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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 670, 2021 04 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172830

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis are to examine the prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes, both short-term and long-term, among SARS patients, healthcare workers and the general public of SARS-affected regions, and to examine the protective and risk factors associated with these mental health outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the literature using databases such as Medline, Pubmed, Embase, PsycInfo, Web of Science Core Collection, CNKI, the National Central Library Online Catalog and dissertation databases to identify studies in the English or Chinese language published between January 2003 to May 2020 which reported psychological distress and mental health morbidities among SARS patients, healthcare workers, and the general public in regions with major SARS outbreaks. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 6984 titles. Screening resulted in 80 papers for the review, 35 of which were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence of post-recovery probable or clinician-diagnosed anxiety disorder, depressive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among SARS survivors were 19, 20 and 28%, respectively. The prevalence of these outcomes among studies conducted within and beyond 6 months post-discharge was not significantly different. Certain aspects of mental health-related quality of life measures among SARS survivors remained impaired beyond 6 months post-discharge. The prevalence of probable depressive disorder and PTSD among healthcare workers post-SARS were 12 and 11%, respectively. The general public had increased anxiety levels during SARS, but whether there was a clinically significant population-wide mental health impact remained inconclusive. Narrative synthesis revealed occupational exposure to SARS patients and perceived stigmatisation to be risk factors for adverse mental health outcomes among healthcare workers, although causality could not be determined due to the limitations of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: The chronicity of psychiatric morbidities among SARS survivors should alert us to the potential long-term mental health complications of covid-19 patients. Healthcare workers working in high-risk venues should be given adequate mental health support. Stigmatisation against patients and healthcare workers should be explored and addressed. The significant risk of bias and high degree of heterogeneity among included studies limited the certainty of the body of evidence of the review.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Trastornos Mentales , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave , /epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Factores Protectores , Factores de Riesgo , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/historia , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/psicología
4.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 27(3): 146-154, 2021 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116526

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronaviruses-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged as a new zoonotic pathogen of humans at the end of 2019 and rapidly developed into a global pandemic. Over 106 million COVID-19 cases including 2.3 million deaths have been reported to the WHO as of February 9, 2021. This review examines the epidemiology, transmission, clinical features, and phylogenetics of three lethal zoonotic coronavirus infections of humans: SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, and The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-COV). RECENT FINDINGS: Bats appear to be the common natural source of SARS-like CoV including SARS-CoV-1 but their role in SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV remains unclear. Civet cats and dromedary camels are the intermediary animal sources for SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV infection, respectively whereas that of SARS-CoV-2 remains unclear. SARS-CoV-2 viral loads peak early on days 2-4 of symptom onset and thus high transmission occurs in the community, and asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission occurs commonly. Nosocomial outbreaks are hallmarks of SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV infections whereas these are less common in COVID-19. Several COVID-19 vaccines are now available. SUMMARY: Of the three lethal zoonotic coronavirus infections of humans, SARS-CoV-2 has caused a devastating global pandemic with over a million deaths. The emergence of genetic variants, such as D614G, N501Y (variants 1 and 2), has led to an increase in transmissibility and raises concern about the possibility of re-infection and impaired vaccine response. Continued global surveillance is essential for both SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV, to monitor changing epidemiology due to viral variants.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave , Animales , /prevención & control , Quirópteros/virología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Filogenia , /patogenicidad , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/prevención & control , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/transmisión , /prevención & control , /transmisión
6.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 126(4): 321-337, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111436

