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1.
Public Health Rep ; 136(3): 327-337, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223668

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Few US studies have examined the usefulness of participatory surveillance during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic for enhancing local health response efforts, particularly in rural settings. We report on the development and implementation of an internet-based COVID-19 participatory surveillance tool in rural Appalachia. METHODS: A regional collaboration among public health partners culminated in the design and implementation of the COVID-19 Self-Checker, a local online symptom tracker. The tool collected data on participant demographic characteristics and health history. County residents were then invited to take part in an automated daily electronic follow-up to monitor symptom progression, assess barriers to care and testing, and collect data on COVID-19 test results and symptom resolution. RESULTS: Nearly 6500 county residents visited and 1755 residents completed the COVID-19 Self-Checker from April 30 through June 9, 2020. Of the 579 residents who reported severe or mild COVID-19 symptoms, COVID-19 symptoms were primarily reported among women (n = 408, 70.5%), adults with preexisting health conditions (n = 246, 70.5%), adults aged 18-44 (n = 301, 52.0%), and users who reported not having a health care provider (n = 131, 22.6%). Initial findings showed underrepresentation of some racial/ethnic and non-English-speaking groups. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: This low-cost internet-based platform provided a flexible means to collect participatory surveillance data on local changes in COVID-19 symptoms and adapt to guidance. Data from this tool can be used to monitor the efficacy of public health response measures at the local level in rural Appalachia.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Recolección de Datos/métodos , Intervención basada en la Internet , Vigilancia en Salud Pública/métodos , Autoinforme , Evaluación de Síntomas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Región de los Apalaches/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Participación del Paciente , Adulto Joven
2.
JAMA ; 325(15): 1535-1544, 2021 04 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222577

RESUMEN

Importance: Control of the global COVID-19 pandemic will require the development and deployment of safe and effective vaccines. Objective: To evaluate the immunogenicity of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) in humans, including the kinetics, magnitude, and phenotype of SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Design, Setting, and Participants: Twenty-five participants were enrolled from July 29, 2020, to August 7, 2020, and the follow-up for this day 71 interim analysis was completed on October 3, 2020; follow-up to assess durability will continue for 2 years. This study was conducted at a single clinical site in Boston, Massachusetts, as part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 clinical trial of Ad26.COV2.S. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive 1 or 2 intramuscular injections with 5 × 1010 viral particles or 1 × 1011 viral particles of Ad26.COV2.S vaccine or placebo administered on day 1 and day 57 (5 participants in each group). Main Outcomes and Measures: Humoral immune responses included binding and neutralizing antibody responses at multiple time points following immunization. Cellular immune responses included immunospot-based and intracellular cytokine staining assays to measure T-cell responses. Results: Twenty-five participants were randomized (median age, 42; age range, 22-52; 52% women, 44% male, 4% undifferentiated), and all completed the trial through the day 71 interim end point. Binding and neutralizing antibodies emerged rapidly by day 8 after initial immunization in 90% and 25% of vaccine recipients, respectively. By day 57, binding and neutralizing antibodies were detected in 100% of vaccine recipients after a single immunization. On day 71, the geometric mean titers of spike-specific binding antibodies were 2432 to 5729 and the geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies were 242 to 449 in the vaccinated groups. A variety of antibody subclasses, Fc receptor binding properties, and antiviral functions were induced. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were induced. Conclusion and Relevance: In this phase 1 study, a single immunization with Ad26.COV2.S induced rapid binding and neutralization antibody responses as well as cellular immune responses. Two phase 3 clinical trials are currently underway to determine the efficacy of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04436276.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , /prevención & control , Inmunidad Celular , Inmunogenicidad Vacunal , Adulto , /administración & dosificación , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunidad Humoral , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Potencia de la Vacuna , Adulto Joven
3.
JAMA ; 325(15): 1525-1534, 2021 04 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222575

