < .05). The main symptoms were fever (n = 112, 84.8%) and cough (n = 96, 72.7%). Patients were treated with antiviral agents (n = 94, 71.2%), antibiotics (n = 92, 69.7%), glucocorticoids (n = 46, 34.8%), intravenous immunoglobulin (n = 38, 27.3%), and/or traditional Chinese medicine (n = 40, 30.3%). Patients in the severe/critical group received mechanical ventilation (n = 22, 16.7%) or high-flow nasal can-nula oxygen therapy (n = 6, 4.5%). Chest computed tomography (CT) indicated bilateral pneumonia in all patients. Relative to the mild group, the severe/critical group had higher levels of leukocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), D-dimer, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), liver enzymes, and myocardial enzymes (P < .05), and decreased levels of lymphocytes and blood oxygen partial pressure (P < .05).The main clinical symptoms of patients from Wuhan who had COVID-19 were fever and cough. Patients with severe/critical disease were more likely to be male and elderly. Disease severity correlated with increased leukocytes, CRP, PCT, BNP, D-dimer, liver enzymes, and myocardial enzymes, and with decreased lymphocytes and blood oxygen partial pressure.

Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , COVID-19 , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
J Med Virol ; 95(6): e28866, 2023 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244831


The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of a combination of nirmatrelvir and ritonavir (NMV-r) for treating COVID-19 in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This retrospective cohort study used the TriNetX research network to identify adult diabetic patients with COVID-19 between January 1, 2020, and December 31, 2022. Propensity score matching was used to match patients who received NMV-r (NMV-r group) with those who did not receive NMV-r (control group). The primary outcome was all-cause hospitalization or death during the 30-day follow-up period. Two cohorts comprising 13 822 patients with balanced baseline characteristics were created using propensity score matching. During the follow-up period, the NMV-r group had a lower risk of all-cause hospitalization or death than the control group (1.4% [n = 193] vs. 3.1% [n = 434]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.497; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.420-0.589). Compared with the control group, the NMV-r group also had a lower risk of all-cause hospitalization (HR, 0.606; 95% CI, 0.508-0.723) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.076; 95% CI, 0.033-0.175). This lower risk was consistently observed in almost all subgroup analyses, which examined sex (male: 0.520 [0.401-0.675]; female: 0.586 [0.465-0.739]), age (age 18-64 years: 0.767 [0.601-0.980]; ≥65 years: 0.394 [0.308-0.505]), level of HbA1c (<7.5%: 0.490 [0.401-0.599]; ≥7.5%: 0.655 [0.441-0.972]), unvaccinated (0.466 [0.362-0.599]), type 1 DM (0.453 [0.286-0.718]) and type 2 DM (0.430 [0.361-0.511]). NMV-r can help reduce the risk of all-cause hospitalization or death in nonhospitalized patients with DM and COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Ritonavir/uso terapéutico , Tratamiento Farmacológico de COVID-19 , Resultado del Tratamiento , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamiento farmacológico
Vaccine ; 41(30): 4431-4437, 2023 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244528


INTRODUCTION: CDC pneumococcal vaccination recommendations for older adults now include either 15- or 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV15/PCV20). However, an in-development 21-valent vaccine (PCV21), formulated based on adult pneumococcal disease epidemiology, could substantially increase coverage of disease-causing pneumococcal serotypes, particularly in Black older adults, who are at greater risk. The potential public health impact and cost-effectiveness of PCV21 compared to currently recommended vaccines in older adults is unclear. METHODS: A Markov decision model compared current pneumococcal vaccination recommendations to PCV21 use in Black and non-Black 65-year-old cohorts. CDC Active Bacterial Core surveillance data informed population and serotype-specific pneumococcal disease risk. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated using Delphi panel estimates and clinical trial data, with variation in sensitivity analyses. Potential indirect effects on adult disease from PCV15 childhood vaccination were examined. All model parameters were varied individually and collectively in sensitivity analyses. Scenarios with decreased PCV21 effectiveness and potential COVID-19 pandemic effects were also examined. RESULTS: In the Black cohort, the PCV21 strategy cost $88,478 per quality adjusted life-year (QALY) gained without and $97,952/QALY with childhood PCV15 indirect effects. PCV21 in the non-Black cohort cost $127,436/QALY gained without and $141,358/QALY with childhood PCV15 effects. Current recommendation strategies were economically unfavorable, regardless of population or indirect childhood vaccination effects. Results favoring PCV21 use were robust in sensitivity analyses and alternative scenarios. CONCLUSION: An in-development PCV21 vaccine would likely be economically and clinically favorable compared to currently recommended pneumococcal vaccines in older adults. While PCV21 was more favorable in Black cohort analyses, results for both Black and non-Black populations were economically reasonable, highlighting the potential importance of adult-specific pneumococcal vaccine formulations and, pending further investigation, potentially justifying a future general population recommendation for PCV21 use in older adults.

