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1.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 68(1): 43-53, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100322

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Because of the COVID-19 epidemic, people are mostly isolated at home and must seek medical advice over the internet. In addition, government authorities are currently investing greater efforts in developing internet hospitals. PURPOSE: The purpose of this essay was to assess how outpatients feel about online outpatient clinics and to analyze the factors that affect their satisfaction and willingness to return to these clinics. The results provide advice regarding how to more effectively encourage patients to use online outpatient clinics. METHODS: A self-developed questionnaire was used to survey 191 patients who had visited the online outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital in Sichuan Province from January to July 2019. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the collected data, and factors influencing satisfaction were identified. RESULTS: The majority of the surveyed patients were young or middle-aged (92.7%) and 42.9% held a college degree or higher. Nearly three-quarters (72.2%) expressed feeling satisfied or better with the online outpatient clinic, with 31.4% of these expressing feeling very satisfied. Nearly all (91.1%) expressed the opinion that the online outpatient clinic had improved their awareness of health self-management . Furthermore, 176 (92.1%) were willing to use the online outpatient clinic again. The results of univariate analysis showed that the main factors negatively influencing re-use of the online outpatient clinic were: failure to solve the problem in a timely manner (χ2 = 8.603, p = .045), the complicated process of online registration (χ2 = 8.322, p = .016), the failure of the online physical examination (χ2 = 8.958, p = .015), and unreliable quality (χ2 = 15.373, p = .004). CONCLUSIONS: The participants surveyed in this study reported a lower satisfaction for their online outpatient clinic experience than reported in similar surveys of traditional outpatient services. However, many reported that their health-related self-management awareness had improved after use, indicating that they feel better about the online outpatient clinic. The factors that affected willingness to reuse to the online outpatient clinic related mainly to imperfections related to the clinic and its inability to adequately meet patient needs. Online outpatient clinics should simplify the process of registration, improve functions, and increase service functions such as online examination appointments and follow-up visits to improve patient satisfaction.


Asunto(s)
Anciano , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Satisfacción del Paciente , Retratamiento , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021007, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094290

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study explored socioeconomic disparities in Korea using health insurance type as a proxy during the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using Korea's nationwide healthcare database, which contained all individuals who received a diagnostic test for COVID-19 (n=232,390) as of May 15, 2020. We classified our cohort by health insurance type into beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance (NHI) or Medicaid programs. Our study outcomes were infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and COVID-19-related outcomes, a composite of all-cause death, intensive care unit admission, and mechanical ventilation use. We estimated age-, sex-, and Charlson comorbidity index score-adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 218,070 NHI and 14,320 Medicaid beneficiaries who received COVID-19 tests, 7,777 and 738 tested positive, respectively. The Medicaid beneficiaries were older (mean age, 57.5 vs. 47.8 years), more likely to be males (47.2 vs. 40.2%), and had a higher comorbidity burden (mean CCI, 2.0 vs. 1.7) than NHI beneficiaries. Compared to NHI beneficiaries, Medicaid beneficiaries had a 22% increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (aOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.38), but had no significantly elevated risk of COVID-19-related outcomes (aOR 1.10, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.57); the individual events of the composite outcome yielded similar findings. CONCLUSIONS: As socioeconomic factors, with health insurance as a proxy, could serve as determinants during the current pandemic, pre-emptive support is needed for high-risk groups to slow its spread.


