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1.
Top Antivir Med ; 30(3): 490-521, 2022.
Artículo | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101976

RESUMEN

The 2022 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections provided a rich source of new data and comprehensive reviews on antiviral therapy. For COVID-19, intramuscular sotrovimab was noninferior to intravenous sotrovimab, serostatus did not predict the efficacy of sotrovimab, and molnupiravir appeared safe and modestly effective in decreasing hospitalization rates. Trials from low- and middle-income countries provided data to support transitioning those on first-line therapy with or without virologic suppression and those virologically suppressed on second-line therapy to dolutegravir-based regimens. Additional data supported the use of lenacapavir as a long-acting antiretroviral drug. Data across the United States demonstrate the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the HIV care continuum, although enhanced outreach efforts and decentralization of antiretroviral therapy delivery were associated with improvements in care engagement outcomes. Researchers described potential mechanisms for the emergence of integrase strand transfer inhibitor resistance. Studies on proviral genotyping high-lighted the limitations of its use in predicting clinically significant resistance. Several studies looked at the epidemiology and treatment of hepatitis C and B and the status of current hepatitis C virus elimination efforts. Data presented on HIV, COVID-19, and maternal and pediatric health included 2-year virologic outcome data of very early antiretroviral therapy in potentially reducing the latent HIV reservoir in infants with HIV. Data presented on COVID-19 and HIV therapeutics in children included SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in children younger than 12 years of age, remdesivir in hospitalized infants and children, and long-acting therapies for HIV treatment in children.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , VIH-1 , Hepatitis Viral Humana , Niño , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Latencia del Virus , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico
2.
G Ital Med Lav Ergon ; 44(1): 32-40, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101747

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: SARS-CoV-2-related infection can determine hospital-acquired infections among patients and healthcare workers. Aim of this paper was to review the literature for developing a strategy for protecting healthcare workers, patients, and visitors by COVID-19 hospital infection. A critical and rapid revision of the literature and international standards and Regulations on this topic allowed us to propose an evidencebased strategy in the framework of the workplace risk assessment for preventing nosocomial COVID-19 outbreaks. The virus' high transmissibility, the high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers and false-negative Covid-19 rates on naso- and oropharingeal swabs, put hospitals at high-risk of COVID-19 outbreaks. A comprehensive strategy based on standard precautions, administrative, environmental, and engineering controls, a screening protocol for patients on their admission to hospital, and a testing-based strategy for HCWs within health surveillance programs may prevent the onset of hospital outbreaks, which are a threat to community, patients and HCWs, compromising the sustainability of healthcare facilities.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Control de Infecciones , Personal de Salud , Hospitales
3.
Top Antivir Med ; 30(2): 426-453, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101695

RESUMEN

At the 2022 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, several speakers discussed disparities in HIV and COVID-19 infections and outcomes. Although the lifetime risk of HIV infection in the United States is higher overall in males than females, Black females have higher risk than White males. In 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, women aged 15 to 34 years accounted for more than half of all infections. Because knowledge of HIV serostatus is important for treatment and for prevention, several novel strategies were evaluated in the distribution of HIV self-test kits to undertested populations in the United States and sub-Saharan Africa. Data were presented on new products in the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) pipeline, including long-acting injectable cabotegravir, islatravir, vaginal rings, and in-situ forming implants. Challenges remain in the rollout of oral PrEP, and a number of innovative strategies to address barriers were discussed. Models suggest that the greatest impact of novel PrEP agents would be to increase the pool of persons using PrEP, rather than through improved efficacy. COVID-19 caused substantial declines in HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention and treatment services, which have started to rebound, but are not yet at prepandemic levels in several settings.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/tratamiento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico
4.
Top Antivir Med ; 30(3): 475-489, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101547