COVID-19 , Infecciones Neumocócicas , Humanos , Anciano , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vacunas Neumococicas , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Infecciones Neumocócicas/prevención & control , Infecciones Neumocócicas/epidemiología , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunas Conjugadas
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2315885, 2023 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244474


Importance: The association of multiple healthy sleep dimensions with post-COVID-19 condition (PCC), also known as long COVID, has not been investigated. Objective: To examine whether multidimensional sleep health before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection, was associated with the risk of PCC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study (2015-2021) included Nurses' Health Study II participants who reported testing positive (n = 2303) for SARS-CoV-2 infection in a substudy series of COVID-19-related surveys (n = 32 249) between April 2020 and November 2021. After exclusion for incomplete information about sleep health and nonresponse to a question about PCC, 1979 women were included in the analysis. Exposures: Sleep health was measured both before (June 1, 2015, to May 31, 2017) and early (April 1 to August 31, 2020) in the COVID-19 pandemic. Prepandemic sleep score was defined according to 5 dimensions: morning chronotype (assessed in 2015), 7 to 8 hours of sleep per day, low insomnia symptoms, no snoring, and no frequent daytime dysfunction (all assessed in 2017). On the first COVID-19 substudy survey (returned between April and August 2020), average daily sleep duration and sleep quality for the past 7 days were queried. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 infection and PCC (≥4 weeks of symptoms) were self-reported during 1 year of follow-up. Comparisons were examined between June 8, 2022, and January 9, 2023, using Poisson regression models. Results: Of the 1979 participants reporting SARS-CoV-2 infection (mean [SD] age, 64.7 [4.6] years; 1979 [100%] female; and 1924 [97.2%] White vs 55 [2.8%] other races and ethnicities), 845 (42.7%) were frontline health care workers, and 870 (44.0%) developed PCC. Compared with women who had a prepandemic sleep score of 0 or 1 (least healthy), those who scored 5 (most healthy) had a 30% lower risk of developing PCC (multivariable-adjusted relative risk, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.52-0.94; P for trend <.001). Associations did not differ by health care worker status. No or little daytime dysfunction prepandemic and good sleep quality during the pandemic were independently associated with a lower risk of PCC (relative risk, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.71-0.98] and 0.82 [95% CI, 0.69-0.99], respectively). Results were similar when PCC was defined as having 8 or more weeks of symptoms or as having ongoing symptoms at the time of PCC assessment. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings indicate that healthy sleep measured prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection, both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, may be protective against PCC. Future research should investigate whether interventions on sleep health may prevent PCC or improve PCC symptoms.