RESUMEN

Importance: Little is known about long-term sequelae of COVID-19. Objective: To describe the consequences at 4 months in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a prospective uncontrolled cohort study, survivors of COVID-19 who had been hospitalized in a university hospital in France between March 1 and May 29, 2020, underwent a telephone assessment 4 months after discharge, between July 15 and September 18, 2020. Patients with relevant symptoms and all patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit (ICU) were invited for further assessment at an ambulatory care visit. Exposures: Survival of hospitalization for COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Respiratory, cognitive, and functional symptoms were assessed by telephone with the Q3PC cognitive screening questionnaire and a checklist of symptoms. At the ambulatory care visit, patients underwent pulmonary function tests, lung computed tomographic scan, psychometric and cognitive tests (including the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey and 20-item Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), and, for patients who had been hospitalized in the ICU or reported ongoing symptoms, echocardiography. Results: Among 834 eligible patients, 478 were evaluated by telephone (mean age, 61 years [SD, 16 years]; 201 men, 277 women). During the telephone interview, 244 patients (51%) declared at least 1 symptom that did not exist before COVID-19: fatigue in 31%, cognitive symptoms in 21%, and new-onset dyspnea in 16%. There was further evaluation in 177 patients (37%), including 97 of 142 former ICU patients. The median 20-item Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory score (n = 130) was 4.5 (interquartile range, 3.0-5.0) for reduced motivation and 3.7 (interquartile range, 3.0-4.5) for mental fatigue (possible range, 1 [best] to 5 [worst]). The median 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey score (n = 145) was 25 (interquartile range, 25.0-75.0) for the subscale "role limited owing to physical problems" (possible range, 0 [best] to 100 [worst]). Computed tomographic lung-scan abnormalities were found in 108 of 171 patients (63%), mainly subtle ground-glass opacities. Fibrotic lesions were observed in 33 of 171 patients (19%), involving less than 25% of parenchyma in all but 1 patient. Fibrotic lesions were observed in 19 of 49 survivors (39%) with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Among 94 former ICU patients, anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms were observed in 23%, 18%, and 7%, respectively. The left ventricular ejection fraction was less than 50% in 8 of 83 ICU patients (10%). New-onset chronic kidney disease was observed in 2 ICU patients. Serology was positive in 172 of 177 outpatients (97%). Conclusions and Relevance: Four months after hospitalization for COVID-19, a cohort of patients frequently reported symptoms not previously present, and lung-scan abnormalities were common among those who were tested. These findings are limited by the absence of a control group and of pre-COVID assessments in this cohort. Further research is needed to understand longer-term outcomes and whether these findings reflect associations with the disease.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Hospitalización , Enfermedades Pulmonares/etiología , Pulmón/patología , Anciano , Ansiedad/etiología , Trastornos del Conocimiento/etiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Depresión/etiología , Disnea/etiología , Fatiga/etiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades Pulmonares/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 648360, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221994

RESUMEN

The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 pneumonia is varied. Thus, it is important to identify risk factors at an early stage for predicting deterioration that require transferring the patients to ICU. A retrospective multicenter study was conducted on COVID-19 patients admitted to designated hospitals in China from Jan 17, 2020, to Feb 17, 2020. Clinical presentation, laboratory data, and quantitative CT parameters were also collected. The result showed that increasing risks of ICU admission were associated with age > 60 years (odds ratio [OR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.42-24.61; P = 0.032), coexisting conditions (OR, 5.55; 95% CI, 1.59-19.38; P = 0.007) and CT derived total opacity percentage (TOP) (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.45-39.29; P = 0.016). In conclusion, older age, coexisting conditions, larger TOP at the time of hospital admission are associated with ICU admission in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Early monitoring the progression of the disease and implementing appropriate therapies are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Anciano , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
5.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 41(4): 562-566, 2021 Apr 20.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220174

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the necessity, safety and feasibility of painless fiberoptic bronchoscopy in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of 33 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who received painless fiberoptic bronchoscopy in Wuhan First Hospital. The general demographic and clinical data of the patients including age, gender, and ASA classification were collected. The patients received intravenous anesthesia with topical airway anesthesia with lidocaine. The changes in the vital signs of the patients were recorded before, during and after the procedure. The cough intensity of the patients during bronchoscopy were evaluated, and the adverse reactions within 24 h after the procedure were observed. The health status of the medical staff carrying out the procedure was also monitored. OBJECTIVE: The 33 patients with ASA class Ⅱ to Ⅳ included 19 male and 14 female patients with an average age of 63.58±11.85 years. The lowest SpO2 of the patients during bronchoscopy was (94.8±4.3)%, which was significantly lower than that before the procedure [(99.1±1.3)%, P < 0.05] but was restored to more than 95% after such treatment as holding the jaw to open the airway or face mask positive-pressure ventilation. Bronchoscopy was completed successfully in all the patients, and 28 patients (84.85%) had mild cough during the procedure. None of the patients had obvious complications related to anesthesia. While performing the procedure, all the medical staff used third-level protection and facial protection with powered air-purifying respirators (PAPR), and the patients' face were covered with single-use sterile medical plastic curtains that were originally intended for collecting flushing fluid during arthroscopic procedures. No medical personnel was diagnosed with COVID-19 at the end of the study. OBJECTIVE: For patients with COVID-19, painless techniques can be valuable during bronchoscopy, and this procedure can be safe and feasible under third-level protection.