RESUMEN

The 2022 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections featured new and important findings about the neurologic complications of HIV-1, COVID-19, and other infections. Long-term analyses identified that cognitive decline over time, phenotypic aging, and stroke are associated with various comorbidities in people with HIV. Neuroimaging studies showed greater neuroinflammation, white matter damage, demyelination, and overall brain aging in people with chronic HIV infection. Childhood trauma and exposure to environmental pollutants contribute to these neuroimaging findings. Studies of blood and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers showed that systemic inflammation, neurodegeneration, endothelial activation, oxidative stress, and iron dysregulation are associated with worse cognition in people with HIV. Some animal studies focused on myeloid cells of the central nervous system, but other animal and human studies showed that lymphoid cells also contribute to HIV neuropathogenesis. The deleterious central nervous system effects of polypharmacy and anticholinergic drugs in people with HIV were demonstrated. In contrast, a large randomized controlled trial showed that integrase strand transfer inhibitor therapy was not associated with neurotoxicity. Studies of cryptococcal meningitis demonstrated he cost-effectiveness of single high-dose liposomal amphotericin and the prognostic value of the cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay. People hospitalized with COVID-19 had more anxiety over time after discharge. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen is present in cerebrospinal fluid in the absence of viral RNA. Systemic inflammation, astrocyte activation, and tryptophan metabolism pathways are associated with post-COVID-19 neurologic syndromes. Whether these processes are independent or intertwined during HIV-1 and COVID-19 infections requires further study.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , VIH-1 , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso , Masculino , Humanos , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complicaciones , Inflamación
5.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 39 Suppl 130(3): 72-77, 2021.
Artículo | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101115

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is a complex disease that is mainly characterised by chronic widespread pain, fatigue and sleep disturbances and may be precipitated or worsened by many stressors. The aim of this study was to observe the behaviour of FM symptoms during the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Patients who had been diagnosed as having FM for ≥3 months were recruited between February and May 2020. The collected data were age, sex, educational level and marital status; height and weight; and the scores of the revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR), the modified Fibromyalgia Assessment Status 2019 (FASmod), and the Polysymptomatic Distress Scale (PDS). The patients were divided into those with or without concomitant COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Eight hundred and ninety-seven (93%) of the 965 patients (881 women [91.3%] and 84 men [8.7%]) were followed up on an outpatient basis because of FM and 68 (7.0%) were either followed up as out-patients or hospitalised because of COVID-19. There was no difference in the sociodemographic data of the two groups, but there were statistically significant between-group differences in the results of the clinimetric tests. The major differences between the score of the items (those with the greatest disease impact) were the following related symptoms: sleep quality (FIQR15), fatigue/energy (FIQR13), pain (FIQR12), stiffness (FIQR14). CONCLUSIONS: The mean total and subdomain scores of all the tests were significantly higher in the patients with COVID-19, which suggests that global FM symptoms are more severe in patients with infection. Further studies of the post-COVID19 patients are being carried out in order to discover whether the worsened symptomatology continues because of their hypersensitised state.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Fibromialgia , Fatiga/epidemiología , Fatiga/etiología , Femenino , Fibromialgia/diagnóstico , Fibromialgia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Calidad de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(1): 107-113, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100787

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate risk-taking behavior and decision-making processes in recovered COVID-19 patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty patients recovered from COVID-19 as confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests and twenty-one healthy individuals were recruited. A computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT) for measuring risk-taking behavior tendencies as a decision-making process and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and WMS-R Digit Span Forward Test (DSFT) for clinical assessments included. The assessments of the recovered patients were applied on the initial phase that the tests of the patients were negative and on the 4-week follow up phase. RESULTS: The results showed that the anxiety scores were significantly higher in the healthy control group than in the group of recovered patients. The IGT-Net 4 scores were significantly and IGT-Net total scores were marginally significantly lower in the group of recovered patients. In other words, recovered patients showed higher risk-taking behavior tendencies. This tendency difference is consistent with the anxiety levels of the groups. These IGT scores showed to be persistent in the 4-week follow up phase. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that recovered patients show higher risk-taking behavior tendencies than healthy controls and this may be the result of overcoming the COVID-19 threat.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Juego de Azar , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Iowa , Asunción de Riesgos , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(1): 32-35, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100749