COVID-19 , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Masculino , COVID-19/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome Post Agudo de COVID-19 , Pandemias/prevención & control , Estudios Prospectivos , Calidad del Sueño
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e069217, 2023 06 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244402


OBJECTIVES: To describe self-reported characteristics and symptoms of treatment-seeking patients with post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS). To assess the impact of symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and patients' ability to work and undertake activities of daily living. DESIGN: Cross-sectional single-arm service evaluation of real-time user data. SETTING: 31 post-COVID-19 clinics in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 3754 adults diagnosed with PCS in primary or secondary care deemed suitable for rehabilitation. INTERVENTION: Patients using the Living With Covid Recovery digital health intervention registered between 30 November 2020 and 23 March 2022. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the baseline Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). WSAS measures the functional limitations of the patient; scores of ≥20 indicate moderately severe limitations. Other symptoms explored included fatigue (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-Eight Item Depression Scale), anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale, Seven-Item), breathlessness (Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale and Dyspnoea-12), cognitive impairment (Perceived Deficits Questionnaire, Five-Item Version) and HRQoL (EQ-5D). Symptoms and demographic characteristics associated with more severe functional limitations were identified using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: 3541 (94%) patients were of working age (18-65); mean age (SD) 48 (12) years; 1282 (71%) were female and 89% were white. 51% reported losing ≥1 days from work in the previous 4 weeks; 20% reported being unable to work at all. Mean WSAS score at baseline was 21 (SD 10) with 53% scoring ≥20. Factors associated with WSAS scores of ≥20 were high levels of fatigue, depression and cognitive impairment. Fatigue was found to be the main symptom contributing to a high WSAS score. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of this PCS treatment-seeking population was of working age with over half reporting moderately severe or worse functional limitation. There were substantial impacts on ability to work and activities of daily living in people with PCS. Clinical care and rehabilitation should address the management of fatigue as the dominant symptom explaining variation in functionality.

COVID-19 , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Actividades Cotidianas , COVID-19/complicaciones , Estudios Transversales , Fatiga/etiología , Síndrome Post Agudo de COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Anciano
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(6): 1743-1749, 2023 Jun.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243912


COVID-19 has had a powerful impact on society with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The use of an epidemiological indicator that estimates the burden of a disease by aggregating early mortality and non-fatal cases in a single measure has the potential to assist in the planning of more appropriate actions at different levels of health care. The scope of this article is to estimate the burden of disease due to COVID-19 in Florianópolis/SC from April 2020 through March 2021. An ecological study was carried out with data from notification and deaths by COVID-19 in the period of 12 months. The burden indicator called Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY) was used, obtained by adding the Years of Life Lost (YLL) to the Years of healthy life lost due to disability (YLD). A total of 78,907 confirmed COVID-19 cases were included. Of these, 763 died during the period under study. Overall, 4,496.9 DALYs were estimated, namely a rate of 883.8 DALYs per 100,000 inhabitants. In males, there were 2,693.1 DALYs, a rate of 1,098.0 DALYs per 100,000 males. In women, there were 1,803.8 DALYs, a rate of 684.4 DALYs per100,000 women. The age group most affected in both sexes was 60 to 69 years. The burden of COVID-19 was high in the city studied. The highest rates were in females and in the 60-69 age group.

A COVID-19 gerou impacto na sociedade com elevados índices de morbidade e mortalidade. A utilização de indicador epidemiológico que estime a carga de doença, agregando em uma medida a mortalidade precoce e os casos não fatais, tem potencial de auxiliar no planejamento de ações adequadas em diferentes níveis de atenção à saúde. O objetivo deste artigo é estimar a carga de doença por COVID-19 em Florianópolis/SC de abril de 2020 a março de 2021. Foi realizado um estudo ecológico com dados de notificação e óbitos por COVID-19 no período de 12 meses. Utilizou-se o indicador de carga denominado Anos de Vida Perdidos Ajustados por Incapacidade (DALY), obtido pela soma dos Anos de Vida Perdidos (YLL) com os Anos Vividos com Incapacidade (YLD). Foram incluídos 78.907 casos de COVID-19 confirmados. Desses, 763 evoluíram a óbito no período estudado. No total, foram estimados 4.496,6 DALYs, taxa de 883,8 DALYs/100.000 habitantes. No sexo masculino, foram 2.693,1 DALYs, taxa de 1.098,0 DALYs/100.000 homens. Em mulheres, foram 1.803,8 DALYs, taxa de 684,4 DALYs/100.000 mulheres. A faixa etária mais acometida em ambos os sexos foi de 60 a 69 anos. Foi alta a carga de COVID-19 na cidade estudada. As maiores taxas foram encontradas no sexo feminino e na faixa-etária de 60-69 anos.