Asunto(s)
/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/economía , Seguro de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Revisión de Utilización de Seguros , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24720, 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091182

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to explore the management experience of outpatient with totally implantable central venous access Ports (TIVAPs, Ports) during the epidemic, including whether the extension of the irrigation interval will affect the incidence of catheter occlusion, the reasons for the port removal rate, and the corresponding protective treatment strategies during the COVID-19 epidemic.We retrospectively analyzed the Ports evaluation and flushing procedure data between February 3, 2020 and April 3, 2020; the cases were divided into the normal group and delayed group according to the critical point of the maintenance interval of 28 days (4 weeks). We compared the incidence of catheter obstruction between the 2 groups, analyzed the causes of catheter removal events in the 2 groups, and proposed corresponding protective treatment recommendations.During the period, 329 cases were included in the study. There was no significant difference in the incidence of catheter obstruction between the 2 groups. There were 15 patients with catheter removal, 8 cases of infection, 5 cases of catheter obstruction, and 1 case of an ectopic catheter, as well as 1 case of an overturned port. During the epidemic, no hospital infections related to the Ports flushing procedure occurred.The interval of Ports flushing procedures for patients without clinical symptoms can be appropriately extended during the COVID-19 epidemic. However, once the local infection symptoms or other sources of discomfort appear, Ports assessment needs to be performed as soon as possible. Take enhanced protected and isolation measures did not increase cross-infection during outpatient's flushing procedure at non-COVID-19-designated diagnosis and treatment hospitals.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Cateterismo Venoso Central , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Remoción de Dispositivos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 192, 2021 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090689

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic that has raised worldwide concern. This study aims to investigate the correlation between the extent of lung infection and relevant clinical laboratory testing indicators in COVID-19 and to analyse its underlying mechanism. METHODS: Chest high-resolution computer tomography (CT) images and laboratory examination data of 31 patients with COVID-19 were extracted, and the lesion areas in CT images were quantitatively segmented and calculated using a deep learning (DL) system. A cross-sectional study method was carried out to explore the differences among the proportions of lung lobe infection and to correlate the percentage of infection (POI) of the whole lung in all patients with clinical laboratory examination values. RESULTS: No significant difference in the proportion of infection was noted among various lung lobes (P > 0.05). The POI of total lung was negatively correlated with the peripheral blood lymphocyte percentage (L%) (r = - 0.633, P < 0.001) and lymphocyte (LY) count (r = - 0.555, P = 0.001) but positively correlated with the neutrophil percentage (N%) (r = 0.565, P = 0.001). Otherwise, the POI was not significantly correlated with the peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC) count, monocyte percentage (M%) or haemoglobin (HGB) content. In some patients, as the infection progressed, the L% and LY count decreased progressively accompanied by a continuous increase in the N%. CONCLUSIONS: Lung lesions in COVID-19 patients are significantly correlated with the peripheral blood lymphocyte and neutrophil levels, both of which could serve as prognostic indicators that provide warning implications, and contribute to clinical interventions in patients.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico por imagen , Pulmón/patología , Aprendizaje Automático , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Pulmón/virología , Recuento de Linfocitos , Linfocitos/citología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neutrófilos/citología , Pandemias , Pronóstico , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 187, 2021 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090687

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Thresholds for SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays have typically been determined using samples from symptomatic, often hospitalised, patients. In this setting the sensitivity and specificity of the best performing assays can both exceed 98%. However, antibody assay performance following mild infection is less clear. METHODS: We assessed quantitative IgG responses in a cohort of healthcare workers in Oxford, UK, with a high pre-test probability of Covid-19, in particular the 991/11,475(8.6%) who reported loss of smell/taste. We use anosmia/ageusia and other risk factors as probes for Covid-19 infection potentially undiagnosed by immunoassays by investigating their relationship with antibody readings either side of assay thresholds. RESULTS: The proportion of healthcare workers reporting anosmia/ageusia increased at antibody readings below diagnostic thresholds using an in-house ELISA (n = 9324) and the Abbott Architect chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA; n = 11,324): 426/906 (47%) reported anosmia/ageusia with a positive ELISA, 59/449 (13.1%) with high-negative and 326/7969 (4.1%) with low-negative readings. Similarly, by CMIA, 518/1093 (47.4%) with a positive result reported anosmia/ageusia, 106/686 (15.5%) with a high-negative and 358/9563 (3.7%) with a low-negative result. Adjusting for the proportion of staff reporting anosmia/ageusia suggests the sensitivity of both assays in mild infection is lower than previously reported: Oxford ELISA 89.8% (95%CI 86.6-92.8%) and Abbott CMIA 79.3% (75.9-82.7%). CONCLUSION: Following mild SARS-CoV-2 infection 10-30% of individuals may have negative immunoassay results. While lowered diagnostic thresholds may result in unacceptable specificity, our findings have implications for epidemiological analyses and result interpretation in individuals with a high pre-test probability. Samples from mild PCR-confirmed infections should be included in SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay evaluations.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/análisis , /diagnóstico , Inmunoglobulina G/análisis , Adulto , Ageusia/virología , Infecciones Asintomáticas , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/normas , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Inmunoensayo/normas , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Enfermedades no Diagnosticadas , Reino Unido
7.
Malar J ; 20(1): 88, 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090664