RESUMEN

The increase in organisms transference and infectious pandemics across the globe have been accelerated by an increase in travel, international exchange and global changes in earth's climate. COVID-19, a virus caused by the novel coronavirus that was initially identified on December 2019, in Wuhan city of China is currently affecting 146 territories, states and countries raising distress, panic and increasing anxiety in individuals exposed to the (actual or supposed) peril of the virus across the globe. Fundamentally, these concerns ascend with all infections, including those of flu and other agents, and the same worldwide safeguards are compulsory and suggested for protection and the prevention of further diffusion. However, media has underlined COVID-19 as rather an exclusive threat, which has added to panic and stress in masses which can lead to several mental health issues like anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder which should be contained immediately in its initial phases.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Salud Global , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Estrés Psicológico , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , SARS-CoV-2 , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(1): 25-31, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100748

RESUMEN

Deep emotional traumas in societies overwhelmed by large-scale human disasters, like, global pandemic diseases, natural disasters, man-made tragedies, war conflicts, social crises, etc., can cause massive stress-related disorders. Motivated by the ongoing global coronavirus pandemic, the article provides an overview of scientific evidence regarding adverse impact of diverse human disasters on mental health in afflicted groups and societies. Following this broader context, psychosocial impact of COVID-19 as a specific global human disaster is presented, with an emphasis on disturbing mental health aspects of the ongoing pandemic. Limited resources of mental health services in a number of countries around the world are illustrated, which will be further stretched by the forthcoming increase in demand for mental health services due to the global COVID-19 pandemic. Mental health challenges are particularly important for the Republic of Croatia in the current situation, due to disturbing stress of the 2020 Zagreb earthquake and the high pre-pandemic prevalence of chronic Homeland-War-related posttraumatic stress disorders. Comprehensive approach based on digital psychiatry is proposed to address the lack of access to psychiatric services, which includes artificial intelligence, telepsychiatry and an array of new technologies, like internet-based computer-aided mental health tools and services. These tools and means should be utilized as an important part of the whole package of measures to mitigate negative mental health effects of the global coronavirus pandemic. Our scientific and engineering experiences in the design and development of digital tools and means in mitigation of stress-related disorders and assessment of stress resilience are presented. Croatian initiative on enhancement of interdisciplinary research of psychiatrists, psychologists and computer scientists on the national and EU level is important in addressing pressing mental health concerns related to the ongoing pandemic and similar human disasters.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Desastres , Servicios de Salud Mental , Salud Mental , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Psiquiatría , Telemedicina , Inteligencia Artificial , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Croacia , Humanos , Internet , Pandemias , Psiquiatría/tendencias , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicina/tendencias , Interfaz Usuario-Computador
10.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(1): 22-24, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100747

RESUMEN

This work gives an overview of the methods of scenic expression which can be used to help cope with the crisis caused by the global threat of the coronavirus pandemic. The virus is new, the vaccine has not been developed yet and there are no unified prevention and post-prevention policies. In the following lines some modified elements of psychodrama interventions are presented including the ways of preventing the retraumatization of the patient (protagonist). This can be achieved by conscious reliving of the trauma and by activating new, transformative roles to guide the protagonist on his way to recovery.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Pacientes , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Psicodrama , Trauma Psicológico , COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , Pacientes/psicología , Trauma Psicológico/etiología , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(1): 15-21, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100746