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To review the virology, immunology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of the following 3 major zoonotic coronavirus epidemics: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). DATA SOURCES: Published literature obtained through PubMed database searches and reports from national and international public health agencies. STUDY SELECTIONS: Studies relevant to the basic science, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19, with a focus on patients with asthma, allergy, and primary immunodeficiency. RESULTS: Although SARS and MERS each caused less than a thousand deaths, COVID-19 has caused a worldwide pandemic with nearly 1 million deaths. Diagnosing COVID-19 relies on nucleic acid amplification tests, and infection has broad clinical manifestations that can affect almost every organ system. Asthma and atopy do not seem to predispose patients to COVID-19 infection, but their effects on COVID-19 clinical outcomes remain mixed and inconclusive. It is recommended that effective therapies, including inhaled corticosteroids and biologic therapy, be continued to maintain disease control. There are no reports of COVID-19 among patients with primary innate and T-cell deficiencies. The presentation of COVID-19 among patients with primary antibody deficiencies is variable, with some experiencing mild clinical courses, whereas others experiencing a fatal disease. The landscape of treatment for COVID-19 is rapidly evolving, with both antivirals and immunomodulators demonstrating efficacy. CONCLUSION: Further data are needed to better understand the role of asthma, allergy, and primary immunodeficiency on COVID-19 infection and outcomes.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/patología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , /transmisión , Niño , Preescolar , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/terapia , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/transmisión , Adulto Joven
8.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 13, 2021 02 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088620

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Until January 18, 2021, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 93 million individuals and has caused a certain degree of panic. Viral pneumonia caused by common viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, and parainfluenza viruses have been more common in children. However, the incidence of COVID-19 in children was significantly lower than that in adults. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical manifestations, treatment and outcomes of COVID-19 in children compared with those of other sources of viral pneumonia diagnosed during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Children with COVID-19 and viral pneumonia admitted to 20 hospitals were enrolled in this retrospective multi-center cohort study. A total of 64 children with COVID-19 were defined as the COVID-19 cohort, of which 40 children who developed pneumonia were defined as the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort. Another 284 children with pneumonia caused by other viruses were defined as the viral pneumonia cohort. The epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings were compared by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and Contingency table method. Drug usage, immunotherapy, blood transfusion, and need for oxygen support were collected as the treatment indexes. Mortality, intensive care needs and symptomatic duration were collected as the outcome indicators. RESULTS: Compared with the viral pneumonia cohort, children in the COVID-19 cohort were mostly exposed to family members confirmed to have COVID-19 (53/64 vs. 23/284), were of older median age (6.3 vs. 3.2 years), and had a higher proportion of ground-glass opacity (GGO) on computed tomography (18/40 vs. 0/38, P < 0.001). Children in the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort had a lower proportion of severe cases (1/40 vs. 38/284, P = 0.048), and lower cases with high fever (3/40 vs. 167/284, P < 0.001), requiring intensive care (1/40 vs. 32/284, P < 0.047) and with shorter symptomatic duration (median 5 vs. 8 d, P < 0.001). The proportion of cases with evaluated inflammatory indicators, biochemical indicators related to organ or tissue damage, D-dimer and secondary bacterial infection were lower in the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort than those in the viral pneumonia cohort (P < 0.05). No statistical differences were found in the duration of positive PCR results from pharyngeal swabs in 25 children with COVID-19 who received antiviral drugs (lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin, and arbidol) as compared with duration in 39 children without antiviral therapy [median 10 vs. 9 d, P = 0.885]. CONCLUSION: The symptoms and severity of COVID-19 pneumonia in children were no more severe than those in children with other viral pneumonia. Lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin and arbidol do not shorten the duration of positive PCR results from pharyngeal swabs in children with COVID-19. During the COVID-19 outbreak, attention also must be given to children with infection by other pathogens infection.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Adolescente , /terapia , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/fisiopatología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/terapia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
9.
Ageing Res Rev ; 67: 101299, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085587