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a serious health threat in the Amazonas Region of Peru and approximately 95% of the cases, mainly Plasmodium vivax, are found in native communities of The Rio Santiago District, Condorcanqui Province. In 2019, more than one thousand malaria cases were reported, with an unusual number of Plasmodium falciparum autochthonous cases. The present study aims to report this P. falciparum outbreak while describing the epidemiology of malaria and the risk factors associated in the native communities of Amazonas, Peru. METHODS: The DIRESA-Amazonas in collaboration with the Condorcanqui Health Network and the Institute of Tropical Diseases of the UNTRM carried out a malaria Active Case Detection (ACD III) between January 31st and February 10th of 2020. A total of 2718 (47.4%) individuals from 21 native communities grouped in eight sanitary districts, were screened for malaria infections. Each participant was screened for malaria using microscopy. Follow-up surveys were conducted for all malaria positive individuals to collect socio-demographic data. Spatial clustering of infection risk was calculated using a generalized linear model (GLM). Analysis of risk considered factors such as gender, age, type of infection, symptomatology, and parasitaemia. RESULTS: The study suggests that the P. falciparum index case was imported from Loreto and later spread to other communities of Rio Santiago during 2019. The ACD III reported 220 (8.1%) malaria cases, 46 P. falciparum, 168 P. vivax and 6 mixed infections. SaTScan analysis detected a cluster of high infection risk in Middle Rio Santiago and a particular high P. falciparum infection risk cluster in Upper Rio Santiago. Interestingly, the evaluation of different risk factors showed significant associations between low parasitaemia and P. falciparum asymptomatic cases. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a P. falciparum outbreak in native communities of Condorcanqui, Amazonas. Timely identification and treatment of symptomatic and asymptomatic cases are critical to achieve malaria control and possible elimination in this area. However, the current malaria situation in Condorcanqui is uncertain, given that malaria ACD activities have been postponed due to COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú/epidemiología , Población Rural , Adulto Joven
8.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 72, 2021 02 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090630

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is responsible for many hospitalizations in intensive care units (ICU), with widespread use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) which exposes patients to the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The characteristics of VAP in COVID-19 patients remain unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on all patients hospitalized for COVID-19 during the first phase of the epidemic in one of the seven ICUs of the Pays-de-Loire region (North-West France) and who were on invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h. We studied the characteristics of VAP in these patients. VAP was diagnosed based on official recommendations, and we included only cases of VAP that were confirmed by a quantitative microbiological culture. FINDINGS: We analyzed data from 188 patients. Of these patients, 48.9% had VAP and 19.7% experienced multiple episodes. Our study showed an incidence of 39.0 VAP per 1000 days of IMV (until the first VAP episode) and an incidence of 33.7 VAP per 1000 days of IMV (including all 141 episodes of VAP). Multi-microbial VAP accounted for 39.0% of all VAP, and 205 pathogens were identified. Enterobacteria accounted for 49.8% of all the isolated pathogens. Bacteremia was associated in 15 (10.6%) cases of VAP. Pneumonia was complicated by thoracic empyema in five cases (3.5%) and by pulmonary abscess in two cases (1.4%). Males were associated with a higher risk of VAP (sHR 2.24 CI95% [1.18; 4.26] p = 0.013). INTERPRETATION: Our study showed an unusually high incidence of VAP in patients admitted to the ICU for severe COVID-19, even though our services were not inundated during the first wave of the epidemic. We also noted a significant proportion of enterobacteria. VAP-associated complications (abscess, empyema) were not exceptional. REGISTRATION: As an observational study, this study has not been registered.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Neumonía Asociada al Ventilador/epidemiología , Neumonía Asociada al Ventilador/microbiología , Respiración Artificial/efectos adversos , Anciano , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos
9.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e20200576, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090510