Asunto(s)
Broncoscopía , Anciano , Bronquios , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos
6.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(5): 799-806, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219727

RESUMEN

Rationale: The natural history of recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unknown. Because fibrosis with persistent physiological deficit is a previously described feature of patients recovering from similar coronaviruses, treatment represents an early opportunity to modify the disease course, potentially preventing irreversible impairment.Objectives: Determine the incidence of and describe the progression of persistent inflammatory interstitial lung disease (ILD) following SARS-CoV-2 when treated with prednisolone.Methods: A structured assessment protocol screened for sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonitis. Eight hundred thirty-seven patients were assessed by telephone 4 weeks after discharge. Those with ongoing symptoms had outpatient assessment at 6 weeks. Thirty patients diagnosed with persistent interstitial lung changes at a multidisciplinary team meeting were reviewed in the interstitial lung disease service and offered treatment. These patients had persistent, nonimproving symptoms.Results: At 4 weeks after discharge, 39% of patients reported ongoing symptoms (325/837) and were assessed. Interstitial lung disease, predominantly organizing pneumonia, with significant functional deficit was observed in 35/837 survivors (4.8%). Thirty of these patients received steroid treatment, resulting in a mean relative increase in transfer factor following treatment of 31.6% (standard deviation [SD] ± 27.6, P < 0.001), and forced vital capacity of 9.6% (SD ± 13.0, P = 0.014), with significant symptomatic and radiological improvement.Conclusions: Following SARS-CoV-2 pneumonitis, a cohort of patients are left with both radiological inflammatory lung disease and persistent physiological and functional deficit. Early treatment with corticosteroids was well tolerated and associated with rapid and significant improvement. These preliminary data should inform further study into the natural history and potential treatment for patients with persistent inflammatory ILD following SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Posteriores/métodos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales , Pulmón , Pruebas de Función Respiratoria/métodos , /mortalidad , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Pulmón/fisiopatología , Pulmón/virología , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/etiología , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/fisiopatología , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/terapia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Alta del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Sobrevivientes/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Síntomas/métodos , Evaluación de Síntomas/estadística & datos numéricos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Reino Unido/epidemiología
7.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 97, 2021 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219368

RESUMEN

AIMS: Hyperuricemia has attracted increasing attention. However, limited concern has been paid to the potential dangers of lowering serum uric acid (SUA). We observed lower levels of SUA in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, we aim to explore whether patients with COVID-19 had SUA lower than normal and the relationship of SUA and the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: This was a case-control study based on 91 cases with COVID-19 and 273 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. We first compared SUA levels and uric acid/creatinine (UA/Cr) ratio between patients with COVID-19 and the healthy controls. Then, we examined the association of SUA levels and UA/Cr ratios with COVID-19 severity in COVID-19 cases only, defined according to the fifth edition of China's Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines of COVID-19. RESULTS: SUA levels in patients with COVID-19 were 2.59% lower, UA/Cr ratios 6.06% lower at admission compared with healthy controls. In sex stratified analysis, levels of SUA and UA/Cr were lower in male patients with COVID-19 while only level of SUA was lower in female patients with COVID-19. Moreover, SUA and UA/Cr values were 4.27 and 8.23% lower in the severe group than that in the moderate group among male COVID-19 patients. Bivariate and partial correlations analysis showed negative correlations between SUA or UA/Cr ratio and COVID-19 after adjusting for age, sex, BMI and eGFR. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection and male sex were independent risk factors associated with lower SUA levels. Male patients with COVID-19 accompanied by low SUA levels had higher risk of developing severe symptoms than those with high SUA levels (incidence rate ratio: 4.05; 95% CI:1.11, 14.72) at admission. Comparing SUA and UA/Cr ratio at three time points (admission, discharge, and follow-up), we found that male patients experienced severe symptoms had lower SUA and UA/Cr ratio levels comparing to moderate patients, but no significant difference between three time points. On the contrary, female patients had lower SUA and UA/Cr ratio at discharge than those at admission, but no significant difference of SUA and UA/Cr ratio between moderate and severe group. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 had SUA and UA/Cr values lower than normal at admission. Male COVID-19 patients with low SUA levels had a significantly higher crude risk of developing severe symptoms than those with high SUA levels. During disease aggravation, the level of SUA gradually decreased until discharge. At the follow-up exam, the level of SUA was similar to the levels at admission.