RESUMEN

Like other infectious diseases, COVID-19 shows a clinical outcome enormously variable, ranging from asymptomatic to lethal. In Italy, like in other countries, old male individuals, with one or more comorbidity, are the most susceptible group, and show, consequently, the highest mortality, and morbidity, including lethal respiratory distress syndrome, as the most common complication. In addition, another extraordinary peculiarity, that is a surprising resistance to COVID-19, characterizes some Italian nonagenarians/centenarians. Despite having the typical COVID-19 signs and/or symptoms, such exceptional individuals show a surprising tendency to recover from illness and complications. On the other hand, long-lived people have an optimal performance of immune system related to an overexpression of anti-inflammatory variants in immune/inflammatory genes, as demonstrated by our and other groups. Consequently, we suggest long-lived people as an optimal model for detecting genetic profiles associated with the susceptibility and/or protection to COVID-19, to utilize as potential pharmacological targets for preventing or reducing viral infection in more vulnerable individuals.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Humanos , Sistema Inmunológico , Longevidad , Masculino , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología
10.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085052

RESUMEN

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are positive-sense RNA enveloped viruses, members of the family Coronaviridae, that cause infections in a broad range of mammals including humans. Several CoV species lead to mild upper respiratory infections typically associated with common colds. However, three human CoV (HCoV) species: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV-1, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, are responsible for severe respiratory diseases at the origin of two recent epidemics (SARS and MERS), and of the current COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19), respectively. The easily transmissible SARS-CoV-2, emerging at the end of 2019 in China, spread rapidly worldwide, leading the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare COVID-19 a pandemic. While the world waits for mass vaccination, there is an urgent need for effective drugs as short-term weapons to combat the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this context, the drug repurposing approach is a strategy able to guarantee positive results rapidly. In this regard, it is well known that several nucleoside-mimicking analogs and nucleoside precursors may inhibit the growth of viruses providing effective therapies for several viral diseases, including HCoV infections. Therefore, this review will focus on synthetic nucleosides and nucleoside precursors active against different HCoV species, paying great attention to SARS-CoV-2. This work covers progress made in anti-CoV therapy with nucleoside derivatives and provides insight into their main mechanisms of action.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Nucleósidos , Virus del SRAS/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antivirales/química , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , /metabolismo , Humanos , Nucleósidos/química , Nucleósidos/uso terapéutico , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/metabolismo
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e24650, 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082618

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of infectious diseases caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At the beginning of 2020, a sudden outbreak of novel pneumonia, originated from Wuhan, China, swiftly evolves to a worldwide pandemic, alike the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003. However, Chinese-style innovation in response to the outbreak of COVID-19 helped China to reach a faster and more effective success in the containment of this epidemic. This review summarizes insights from the comparisons of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and COVID-19 outbreaks on the basis of preventive strategies in China for this coronavirus pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Política de Salud , Humanos
12.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S66-S72, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065052

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic affected today more than 3,000,000 worldwide, and more than half of humanity has been placed in quarantine. The scientific community and the political authorities fear an epidemic of suicide secondary to this crisis. The aim of this review is to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the dimensions of the suicidal process and its interaction with the various risk factors. We also propose innovative strategies to manage suicidal behavior in the context of pandemic. METHODS: We carried out a narrative review of international publications dealing with major pandemics (COVID-19, SARS) and their influence on suicidal vulnerability. RESULTS: Many factors are likely to increase the emergence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts during this crisis. Social distancing and quarantine could increase the feeling of disconnection and the perception of social pain in vulnerable individuals. Some populations at high suicidal risk could be further impacted by the current pandemic: the elderly, medical staff and individuals exposed to economic insecurity. Several innovative tools adapted to the constraints of social distancing and quarantine may prevent suicide risk: e-health, VigilanS, buddhist-derived practices and art engagement. CONCLUSIONS: This unprecedented crisis may interact with certain dimensions of the suicidal process. However, it is time to innovate. Several suicide prevention tools all have their place in new modes of care and should be tested on a large scale.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Suicidio/psicología , Intoxicación Alcohólica/psicología , Inteligencia Artificial , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Costo de Enfermedad , Intervención en la Crisis (Psiquiatría)/instrumentación , Recesión Económica , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Inflamación , Soledad/psicología , Modelos Neurológicos , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Psicoterapia/métodos , Trastornos Psicóticos/etiología , Trastornos Psicóticos/fisiopatología , Trastornos Psicóticos/virología , Cuarentena/psicología , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/terapia , Ideación Suicida , Suicidio/prevención & control , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Intento de Suicidio/prevención & control , Intento de Suicidio/psicología , Telemedicina , Poblaciones Vulnerables
13.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S73-S80, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065049