RESUMEN

The coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak was labeled a global pandemic by the WHO in March of 2020. Understanding how crisis influence an individual's reactions to stressful events (and vice versa) is important in order to create meaningful and effective interventions. Our literature search have revealed lack of the papers related to psychodynamic approach to recent crisis. Psychodynamic places a large emphasis on defense mechanisms and unconscious mind, where upsetting feelings, urges, and thoughts that are too painful for us to directly look at are housed. Even though these painful feelings and thoughts are outside of our awareness, they still influence our behavior in many ways. Optimal application of psychodynamic approach offers the frame for acceptance of psychological stress in a more positive way and benefits psychological growth. We believe that including psychodynamic approach in the national public and mental health emergency system will empower Croatia and the world during (and after) COVID-19 pandemic crisis.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Salud Mental , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Psicoanálisis , Estrés Psicológico , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Defensa Civil , Croacia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 563-569, 2020.
Artículo | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100779

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare professionals are one of the groups most affected by a pandemic that affects the whole world. This study aimed to determine the anxiety level of emergency medical services professionals in Ankara, Turkey after the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In the first part of the survey, the participants of the study were asked about their socio-demographic characteristics and their contact with the COVID-19 patients. In the second part, a survey with 20 questions that determined the state anxiety level derived from the State Anxiety Inventory was performed after obtaining verbal consent. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 33.1±6.9, while 52.7% of all participants were males. In this study, the mean STAI Anxiety Score was 50.7±11.6. Anxiety scores were higher in females and those who had family members at risk of COVID-19 infection (p<0.05). The majority of those who had family members at risk of the infection started to stay in guesthouses instead of going home. Participants were worried about transmitting the infection to their family members (p<0.05). They felt more anxious when treating COVID-19 diagnosed or other patients (p<0.05). In addition, they thought that their anxiety level increased in general (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic caused an anxiety increase in EMS workers in Turkey. Protecting the physical and mental health of the EMS employees who work at the front line against the COVID-19 pandemic and who have a high risk of infection, and ensuring their efficient work should be the main priority.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Turquia/epidemiología
14.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 557-562, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100778

RESUMEN

The world is amidst the COVID-19 pandemic that has used social distancing as a tool for containing the virus from spreading exponentially among other individuals. Previous literature suggests that human contact and attachment is a key for well-being which is why punishments like solitary confinement in detention centers like jail has always been debated as being torturous (Wolfendal 2020). With this notion, anxiety and stress may become more prevalent in individuals who experience self-isolation or are under a forced lockdown. For health-care workers like doctors and psychologists, who advocate for physical health, mental health and wellbeing; the challenges might increase during the pandemic phase as they are expected to go through the crises just like others while simultaneously contributing in rendering services related to dealing with physical and psychological health issues present in patients and clients with their continued practice from either on-site or online platforms. Although all health care professional's training inoculates the ill effects of compassion fatigue by other's overwhelming situations and discussions but they might still be prone to vicarious burnout, trauma and stress. Hence, they may become exposed to being at risk of experiencing anxiety more than the general population. This review discusses facets of the importance of self-care as mental health first aid tool for health care professionals including doctors and psychologists using research and supportive techniques to help them process stress and anxiety during and after the global pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Autocuidado
15.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 549-556, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100777

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mental health of medical workers treating patients with COVID-19 is an issue of increasing concern worldwide. The available data on stress and anxiety symptoms among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 are relatively limited and have not been evaluated in Russia yet. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional anonymous survey included 1,090 healthcare workers. Stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed using Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics - 9 (SAVE-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder - 7 (GAD-7) scales. Logistic regression, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin two component factor model, Cronbach's alpha and ROC-analysis were performed to determine the influence of different variables, internal structure and consistency, sensitivity and specificity of SAVE-9 compared with GAD-7. RESULTS: The median scores on the GAD-7 and SAVE-9 were 5 and 14, respectively. 535 (49.1%) respondents had moderate and 239 (21.9%) had severe anxiety according to SAVE-9. 134 participants (12.3%) had severe anxiety, 144 (13.2%) had moderate according to GAD-7. The component model revealed two-factor structure of SAVE-9: "anxiety and somatic concern" and "social stress". Female gender (OR - 0.98, p=0.04) and younger age (OR - 0.65, p=0.04) were associated with higher level of anxiety according to regression model. The total score of SAVE-9 with a high degree of confidence predicted the GAD-7 value in comparative ROC analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare workers in Russia reported high rates of stress and anxiety. The Russian version of the SAVE-9 displayed a good ratio of sensitivity to specificity compared with GAD-7 and can be recommended as a screening instrument for detection of stress and anxiety in healthcare workers.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Federación de Rusia/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 536-548, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100776