Asunto(s)
/sangre , Ácido Úrico/sangre , Adulto , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Creatinina/sangre , Femenino , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Sexuales
8.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(3): 156-161, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219129

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a daylong resilience retreat on healthcare professionals' anxiety levels, intention to engage in mindfulness practices, and self-efficacy around mindfulness. BACKGROUND: Caregiver burnout is a concern that needs to be addressed at the organizational level so that professionals can reduce their risk of psychological injury while providing high-quality care. The COVID-19 (novel coronavirus) pandemic has exacerbated symptoms of burnout among nurses nationally. METHODS: Ten sessions of daylong resilience retreats were delivered to independent groups of nurses, nurse practitioners, and other healthcare professionals. Preretreat and postretreat assessments were completed using a 19-item survey developed by the research team to assess state anxiety, intention to engage in mindfulness practices, and self-efficacy around mindfulness. RESULTS: One hundred six healthcare professionals completed the resilience retreats. There was a statistically significant decrease in state anxiety scores following the retreat. The majority of the participants reported high intentions to engage in mindfulness practices and felt confident about incorporating mindfulness in their lives. CONCLUSIONS: Brief resilience retreats endorsed by nurse leadership can reduce perceived anxiety and facilitate engagement in contemplative practices, which are associated with a decrease in the risk of burnout.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/prevención & control , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , /psicología , Atención Plena , Atención de Enfermería/psicología , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/psicología , Adulto , Agotamiento Profesional/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Liderazgo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermeras Administradoras/psicología , Pandemias , Resiliencia Psicológica , Estados Unidos
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(4): e24524, 2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218898

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of co-infection with different types of pathogens in patients with hypoxemic pneumonia due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Reunion Island.This observational study using a prospectively collected database of hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19 cases was conducted at Félix Guyon University Hospital in Reunion Island, France.Between 18 March 2020 and 15 April 2020, 156 patients were admitted to our hospital for COVID-19. A total of 36 patients had hypoxemic pneumonia (23.1%) due to COVID-19. Thirty of these cases (83.3%) were imported by travelers returning mainly from metropolitan France and Spain. Patients were screened for co-infection with other pathogens at admission: 31 (86.1%) by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 16 (44.4%) by cytobacteriological examination of sputum culture. Five patients (13.9%) were found to have co-infection: 1 with influenza virus A H1N1 (pdm09) associated with Branhamella catarrhalis, 1 with Streptococcus pneumoniae associated with Haemophilus influenzae, 1 with Human Coronavirus 229E, 1 with Rhinovirus, and 1 with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Patients with co-infection had higher D-dimer levels than those without co-infection (1.36 [1.34-2.36] µg/mL vs 0.63 [0.51-1.12] µg/mL, P = .05).The incidence of co-infection in our cohort was higher than expected (13.9%). Three co-infections (with influenza virus A(H1N1) pdm09, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus) required specific treatment. Patients with hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19 should be screened for co-infection using respiratory cultures or multiplex PCR. Whilst our study has a number of limitations, the results from our study suggest that in the absence of screening, patients should be commenced on treatment for co-infection in the presence of an elevated D-dimer.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Coinfección/epidemiología , Neumonía/epidemiología , Neumonía/microbiología , Adulto , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Hipoxia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos
10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(5): e27412, 2021 05 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218859