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Reflect, in the light of the Health Belief Model, on the adoption of behavioral measures in the context of COVID-19. METHODS: Theoretical-reflective essay, based on the Health Belief Model, to reflect on adherence to preventive behaviors in the pandemic of COVID-19. RESULTS: Adherence to preventive behaviors is strongly influenced by socioeconomic, territorial, political and individual factors in the face of critical health situations. In addition, the spread of false news modulates the thinking and execution of behavioral actions in the population. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: It is necessary to understand the importance of health communication processes and the use of tools aimed at responsible human behavior and engaged in the adoption of a preventive posture.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , /psicología , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Participación del Paciente/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e20200602, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090509

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To report the experience of a Virtual Culture Circle with Brazilian families about coping with COVID-19, as a space that promotes health during the pandemic. METHOD: Experience resulting from an extension action, the Virtual Culture Circle was held based on Paulo Freire's Research Itinerary. It counted with the participation of seven families from different locations in Brazil. During the dialogues, a house was built: the foundation represented the thematic research; walls and roof, coding and decoding; doors and windows, the critical unveiling. RESULTS: The action-reflection-action process favored the approach and integration of the participants of the Culture Circle; despite the geographical distance, it is an innovative strategy for empowerment and health promotion. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: The Virtual Culture Circle constituted a soft technology for health care and can be explored as a tool for promoting health, especially in scenarios where face-to-face meetings are an impossibility.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Realidad Virtual , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa
11.
JSLS ; 24(4)2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090243

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the use of social media platforms by medical students, surgical trainees, and practicing surgeons for surgical education during the Covid-19 pandemic. Methods: An online, 15-question survey was developed and posted on Facebook and WhatsApp closed surgeon groups. Results: The online survey was completed by 219 participants from South America (87%), North America (7%), Europe (5%), Central America, and Asia. Respondents included medical students (6.4%), surgical residents/fellows (24.2%), and practicing surgeons (69.4%). The most common age group was 35-44 years. When asked which social media platforms they preferred, the video sharing site YouTube (33.3%), the messaging app WhatsApp (21%), and "other" (including videoconferencing sites) (22.3%) were most popular. Respondents reported using social media for surgical education either daily (38.4%) or weekly (45.2%), for an average of 1-5 hours/week. Most (85%) opined that surgical conferences that were cancelled during the pandemic should be made available online, with live discussions. Conclusion: Social media use for surgical education during Covid-19 appears to be increasing and evolving.


Asunto(s)
Educación a Distancia/métodos , Educación Médica/métodos , Cirugía General/educación , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Américas/epidemiología , Asia/epidemiología , /prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Educación a Distancia/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación Médica/tendencias , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Cirugía General/tendencias , Salud Global , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
12.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05001, 2021 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090198