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many research has indicated that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, health care workers are under greatly increased pressure and at increased risk for the development of mental health problems. Furthermore, previous research has indicated that psychiatrists are exposed to a number of unique stressors that may increase their risk for poor mental health. The aims of the present study were to assess the level of COVID-19 related concerns, psychological distress and life satisfaction among psychiatrists and other physicians during the first period of the pandemic and to examine whether individual differences in COVID-19 concerns, psychological flexibility, psychological resilience and coping behaviors account for differences in mental health indicators. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of N=725 physicians, among whom 22.8% were psychiatrists. This study was conducted online during the first lockdown in Croatia and collected data regarding COVID-19 related concerns, coping behaviors and mental health indicators (Psychological Distress and Life Satisfaction). RESULTS: Physicians of other specialties had higher scores on a measure of COVID-19 anxiety than psychiatrists (p=0.012). In addition, a number of differences in coping behaviors are evident. Specifically, psychiatrists were less likely than physicians of other specializations to believe that being informed about COVID-19 is an effective coping strategy (p=0.013), but more prone to using sedatives and drugs as a coping strategy (p=0.002; p=0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatrists are at special risk for substance abuse. Younger age, psychological inflexibility, low resilience and greater COVID-19 concerns might act as specific risk factors for distress. Our findings highlight the need for promoting a healthy lifestyle and psychological flexibility as universal protective factors.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Médicos , Psiquiatría , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Croacia , Humanos , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Factores Protectores , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 527-535, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100775

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adolescents' anxiety and depression during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak cannot be ignored. In public health crisis events, adolescents are prone to negative psychological problems, such as anxiety and depression. Hence, this research focuses on the use of reasonable and efficient methods to intervene in adolescents' psychological problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: From February to April 2020, we conducted an anonymous online survey on a total of 1,200 adolescents in the provinces of Hunan and Guangxi in China. Moreover, we randomly divided a total of 150 middle school students with anxiety scores greater than 50 and volunteered to participate in the intervention experiment into control and intervention groups, with 75 members in each group. On the basis of the proposed routine treatment, we conducted 8 weeks of model 328-based peer education intervention in the intervention group. RESULTS: After the intervention, the self-rating anxiety scale scores (SAS) of the intervention group are better than those of the control group (P<0.001). Moreover, the self-rating depression scale (SDS) scores of both groups are reduced, but the effect is more significant on the intervention group (P<0.001) than on the control group. Finally, the total Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) scores of both groups are reduced, but the effect is more significant on the intervention group than on the control group (P=0.001 and <0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Model 328-based peer education intervention can significantly reduce the level of anxiety and depression in adolescents and improve their sleep quality.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , COVID-19 , Depresión , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia , Adolescente , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/terapia , China , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/terapia
18.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 521-526, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100774