RESUMEN

This article briefly describes Egypt's acute respiratory infection (ARI) epidemic preparedness and containment plan and illustrates the impact of implementation of the plan on combating the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic in Egypt. Pillars of the plan include crisis management, enhancing surveillance systems and contact tracing, case and hospital management, raising community awareness, and quarantine and entry points. To identify the impact of the implementation of the plan on epidemic mitigation, a literature review was performed of studies published from Egypt in the early stage of the pandemic. In addition, data for patients with COVID-19 from February to July 2020 were obtained from the National Egyptian Surveillance system and studied to describe the situation in the early stage of the epidemic in Egypt. The lessons learned indicated that the single most important key to success in early-stage epidemic containment is the commitment of all partners to a predeveloped and agreed-upon preparedness plan. This information could be useful for other countries in the region and worldwide in mitigating future anticipated ARI epidemics and pandemics. Postepidemic evaluation is needed to better assess Egypt's national response to the COVID-19 epidemic.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control , Enfermedad Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Trazado de Contacto , Egipto/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Cuarentena , Adulto Joven
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(18): 685-688, 2021 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218746

RESUMEN

On April 7, 2021, after 5 weeks' use of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Emergency Use Authorization (EUA), CDC received reports of clusters of anxiety-related events after administration of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine from five mass vaccination sites, all in different states. To further investigate these cases, CDC interviewed vaccination site staff members to gather additional information about the reported events and vaccination site practices. Four of the five sites temporarily closed while an investigation took place. Overall, 64 anxiety-related events, including 17 reports of syncope (fainting), an anxiety-related event, among 8,624 Janssen COVID-19 vaccine recipients, were reported from these sites for vaccines administered during April 7-9. As a follow-up to these interviews, CDC analyzed reports of syncope shortly after receipt of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), the vaccine safety monitoring program managed by CDC and FDA. To compare the occurrence of these events with those reported after receipt of other vaccines, reports of syncopal events after influenza vaccine administered in the 2019-20 influenza season were also reviewed. Syncope after Janssen COVID-19 vaccination was reported to VAERS (8.2 episodes per 100,000 doses). By comparison, after influenza vaccination, the reporting rate of syncope was 0.05 episodes per 100,000 doses. Anxiety-related events can occur after any vaccination. It is important that vaccination providers are aware that anxiety-related adverse events might be reported more frequently after receipt of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine than after influenza vaccination and observe all COVID-19 vaccine recipients for any adverse reactions for at least 15 minutes after vaccine administration.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/complicaciones , Vacunación Masiva/psicología , Síncope/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistemas de Registro de Reacción Adversa a Medicamentos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Análisis por Conglomerados , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(18): 680-684, 2021 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218745

RESUMEN

On February 27, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Janssen (Ad.26.COV2.S) COVID-19 vaccine (Janssen Biotech, Inc., a Janssen Pharmaceutical company, Johnson & Johnson) (1). The Janssen COVID-19 vaccine, the third COVID-19 vaccine authorized for use in the United States, uses a replication-incompetent human adenoviral type 26 vector platform* (2) and is administered as a single intramuscular dose, whereas the first two authorized vaccines use an mRNA platform and require 2 doses. On February 28, 2021, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued interim recommendations for use of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine among persons aged ≥18 years (3). During April 13-23, CDC and FDA recommended a pause in use of Janssen vaccine after reports of six cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) with thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150,000/µL of blood) among Janssen vaccine recipients (4). Similar thrombotic events, primarily among women aged <60 years, have been described in Europe after receipt of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, which uses a replication-incompetent chimpanzee adenoviral vector (5-7). The U.S. CVST cases that prompted the pause in Janssen vaccination, as well as subsequently detected CVST cases, are described elsewhere (8). This report summarizes adverse events among Janssen vaccine recipients, including non-CVST cases of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), reported to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), a passive surveillance system, and through v-safe, an active monitoring system. As of April 21, 2021, 7.98 million doses of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine had been administered. Among 13,725 VAERS reports reviewed, 97% were classified as nonserious and 3% as serious,† including three reports among women of cases of thrombosis in large arteries or veins accompanied by thrombocytopenia during the second week after vaccination. These three cases and the previously detected CVST cases are consistent with 17 cases of TTS,§ a newly defined condition. Approximately 338,700 Janssen COVID-19 vaccine recipients completed at least one v-safe survey during the week after vaccination; 76% reported a systemic reaction, 61% reported a local reaction, and 34% reported a health impact.¶ Fatigue and pain were commonly reported symptoms in both VAERS and v-safe. The overall safety profile is consistent with preauthorization clinical trials data. Prompt review of U.S. vaccine safety data detected three additional cases of non-CVST TTS, in addition to the previously recognized CVST cases that initiated the pause in use of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. Ongoing monitoring of adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination, including vaccination with the Janssen single-dose vaccine, is essential for evaluating the risks and benefits of each vaccine.