RESUMEN

Background: On 12 June 2020, Brazil reached the second position worldwide in the number of COVID-19 cases. Authorities increased the number of tests performed, including the identification of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 (IgG, IgA, and IgM). There was an overflooding of the market with several tests, and the presence of possible false-positive results became a challenge. The purpose of this study was to describe the seroprevalence and immunoglobulin blood levels in a group of asymptomatic individuals using the reference levels provided by the manufacturer. Methods: Levels of IgG and IgA antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were determined in blood serum by the same ELISA (enzyme-linked immunoassay) test. Patients must be free of symptoms. Results: From 20 to 22 May 2020, 938 individuals were tested. There were 441 (47%) men, age 53 years (interquartile range (IQR) = 39-63.2). The sample included 335 (35.7%) subjects aged ≥60 years old. Subjects with a positive test were 54 (5.8%) for IgG and 96 (10.2%) for IgA and 42 (4.5%) for both IgG and IgA. The prevalence of IgG and IgA positive test was not different in men and women and not different in individuals under 60 and over 60 years of age. Conversely, analysing only individuals with positive tests, the levels of IgG in positive subjects were significantly higher than those with an IgA positive test, 3.00 (IQR = 1.68-5.65), and 1.95 (IQR = 1.40-3.38), respectively; P = 0.017. Additionally, individuals with isolated IgA positive tests had significantly lower levels of IgA than those with both IgA and IgG positive tests: 1.95 (IQR = 1.60-2.40) and 3.15 (IQR = 2.20-3.90), respectively, P = 0.005. These latter data suggest that IgA shows a deviation of the distribution to the left in comparison to IgG distribution data. Indeed, many subjects reported as IgA positive had immunoglobulin levels slightly elevated. Conclusions: In conclusion, we strongly suggest caution in the interpretation of IgA test results. This recommendation is more important for those with positive IgA just above the reference level.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Reacciones Falso Positivas , Inmunoglobulina A/sangre , /inmunología , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valores de Referencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(7): 250-253, 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089244

RESUMEN

Certain hazard controls, including physical barriers, cloth face masks, and other personal protective equipment (PPE), are recommended to reduce coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) transmission in the workplace (1). Evaluation of occupational hazard control use for COVID-19 prevention can identify inadequately protected workers and opportunities to improve use. CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health used data from the June 2020 SummerStyles survey to characterize required and voluntary use of COVID-19-related occupational hazard controls among U.S. non-health care workers. A survey-weighted regression model was used to estimate the association between employer provision of hazard controls and voluntary use, and stratum-specific adjusted risk differences (aRDs) among workers reporting household incomes <250% and ≥250% of national poverty thresholds were estimated to assess effect modification by income. Approximately one half (45.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 41.0%-50.3%) of non-health care workers reported use of hazard controls in the workplace, 55.5% (95% CI = 48.8%-62.2%) of whom reported employer requirements to use them. After adjustment for occupational group and proximity to others at work, voluntary use was approximately double, or 22.3 absolute percentage points higher, among workers who were provided hazard controls than among those who were not. This effect was more apparent among lower-income (aRD = 31.0%) than among higher-income workers (aRD = 16.3%). Employers can help protect workers from COVID-19 by requiring and encouraging use of occupational hazard controls and providing hazard controls to employees (1).


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Programas Obligatorios/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Programas Voluntarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Accesibilidad Arquitectónica/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Equipo de Protección Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Lugar de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(7): 229-235, 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089241

RESUMEN

During 2018, Black or African American (Black) persons accounted for 43% of all diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the United States (1). Among Black persons with diagnosed HIV infection in 41 states and the District of Columbia for whom complete laboratory reporting* was available, the percentages of Black persons linked to care within 1 month of diagnosis (77.1%) and with viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis (62.9%) during 2018 were lower than the Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative objectives of 95% for linkage to care and viral suppression goals (2). Access to HIV-related care and treatment services varies by residence area (3-5). Identifying urban-rural differences in HIV care outcomes is crucial for addressing HIV-related disparities among Black persons with HIV infection. CDC used National HIV Surveillance System† (NHSS) data to describe HIV care outcomes among Black persons with diagnosed HIV infection during 2018 by population area of residence§ (area). During 2018, Black persons in rural areas received a higher percentage of late-stage diagnoses (25.2%) than did those in urban (21.9%) and metropolitan (19.0%) areas. Linkage to care within 1 month of diagnosis was similar across all areas, whereas viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis was highest in metropolitan areas (63.8%). The Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative supports scalable, coordinated, and innovative efforts to increase HIV diagnosis, treatment, and prevention among populations disproportionately affected by or who are at higher risk for HIV infection (6), especially during syndemics (e.g. with coronavirus disease 2019).