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused major sanitary crisis worldwide. Half of the world has been placed in quarantine. In France, this large-scale health crisis urgently triggered the restructuring and reorganization of health service delivery to support emergency services, medical intensive care units and continuing care units. Health professionals mobilized all their resources to provide emergency aid in a general climate of uncertainty. Concerns about the mental health, psychological adjustment, and recovery of health care workers treating and caring for patients with COVID-19 are now arising. The goal of the present article is to provide up-to-date information on potential mental health risks associated with exposure of health professionals to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Authors performed a narrative review identifying relevant results in the scientific and medical literature considering previous epidemics of 2003 (SARS-CoV-1) and 2009 (H1N1) with the more recent data about the COVID-19 pandemic. We highlighted most relevant data concerning the disease characteristics, the organizational factors and personal factors that may contribute to developing psychological distress and other mental health symptoms. RESULTS: The disease characteristics of the current COVID-19 pandemic provoked a generalized climate of wariness and uncertainty, particularly among health professionals, due to a range of causes such as the rapid spread of COVID-19, the severity of symptoms it can cause in a segment of infected individuals, the lack of knowledge of the disease, and deaths among health professionals. Stress may also be caused by organizational factors, such as depletion of personal protection equipment, concerns about not being able to provide competent care if deployed to new area, concerns about rapidly changing information, lack of access to up-to-date information and communication, lack of specific drugs, the shortage of ventilators and intensive care unit beds necessary to care for the surge of critically ill patients, and significant change in their daily social and family life. Further risk factors have been identified, including feelings of being inadequately supported, concerns about health of self, fear of taking home infection to family members or others, and not having rapid access to testing through occupational health if needed, being isolated, feelings of uncertainty and social stigmatization, overwhelming workload, or insecure attachment. Additionally, we discussed positive social and organizational factors that contribute to enhance resilience in the face of the pandemic. There is a consensus in all the relevant literature that health care professionals are at an increased risk of high levels of stress, anxiety, depression, burnout, addiction and post-traumatic stress disorder, which could have long-term psychological implications. CONCLUSIONS: In the long run, this tragic health crisis should significantly enhance our understanding of the mental health risk factors among the health care professionals facing the COVID-19 pandemic. Reporting information such as this is essential to plan future prevention strategies. Protecting health care professionals is indeed an important component of public health measures to address large-scale health crisis. Thus, interventions to promote mental well-being in health care professionals exposed to COVID-19 need to be immediately implemented, and to strengthen prevention and response strategies by training health care professionals on mental help and crisis management.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Personal de Salud/psicología , Enfermedades Profesionales/etiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Adaptación Psicológica , Ansiedad/etiología , Conducta Adictiva/etiología , Agotamiento Profesional/etiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Depresión/etiología , Francia/epidemiología , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Desamparo Adquirido , Humanos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Influenza Pandémica, 1918-1919 , Enfermedades Profesionales/psicología , Equipos de Seguridad/provisión & distribución , Resiliencia Psicológica , Factores de Riesgo , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/psicología , Apoyo Social , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Suicidio/psicología , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Incertidumbre , Tolerancia al Trabajo Programado/psicología , Carga de Trabajo
14.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 56: 102509, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064770