Asunto(s)
/efectos adversos , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos/epidemiología , Vigilancia de Productos Comercializados , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistemas de Registro de Reacción Adversa a Medicamentos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Niño , Preescolar , Aprobación de Drogas , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Riesgo , Retirada de Medicamento por Seguridad , Trombosis de los Senos Intracraneales/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , United States Food and Drug Administration , Adulto Joven
13.
J Healthc Qual ; 43(3): 137-144, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217965

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The impact of COVID-19, on the health and safety of patients, staff, and healthcare organizations, has yet to be fully uncovered. Patient adverse events, such as hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs), have been problematic for decades. The introduction of a pandemic to an environment that is potentially at-risk for adverse events may result in unintended patient safety and quality concerns. We use the learning health system framework to motivate our understanding of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of HAPIs within our health system. Using a retrospective, observational design, we used descriptive statistics to evaluate trends in HAPI from March to July 2020. Hospital-acquired pressure injury numbers have fluctuated from a steady increase from March-May 2020, hitting a peak high of 90 cases in the month of May. However, the trend in the total all stage HAPIs began to decline in June 2020, with a low of 51 in July, the lowest number since March 2020. Patients evaluated in this study did not have a longitudinal increase in HAPIs from March-July 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, despite similarities in illness severity between the two time points. Our experience has demonstrated the ability of our organizational leaders to learn quickly during crisis.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Enfermedad Iatrogénica/epidemiología , Úlcera por Presión/epidemiología , Centros Médicos Académicos , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Hospitales Urbanos , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sudeste de Estados Unidos/epidemiología
14.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(10): 671-676, 2021 05.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217717

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic poses new challenges for the healthcare systems world-wide which will go beyond prevention, acute and intensive care treatment of patients with severe illness. A large proportion of "COVID-survivors" - and not only elderly patients - suffers from "post-COVID-syndrome". Risk factors are preexisting somatic multimorbidity, cognitive and cerebral changes together with pneumonia and hypoxemia, intensive care treatment and confusional states during the acute phase of illness. Post-COVID cognitive deficits usually manifest as a frontal dysexecutive syndrome combined with fatigue and dysphoria and/or with attentional and memory deficits. Several pathogenetic mechanisms of COVID encephalopathy are understood, but no specific treatment strategies have been established so far. We assume that general practitioners, psychiatrists, neurologists and social workers will need to take care of the activation, reintegration and expert appraisals of patients with post-COVID fatigue and cognitive deficits during the years to come.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Anciano , /epidemiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/fisiopatología , Disfunción Cognitiva/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Multimorbilidad , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo
15.
Virol Sin ; 35(6): 820-829, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217486

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread rapidly around the world, posing a major threat to human health and the economy. Currently, long-term data on viral shedding and the serum antibody responses in COVID-19 patients are still limited. Herein, we report the clinical features, viral RNA loads, and serum antibody levels in a cohort of 112 COVID-19 patients admitted to the Honghu People's Hospital, Hubei Province, China. Overall, 5.36% (6/112) of patients showed persistent viral RNA shedding (> 45 days). The peak viral load was higher in the severe disease group than in the mild group (median cycle threshold value, 36.4 versus 31.5; P = 0.002). For most patients the disappearance of IgM antibodies occurred approximately 4-6 weeks after symptoms onset, while IgG persisted for over 194 days after the onset of symptoms, although patients showed a 46% reduction in antibodies titres against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein compared with the acute phase. We also studied 18 asymptomatic individuals with RT-qPCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection together with 17 symptomatic patients, and the asymptomatic individuals were the close contacts of these symptomatic cases. Delayed IgG seroconversion and lower IgM seropositive rates were observed in asymptomatic individuals. These data indicate that higher viral loads and stronger antibody responses are related to more severe disease status in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the antibodies persisted in the recovered patient for more than 6 months so that the vaccine may provide protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , /inmunología , Adulto , Anciano , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Formación de Anticuerpos , /virología , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/inmunología , Cinética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , ARN Viral/sangre , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Carga Viral , Esparcimiento de Virus
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2499-2504, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217398