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH/etnología , Infecciones por VIH/terapia , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ciudades , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
15.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 70, 2021 02 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088611

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The early months of the COVID-19 pandemic were fraught with much uncertainty and some resource constraint. We assessed the change in survival to hospital discharge over time for intensive care unit patients with COVID-19 during the first 3 months of the pandemic and the presence of any surge effects on patient outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using electronic medical record data for all patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units from February 25, 2020, to May 15, 2020, at one of 26 hospitals within an integrated delivery system in the Western USA. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and severity of illness were measured along with medical therapies and hospital outcomes over time. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess temporal changes in survival to hospital discharge during the study period. RESULTS: Of 620 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU [mean age 63.5 years (SD 15.7) and 69% male], 403 (65%) survived to hospital discharge and 217 (35%) died in the hospital. Survival to hospital discharge increased over time, from 60.0% in the first 2 weeks of the study period to 67.6% in the last 2 weeks. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, the risk-adjusted odds of survival to hospital discharge increased over time (biweekly change, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.40, P = 0.02). Additionally, an a priori-defined explanatory model showed that after adjusting for both hospital occupancy and percent hospital capacity by COVID-19-positive individuals and persons under investigation (PUI), the temporal trend in risk-adjusted patient survival to hospital discharge remained the same (biweekly change, aOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.38, P = 0.04). The presence of greater rates of COVID-19 positive/PUI as a percentage of hospital capacity was, however, significantly and inversely associated with survival to hospital discharge (aOR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: During the early COVID-19 pandemic, risk-adjusted survival to hospital discharge increased over time for critical care patients. An association was also seen between a greater COVID-19-positive/PUI percentage of hospital capacity and a lower survival rate to hospital discharge.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Pandemias , Alta del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Cuidados Críticos , Femenino , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Análisis de Supervivencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
18.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 79, 2021 02 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088601

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Sars-CoV-2 can cause severe pneumonia with multiorgan disease; thus, the identification of clinical and laboratory predictors of the progression towards severe and fatal forms of this illness is needed. Here, we retrospectively evaluated and integrated laboratory parameters of 45 elderly subjects from a long-term care facility with Sars-CoV-2 outbreak and spread, to identify potential common patterns of systemic response able to better stratify patients' clinical course and outcome. METHODS: Baseline white blood cells, granulocytes', lymphocytes', and platelets' counts, hemoglobin, total iron, ferritin, D-dimer, and interleukin-6 concentration were used to generate a principal component analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by using R statistical package version 4.0. RESULTS: We identified 3 laboratory patterns of response, renamed as low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk, strongly associated with patients' survival (p < 0.01). D-dimer, iron status, lymphocyte/monocyte count represented the main markers discriminating high- and low-risk groups. Patients belonging to the high-risk group presented a significantly longer time to ferritin decrease (p: 0.047). Iron-to-ferritin-ratio (IFR) significantly segregated recovered and dead patients in the intermediate-risk group (p: 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that a combination of few laboratory parameters, i.e. iron status, D-dimer and lymphocyte/monocyte count at admission and during the hospital stay, can predict clinical progression in COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Productos de Degradación de Fibrina-Fibrinógeno/análisis , Hierro/sangre , Linfocitos/patología , Monocitos/patología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Biomarcadores/sangre , /mortalidad , Femenino , Productos de Degradación de Fibrina-Fibrinógeno/metabolismo , Humanos , Recuento de Leucocitos , Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recuento de Plaquetas , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 367, 2021 02 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088589