COVID-19 , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , COVID-19/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Morbilidad , Estado de Salud , Costo de Enfermedad , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida
BMC Palliat Care ; 22(1): 70, 2023 Jun 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243871


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and its containment measures have drastically impacted end-of-life and grief experiences globally, including those related to medical assistance in dying (MAiD). No known qualitative studies to date have examined the MAiD experience during the pandemic. This qualitative study aimed to understand how the pandemic impacted the MAiD experience in hospital of persons requesting MAiD (patients) and their loved ones (caregivers) in Canada. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients who requested MAiD and their caregivers between April 2020 and May 2021. Participants were recruited during the first year of the pandemic from the University Health Network and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, Canada. Patients and caregivers were interviewed about their experience following the MAiD request. Six months following patient death, bereaved caregivers were interviewed to explore their bereavement experience. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and de-identified. Transcripts were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Interviews were conducted with 7 patients (mean [SD] age, 73 [12] years; 5 [63%] women) and 23 caregivers (mean [SD] age, 59 [11] years; 14 [61%] women). Fourteen caregivers were interviewed at the time of MAiD request and 13 bereaved caregivers were interviewed post-MAiD. Four themes were generated with respect to the impact of COVID-19 and its containment measures on the MAiD experience in hospital: (1) accelerating the MAiD decision; (2) compromising family understanding and coping; (3) disrupting MAiD delivery; and (4) appreciating rule flexibility. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the tension between respecting pandemic restrictions and prioritizing control over the dying circumstances central to MAiD, and the resulting impact on patient and family suffering. There is a need for healthcare institutions to recognize the relational dimensions of the MAiD experience, particularly in the isolating context of the pandemic. Findings may inform strategies to better support those requesting MAiD and their families during the pandemic and beyond.

COVID-19 , Cuidadores , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Masculino , Pandemias , Hospitales , Asistencia Médica
JAMA ; 329(22): 1934-1946, 2023 06 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243721


Importance: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with persistent, relapsing, or new symptoms or other health effects occurring after acute infection, termed postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), also known as long COVID. Characterizing PASC requires analysis of prospectively and uniformly collected data from diverse uninfected and infected individuals. Objective: To develop a definition of PASC using self-reported symptoms and describe PASC frequencies across cohorts, vaccination status, and number of infections. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective observational cohort study of adults with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection at 85 enrolling sites (hospitals, health centers, community organizations) located in 33 states plus Washington, DC, and Puerto Rico. Participants who were enrolled in the RECOVER adult cohort before April 10, 2023, completed a symptom survey 6 months or more after acute symptom onset or test date. Selection included population-based, volunteer, and convenience sampling. Exposure: SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: PASC and 44 participant-reported symptoms (with severity thresholds). Results: A total of 9764 participants (89% SARS-CoV-2 infected; 71% female; 16% Hispanic/Latino; 15% non-Hispanic Black; median age, 47 years [IQR, 35-60]) met selection criteria. Adjusted odds ratios were 1.5 or greater (infected vs uninfected participants) for 37 symptoms. Symptoms contributing to PASC score included postexertional malaise, fatigue, brain fog, dizziness, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, changes in sexual desire or capacity, loss of or change in smell or taste, thirst, chronic cough, chest pain, and abnormal movements. Among 2231 participants first infected on or after December 1, 2021, and enrolled within 30 days of infection, 224 (10% [95% CI, 8.8%-11%]) were PASC positive at 6 months. Conclusions and Relevance: A definition of PASC was developed based on symptoms in a prospective cohort study. As a first step to providing a framework for other investigations, iterative refinement that further incorporates other clinical features is needed to support actionable definitions of PASC.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Femenino , Adulto , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Masculino , COVID-19/complicaciones , Estudios Prospectivos , Síndrome Post Agudo de COVID-19 , Estudios de Cohortes , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Fatiga