RESUMEN

Various new clinical signs and symptoms, such as dysfunction of smell (anosmia) and taste (dysgeusia) have emerged ever since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic begun. The objective of this study was to identify the clinical presentation and factors associated with 'new loss/change of smell (anosmia) or taste (dysgeusia)' at admission in patients positive by real time polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 infection. All adult COVID-19 patients with new onset anosmia or dysgeusia at admission were included in study group. Equal number of age and gender matched COVID-19 patients without anosmia or dysgeusia at admission were included in the control group. A total of 261 COVID-19 patients were admitted during the study period of which 55 (21%) had anosmia and or dysgeusia. The mean (SD) age was 36 (13) years and majority were males (58%, n = 32). Comorbidity was present in 38% of cases (n = 21). Anosmia and dysgeusia were noted in more than 1/5th of the cases. Anosmia (96%, n = 53) was more common than dysgeusia (75%, n = 41). Presence of both ansomia and dysgeusia was noted in 71% of patients (n = 39). On comparing the cases with the controls, on univariate analysis, fever (higher in cases), rhinitis (lower in cases), thrombocytopenia, elevated creatinine and bilirubin (all higher in cases) were significantly associated with anosmia or dysgeusia. On multivariate analysis, only rhinitis (odds ratio [OR]: 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.09-0.83; p = .02) thrombocytopenia (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.99-0.99; p = .01) and elevated creatinine (OR: 7.6; 95% CI: 1.5-37.6; p = .01) remained significant. In this retrospective study of COVID-19 patients, we found anosmia and dysgeusia in more than 1/5th of the cases. Absence of rhinitis, low platelet counts and elevated creatinine were associated with anosmia or dysgeusia in these patients.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Disgeusia/epidemiología , Adulto , /fisiopatología , /sangre , /fisiopatología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Disgeusia/sangre , Disgeusia/fisiopatología , Disgeusia/virología , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Oportunidad Relativa , Pandemias , Recuento de Plaquetas , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Estudios Retrospectivos , Rinitis/epidemiología , Rinitis/etiología , Trombocitopenia/epidemiología , Trombocitopenia/etiología
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2431-2438, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217392

RESUMEN

Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at higher risk of contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Information regarding co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 with vector-borne diseases (malaria and dengue) is crucial especially for the countries wherein malaria and dengue are endemic. The objective was to study the prevalence, demographic, clinical presentations among HCWs with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to compare the viral clearance in HCWs with COVID-19 and co-infection of malaria and dengue. This retrospective study was conducted at a dedicated COVID-19 hospital, BYL Nair Charitable Hospital (NH), Mumbai, India April 6th-October 31st 2020. The SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs was confirmed by reverse transcription-plymerase chain reaction. Out of 491 HCWs infected with SARS-CoV-2, analysis of viral clearance was carried out in 467 HCWs over seven month periods, The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs was 13% (491 out of 3711). Out of the HCWs with COVID-19, prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher among security guards (25%) with 1% mortality. The co-infection of malaria or dengue was reported in 31 HCWs (6.3%). The mean duration of virus clearance was longer (12 days) in symptomatic HCWs as compared to asymptomatic (8 days, p < .005). The recovery of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs was faster (mean 8 days) with co-infection of malaria than without malaria (p < .005). We recommend universal testing of HCWs, to optimize staffing levels during the current pandemic as HCWs are the most precious resource. There is a need to effectively implement standard protocols for prevention of vector-borne diseases, especially in the hospital settings.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Coinfección/epidemiología , Malaria/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Dengue/epidemiología , Femenino , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitales , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
18.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2420-2430, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217390

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) lead to one of the pandemics of the last century. We aimed to predict poor prognosis among severe patients to lead early intervention. METHODS: The data of 534 hospitalized patients were assessed retrospectively. Risk factors and laboratory tests that might enable the prediction of prognosis defined as being transferred to the intensive care unit and/or exitus have been investigated. RESULTS: At the admission, 398 of 534 patients (74.5%) were mild-moderate ill. It was determined that the male gender, advanced age, and comorbidity were risk factors for severity. To estimate the severity of the disease, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the areas under the curve which were determined based on the optimal cut off values that were calculated for the variables of values of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR > 3.69), C-reactive protein (CRP > 46 mg/L), troponin I ( > 5.3 ng/L), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH > 325 U/L), ferritin ( > 303 ug/L), d-dimer ( > 574 µg/L), neutrophil NE ( > 4.99 × 109 /L), lymphocyte (LE < 1.04 × 109 /L), SO2 ( < %92) were 0.762, 0.757,0.742, 0.705, 0.698, 0.694,0.688, 0.678, and 0.66, respectively. To predict mortality, AUC of values for optimal cutoff troponin I ( > 7.4 ng/L), age ( > 62), SO2 ( < %89), urea ( > 40 mg/dL), procalcitonin ( > 0.21 ug/L), CKMB ( > 2.6 ng/L) were 0.715, 0.685, 0.644, 0.632, 0.627, and 0.617, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical progress could be severe if the baseline values of NLR, CRP, troponin I, LDH, are above, and LE is below the specified cut-off point. We found that the troponin I, elder age, and SO2 values could predict mortality.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Turquia/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2374-2384, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217387