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The use of face masks remains contentious, with international variation in practice. Their prevalence in the UK, is likely to increase due to new legislation. Clear information regarding the appropriate use of masks is needed, to ensure compliance with policies to reduce transmission of COVID-19. We aimed to assess the impact of visual representations of guidance, or infographics, upon the knowledge of appropriate face mask usage in a representative UK cohort. METHODS: Adult patients were recruited to this randomised internet-based questionnaire study during the 12-14 May 2020 from across the UK. Respondents viewed one of five public health stimuli regarding the use of face masks, or no stimulus. The groups accessed aids by the European Centre for Disease Control (EUCDC), World Health Organisation (WHO), Singaporean Ministry of Health (SMOH), text from the UK government (UK Gov), or an infographic designed by the Behavioural Insights Team (BIT). The primary outcome was to evaluate the effect of each infographic upon participants' recall of face mask technique, sentiments and willingness to wear a face covering. Secondary outcomes included the effect of symptomology and socio-demographic factors. RESULTS: 4099 respondents were randomised (1009 control, 628 EUCDC, 526 WHO, 639 SMOH, 661 UKGOV and 606 BIT). Stimuli from the WHO, SMOH and BIT demonstrated significantly higher average recall scores compared to the controls (7.40 v. 7.38 v. 7.34 v. 6.97, P < 0.001). BIT's stimulus led to the highest confidence about mask-wearing (87%). Only 48.2% of the cohort felt stimuli reduced anxiety about COVID-19. However, willingness to use a mask was high, (range 84 to 88%). CONCLUSIONS: To ensure the appropriate use of masks, as mandated by UK law, guidance must provide sufficient information, yet remain understandable. Infographics can aid the recall of correct mask techniques by highlighting salient steps and reducing cognitive burden. They have also demonstrated greater trustworthiness than text-only guidance. The effect of infographics upon COVID-19-related anxiety was poor, and they should be further developed to address this sentiment. A willingness to wear face masks has, however, been demonstrated.


Asunto(s)
Recursos Audiovisuales , Educación en Salud/métodos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Máscaras/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 99, 2021 02 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088585

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic have caused mental and psychological problems on the general population, patients, and related workers. Our study is to determine the impact of mental and psychological symptoms among population in quarantine for 2 weeks during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A case-controlled study design have conducted at department of psychiatry of Shenzhen Longgang Center for Chronic Disease Control in Shenzhen, China mainland from 7th April to 15th June 2020.1674 participants (aged 18 to 65 years) in quarantine for 2 weeks and 1743 age-sex matched controls living in Shenzhen were recruited between 7th April 2020 and 15th June 2020. The assessment of depressive, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms were determined by self-reported questionnaires PHQ-9, GAD-7, and ISI, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 1674 participants in quarantine for 2 weeks and 1743 age-sex matched controls (32.6 ± 9.3 years vs. 32.7 ± 10.7 years, 49.8% vs. 47.8% females) were recruited. Population in quarantine had higher score on PHQ-9 (6.1 ± 5.5 vs. 3.0 ± 3.7, p < 0.001), GAD-7 (4.2 ± 4.7 vs. 1.9 ± 3.7, p < 0·001), and ISI (5.5 ± 5.8 vs. 3.1 ± 5.0%, p < 0.001) compared to general population. Population in quarantine showed significantly higher risks of depression (OR: 4.55, 95% CI: 3.82-5.41), anxiety (OR: 2.92, 95% CI: 2.43-3.51), and insomnia (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 2.02-2.89), when compared to the general population. Younger, more education, non-married and lower household income showed higher risks of mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: Population in quarantine had a higher level of depressive, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms than controls. Specifically, they were at a higher risk prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia, especially the severity of depression, when compared to controls. Younger, more education, non-married, and lower income population in quarantine were at higher risks of mental health problems. Mental health professionals should pay attention to the mental and psychological symptoms for population in quarantine.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Cuarentena , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
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