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was recently declared a pandemic by the WHO. This outbreak threatens not only physical health but also has significant repercussions on mental health. In recent world history, major infectious outbreaks were associated with severe mental health sequelae, including suicide. In this study, we systematically review the literature on suicidal outcomes during major international respiratory outbreaks, including COVID-19. We reviewed descriptive and analytic articles addressing suicide during major international respiratory outbreaks. We searched PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus, and PsycInfo databases and then utilized an independent method for study selection by a pair of reviewers. Two reviewers completed data abstraction and conducted a narrative summary of the findings. Our search generated 2,153 articles. Nine studies (three descriptive, five analytical, and one with mixed methodology) were eligible. The included studies were heterogeneous, divergent in methods, and with a low degree of evidence. Deducing an association between pandemics, suicide, and suicide-related outcomes remains thus poorly supported. Future research with better methodological characteristics, the use of longitudinal studies, and a focus on suicide as the primary outcome would allow for an in-depth understanding and formulation of the scope of this problem.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Ideación Suicida , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Intento de Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Suicidio Completo/estadística & datos numéricos
15.
Front Public Health ; 8: 558368, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063364

RESUMEN

The mathematical model reported here describes the dynamics of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, which is different in many aspects from the previous severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic. We developed this model when the COVID-19 epidemic was at its early phase. We reasoned that, with our model, the effects of different measures could be assessed for infection control. Unlike the homogeneous models, our model accounts for human population heterogeneity, where subpopulations (e.g., age groups) have different infection risks. The heterogeneous model estimates several characteristics of the epidemic more accurately compared to the homogeneous models. According to our analysis, the total number of infections and their peak number are lower compared to the assessment with the homogeneous models. Furthermore, the early-stage infection increase is little changed when population heterogeneity is considered, whereas the late-stage infection decrease slows. The model predicts that the anti-epidemic measures, like the ones undertaken in China and the rest of the world, decrease the basic reproductive number but do not result in the development of a sufficient collective immunity, which poses a risk of a second wave. More recent developments confirmed our conclusion that the epidemic has a high likelihood to restart after the quarantine measures are lifted.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Modelos Teóricos , Número Básico de Reproducción , China/epidemiología , Epidemias , Salud Global , Humanos , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología
16.
Infect Genet Evol ; 88: 104708, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039486

RESUMEN

The pandemic due to novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 is a serious global concern now. More than thousand new COVID-19 infections are getting reported daily for this virus across the globe. Thus, the medical research communities are trying to find the remedy to restrict the spreading of this virus, while the vaccine development work is still under research in parallel. In such critical situation, not only the medical research community, but also the scientists in different fields like microbiology, pharmacy, bioinformatics and data science are also sharing effort to accelerate the process of vaccine development, virus prediction, forecasting the transmissible probability and reproduction cases of virus for social awareness. With the similar context, in this article, we have studied sequence variability of the virus primarily focusing on three aspects: (a) sequence variability among SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 in human host, which are in the same coronavirus family, (b) sequence variability of SARS-CoV-2 in human host for 54 different countries and (c) sequence variability between coronavirus family and country specific SARS-CoV-2 sequences in human host. For this purpose, as a case study, we have performed topological analysis of 2391 global genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2 in association with SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV using an integrated semi-alignment based computational technique. The results of the semi-alignment based technique are experimentally and statistically found similar to alignment based technique and computationally faster. Moreover, the outcome of this analysis can help to identify the nations with homogeneous SARS-CoV-2 sequences, so that same vaccine can be applied to their heterogeneous human population.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Variación Genética , Genoma Viral , Pandemias , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , África/epidemiología , Américas/epidemiología , Asia/epidemiología , Australia/epidemiología , Secuencia de Bases , /virología , Biología Computacional/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/genética , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/patogenicidad , Virus del SRAS/genética , Virus del SRAS/patogenicidad , Alineación de Secuencia , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/transmisión , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/virología
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 768: 144530, 2021 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031619

RESUMEN

Pandemic outbreaks can cause diverse impacts on society by altering human-nature relations. This study analyzed these relational changes during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Swine flu, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and Ebola outbreaks by applying machine learning and big data analyses of global news articles. The results showed that social-ecological systems play vital roles in analyzing indirect pandemic impacts. Herein, major pandemic impacts, including reduced use of cultural ecosystem services, can be analyzed by big data analyses at the global scale. All the identified pandemic impacts herein were linked to provisioning and cultural ecosystem services, implying that these ecosystem services might be more recognized or valued more by the public than regulating and supporting ecosystem services. Further, the pandemic impacts were presented with human-centric views, indicating a challenge to adapting nature-based solutions to mitigate the risk of future pandemic emergences. These findings will advance the current knowledge of diverse pandemic impacts and human-nature relations.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave , Análisis de Datos , Brotes de Enfermedades , Ecosistema , Humanos , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología
18.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(3): 763-767, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030363