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is key to the clinical and epidemiological assessment of CoVID-19. We cross-validated manual and automated high-throughput testing for SARS-CoV-2-RNA, evaluated SARS-CoV-2 loads in nasopharyngeal-oropharyngeal swabs (NOPS), lower respiratory fluids, and plasma, and analyzed detection rates after lockdown and relaxation measures. METHODS: Basel-S-gene, Roche-E-gene, and Roche-cobas®6800-Target1 and Target2 were prospectively validated in 1344 NOPS submitted during the first pandemic peak (Week 13). Follow-up cohort (FUP) 1, 2, and 3 comprised 10,999, 10,147, and 19,389 NOPS submitted during a 10-week period until Weeks 23, 33, and 43, respectively. RESULTS: Concordant results were obtained in 1308 cases (97%), including 97 (9%) SARS-CoV-2-positives showing high quantitative correlations (Spearman's r > .95; p < .001) for all assays and high precision by Bland-Altman analysis. Discordant samples (N = 36, 3%) had significantly lower SARS-CoV-2 loads (p < .001). Following lockdown, detection rates declined to <1% in FUP-1, reducing single-test positive predictive values from 99.3% to 85.1%. Following relaxation, rates flared up to 4% and 12% in FUP-2 and -3, but infected patients were younger than during lockdown (34 vs. 52 years, p < .001). In 261 patients providing 936 NOPS, SARS-CoV-2 loads declined by three orders of magnitude within 10 days postdiagnosis (p < .001). SARS-CoV-2 loads in NOPS correlated with those in time-matched lower respiratory fluids or in plasma but remained detectable in some cases with negative follow-up NOPS, respectively. CONCLUSION: Manual and automated assays significantly correlated qualitatively and quantitatively. Following a successful lockdown, declining positive predictive values require independent dual-target confirmation for reliable assessment. Confirmatory and quantitative follow-up testing should be obtained within <5 days and consider lower respiratory fluids in symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2-negative NOPS.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , /aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Lavado Broncoalveolar , /transmisión , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Femenino , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nasofaringe/virología , Orofaringe/virología , Pandemias , ARN Viral/análisis , ARN Viral/genética , Suiza/epidemiología , Carga Viral
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2365-2373, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217386

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging infectious disease. Our understanding of the clinical characteristics of liver damage and the relationship with disease severity in COVID-19 is still limited. To investigate the serum hepatic enzyme activities in different phenotypes of COVID-19 patients, evaluate their relationship with the illness severity and analyze the correlation of glycyrrhizin treatment and abnormal liver enzyme activities, one hundred and forty-seven patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in a retrospective study that investigated hepatic dysfunction. Liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), Y-glutamyl transferase (GGT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were analyzed in these patients. Patients with diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) treatment were further investigated. Of the 147 patients, 56 (38.1%) had abnormal ALT activity and 80 (54.4%) had abnormal AST activity. The peak of abnormal hepatic enzyme activities occurred at 3 to 6 days after on admission. Serum AST and LDH levels were elevated, while the SOD level was decreased in severe and critical patients, compared with mild cases. DG treatment may alleviate the abnormal liver enzyme activities in non-critical COVID-19 patients. Abnormal liver functions may be observed in patients with COVID-19, and were associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced acute liver damage. Glycyrrhizin treatment may be an effective therapeutic approach for the outcome of abnormal hepatic enzyme activities in severe COVID-19 cases. Serum hepatic enzyme tests may reflect the illness severity and should be monitored.


Asunto(s)
/enzimología , Hígado/enzimología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Fosfatasa Alcalina/sangre , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , /metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Hígado/metabolismo , Pruebas de Función Hepática , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fenotipo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Superóxido Dismutasa/sangre , Adulto Joven
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