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged in Wuhan, China and has spread all over the world and affected global mental health. Pregnant women may be particularly vulnerable and experience high levels of distress during an infectious disease outbreak. The aim of this study was to determine anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study surveyed a total of 283 pregnant women within the period of May 11 to May 28,2020. During their regular antenatal visit, pregnant women were invited to participate in the study. The self-created personal information form was used to assess the main characteristics of the participants. Anxiety and PTSD symptoms of the pregnant women were measured by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), respectively. RESULTS: The mean age of the pregnant women was 29.20±5.55 years. Regarding gestational age, 72 (25.4%), 86 (30.4) and 125 (44.2) were in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. The mean gestational age was 23.82±11.05 weeks. The mean STAI-S and STAI-T scores were 39.52±10.56 within the cut-off value (39-40) of the instrument and 42.74±8.33, respectively. Furthermore, the mean total IES-R score was 36.60±15.65 within the cut-off value (24) of the instrument. Multiple regression analysis revealed that pregnancy complication (p=0.01) and employment status of husband (p=0.04) were the best predictors of state anxiety. Additionally, the presence of COVID-19-related symptoms (p=0.01) and educational level (p=0.01) were found to predict PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women would be likely to experience high levels of anxiety and PTSD symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic's delay phase. The results should sensitize the medical team to increased anxiety and PTDS symptoms of the pregnant women in order to prevent negative outcomes for women and their fetuses.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , China , Estudios Transversales , Depresión , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , SARS-CoV-2 , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico , Adulto Joven
19.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 499-504, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100771

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pandemics are direct antecedent of distinctive physical, psychological, social and financial impacts. A large number of researches are being conducted regarding previous epidemics and pandemics and lot more is currently in progress vis-?-vis COVID-19. The current research is an attempt to explore psychological impacts of COVID-19 specifically to find out the existence, intensity and dynamics of COVID-19 fear in non-clinical educated population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross sectional online study was conducted with non-clinical educated Pakistani citizens. Self-structured questionnaire comprising close and open ended questions was used for data collection from different cities of Pakistan. N=317 participants (men=121, women=196) were the sample for this study. Demographic information was also sought. The age range of sample was 18 to 50+ years. Most of the participants fall in the category of age group 23-28 of sample. All the participants were educated from Intermediate till PhD but majority of participants had 16 years of education. SPSS 22 was used for quantitative data analysis. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis and content analysis. RESULTS: Results yield significant age wise and profession wise difference in existence of COVID fear. Nine major themes were extracted regarding nature of fear i.e. Corona Fear, Loss, fear of isolation or quarantine, religion related fear, death, consequences of COVID-19, Under developed country, Psychological component of fear and empathy. Those who denied fear were asked the reasons and six major themes were extracted here i.e Religion, Inevitability of death, Precautions, Belief in self, Myths or misinterpretation of disease and Avoidant approach. CONCLUSIONS: Age and profession significantly influenced fear of COVID-19. Gender-wise exploration of themes yields interesting insights. Participants reflected positivity and empathy in crisis situation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Miedo , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Joven
20.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 491-498, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100770

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Individuals with certain pre-existing chronic health conditions have been identified as a high-risk group for fatalities of COVID-19. Therefore, it is likely that individuals with chronic diseases may worry during this pandemic to the detriment of their mental health. This study compares the mental health of Bangladeshi adults affected by chronic disease to a healthy, matched control group during the COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A matched case-control analysis was performed with data collected from 395 respondents with chronic diseases and 395 controls matched for age, gender, and residence. Inclusion criteria for cases were respondents who self-reported having asthma, cardiovascular disease symptoms and/or diabetes. Respondents were recruited using an online survey, which included the DASS-21 measure to assess symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. Chi-square test, t-test, Fisher's exact test and a conditional logistic regression were performed to examine associations among variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of anxiety symptoms and depression symptoms and the level of stress were significantly higher among cases (59%; 71.6%; 73.7%, respectively) than among controls (25.6%; 31.1%; 43.3%, respectively). Chi-square and t-test showed significant associations and differences between having chronic diseases and mental health outcomes. A conditional logistic regression showed that respondents with asthma, diabetes, cardiovascular disease symptoms, or any combination of these diseases had higher odds of exhibiting symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression than healthy individuals. CONCLUSION: These results underscore a subpopulation vulnerable to mental health consequences during this pandemic and indicate the need for additional mental health resources to be available to those with chronic diseases.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adulto , Ansiedad , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Enfermedad Crónica , Comorbilidad , Depresión , Humanos , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
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