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is an emerging disease. There has been a rapid increase in cases and deaths since it was identified in Wuhan, China, in early December 2019, with over 4,000,000 cases of COVID-19 including at least 250,000 deaths worldwide as of May 2020. However, limited data about the clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 have been reported. Given the maternal physiologic and immune function changes during pregnancy, pregnant women may be at a higher risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and developing more complicated clinical events. Information on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) may provide insights into the effects of COVID-19's during pregnancy. Even though SARS and MERS have been associated with miscarriage, intrauterine death, fetal growth restriction and high case fatality rates, the clinical course of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women has been reported to be similar to that in non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women do not appear to be at a higher risk of catching COVID-19 or suffering from more severe disease than other adults of similar age. Moreover, there is currently no evidence that the virus can be transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy or during childbirth. Babies and young children are also known to only experience mild forms of COVID-19. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize the possible symptoms, treatments, and pregnancy outcomes of women infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Resultado del Embarazo , /inmunología , Adulto , /terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Exposición Materna , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/inmunología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/inmunología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/terapia , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Virus del SRAS/inmunología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/inmunología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/virología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
19.
Science ; 371(6530): 741-745, 2021 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029163

RESUMEN

We are currently faced with the question of how the severity of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may change in the years ahead. Our analysis of immunological and epidemiological data on endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs) shows that infection-blocking immunity wanes rapidly but that disease-reducing immunity is long-lived. Our model, incorporating these components of immunity, recapitulates both the current severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the benign nature of HCoVs, suggesting that once the endemic phase is reached and primary exposure is in childhood, SARS-CoV-2 may be no more virulent than the common cold. We predict a different outcome for an emergent coronavirus that causes severe disease in children. These results reinforce the importance of behavioral containment during pandemic vaccine rollout, while prompting us to evaluate scenarios for continuing vaccination in the endemic phase.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas , Inmunidad Adaptativa , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , /transmisión , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Epidemias , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Lactante , /patogenicidad , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
20.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 56(5): 652-657, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024859

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This paper is the first update of the second edition of the rapid living systematic review on the latest scientific literature informing rehabilitation of patients with COVID-19 and/or describing consequences of the disease and its treatment, as they relate to limitations in functioning of rehabilitation interest. The aim of this study was to report data of a systematic search performed on papers published in July 2020. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The methodology described in the second edition of the rapid living systematic review was applied to search eligible papers included in the databases between July 1, 2020 and July 31, 2020. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Eight-hundred-ninety-two papers were identified through database searching (after removal of duplicates); of these, only 23 studies were included. According to OCEBM 2011 Levels of Evidence Table, they were level 3 in 30.5% cases and level 4 in 69.5%. No RCT was found. Nineteen papers studied COVID-19 patients, assessed in the acute (10 studies), post-acute (8 studies) and chronic phase (one study). Four studies reported data on the impact of COVID-19 on subjects with pre-existing health conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The current literature production still focuses more on describing all the possible aspects and complications of the pathology than on interventions or new organization models to deal with it. Albeit evidence on handling COVID-19 from a rehabilitative point of view is improving each month, further studies are still mandatory to report the role of rehabilitation in this scenario.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/rehabilitación , Enfermedad Crítica/rehabilitación , Terapia por Ejercicio/métodos , Neumonía Viral/rehabilitación , Terapia Respiratoria/métodos , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/rehabilitación , Adulto , Anciano , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Pronóstico , Centros de Rehabilitación/estadística & datos numéricos , Medición de Riesgo , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento
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