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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(15): e25290, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217990

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Health care employees are the front liners whom are directly involved in the management of COVID-19 at high risk of developing psychological distress and other mental health illness. We aim to assess the burden of depression during this pandemic on health care employees treating COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. We also will shed the light on the best solutions of how to encounter depression.A cross-sectional, hospital-based survey conducted via a region-stratified, 2-stage cluster sample was conducted for 554 participants in >15 hospitals from April 29, 2020, to June 30, 2020. Depression is measured using the established PHQ9 score system. We grade PHQ9 depression scores as: normal, 0 to 4, mild, 5 to 9, significant (moderate or severe), 10 to 27. χ2/Fisher exact test was used; significant association between level of depression and survey characteristics were made. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.A total of 554 participants completed the survey. A total of 18.9% (n = 105) were aged <29 years, 51.2% (n = 284) were between 30 to 39 years and female represent 70% of all participants. Of all participants, 53.7% (n = 298) were nurses, and 38.6% (n = 214) were physicians; 68.5% (n = 380) worked in central area hospitals in Saudi Arabia. No significant (P = .432, 95% confidence interval [CI]) association was observed between sex and depression classifications. However, female had high proportion of significant depression 75.0% (n = 76) was observed as compared to male 24.8% (n = 25). Depression was significant in Saudis 61.4% (n = 62) (P < .001, 95% CI) and medical staff who encountered corona patients 51.5% (n = 52) (P < .002, 95% CI). Hospital preparedness associated with more freedom of depression symptoms 69.1% (n = 199/288) (P < .001, 95% CI).Frontline young health care workers especially physician in Saudi Arabia reported a high rate of depression symptoms. Countermeasures for health care workers represent a key component for the mental and physical well-being as part of public health measures during this pandemic. Attention to hospital preparedness and adequacy of personal protective equipment contributed to milder depression symptoms. Further studies need to be conducted on crisis management and depression.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Depresión , Personal de Salud , Control de Infecciones , Estrés Laboral , Adulto , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/etiología , Ansiedad/prevención & control , /psicología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/etiología , Depresión/prevención & control , Femenino , Personal de Salud/clasificación , Personal de Salud/psicología , Médicos Hospitalarios/psicología , Médicos Hospitalarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Control de Infecciones/organización & administración , Control de Infecciones/normas , Masculino , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral/normas , Estrés Laboral/prevención & control , Estrés Laboral/psicología , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología
2.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12224, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217340

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Little is known about workplace measures against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Japan during the winter of 2020, especially in micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs). This study aimed to provide an overview of the current situation of anti-COVID-19 measures in Japanese enterprises during the winter, considering company size. METHODS: This study was an Internet-based nationwide cross-sectional study. Individuals who were registered as full-time workers were invited to participate in the survey. Data were collected using an online self-administered questionnaire in December 2020. The chi-squared test for trend was performed to calculate the P-value for trend for each workplace measure across company sizes. RESULTS: For the 27 036 participants, across company sizes, the most prevalent workplace measure was encouraging mask wearing at work, followed by requesting that employees refrain from going to work when ill and restricting work-related social gatherings and entertainment. These measures were implemented by approximately 90% of large-scale enterprises and by more than 40% of micro- and small-scale enterprises. In contrast, encouraging remote working was implemented by less than half of large-scale enterprises and by around 20% of micro- and small-scale enterprises. There were statistically significant differences in all workplace measures by company size (all P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: We found that various responses to COVID-19 had been taken in workplaces. However, some measures, including remote working, were still not well-implemented, especially in smaller enterprises. The findings suggest that occupational health support for MSMEs is urgently needed to mitigate the current wave of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud del Trabajador/organización & administración , Lugar de Trabajo/organización & administración , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos
3.
Am J Public Health ; 111(6): 999-1001, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217005
5.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(5): 542-546, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198579

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is vital to know which healthcare personnel (HCP) have a higher chance of testing positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted at Stanford Children's Health (SCH) and Stanford Health Care (SHC) in Stanford, California. Analysis included all HCP, employed by SCH or SHC, who had a COVID-19 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test resulted by the SHC Laboratory, between March 1, 2020 and June 15, 2020. The primary outcome was the RT-PCR percent positivity and prevalence of COVID-19 for HCP and these were compared across roles. RESULTS: SCH and SHC had 24,081 active employees, of which 142 had at least 1 positive COVID-19 test. The overall HCP prevalence of COVID-19 was 0.59% and percent positivity was 1.84%. Patient facing HCPs had a significantly higher prevalence (0.66% vs 0.43%; P = .0331) and percent positivity (1.95% vs 1.43%; P = .0396) than nonpatient facing employees, respectively. Percent positivity was higher in food service workers (9.15%), and environmental services (5.96%) compared to clinicians (1.93%; P < .0001) and nurses (1.46%; P < .0001), respectively. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: HCP in patient-facing roles and in support roles had a greater chance of being positive of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral , /aislamiento & purificación , Centros Médicos Académicos , Adulto , /estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
6.
Med Lav ; 112(2): 95-106, 2021 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196175

RESUMEN

Spirometry is a commonly performed assessment of lung function for diagnostic purposes as well as for monitoring of chronic lung diseases. The last international standardization of this technique was published in 2005. After 14 years, a group of experts from two leading scientific societies, American Thoracic Society (ATS) and European Respiratory Society (ERS), published a joint position that updated the standardization of spirometry, with an extensive criteria re-organization, including key updates such as: relative contraindications, instrumentation requirement to meet the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards, quality assurance, operator training, pre-test requirements, acceptability and usability criteria. New standards underline three key elements to obtain high quality pulmonary function data: an accurate and precise instrumentation, a patient/subject capable of performing acceptable and repeatable measurements, and a motivated technologist to elicit maximum performance from the patient. Never- theless, although COVID-19 pandemic has enormously impacted and limited a widespread application of spirometry, it has prompted much attention on hygienic procedures and on further research on noncontact spirometers.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Humanos , Pandemias , Estándares de Referencia , Espirometría , Estados Unidos
7.
Med Lav ; 112(2): 171-176, 2021 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196174

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2/Covid-19 pandemic is a challenge for public health and occupational medicine and developing prevention and protection strategies needs expertise from many disciplines. To make prevention successful, individuals have to be motivated to participate and, in turn, motivation depends on understanding how and why prevention measures are implemented. We present a structured approach (the Cycle of prevention) which involves different stakeholders and perspectives to develop, and monitor, prevention strategies in transparent and effective ways.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Humanos , Pandemias , Grupo de Atención al Paciente
8.
Ann Clin Psychiatry ; 33(2): 101-107, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194814

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic may adversely impact the mental health of health care workers (HCWs). To address this issue, it is essential to determine levels of anxiety, depression, and traumatic stress, and sources of stress, and to identify subgroups of HCWs at a higher risk of adverse mental health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of symptoms of mental illness in HCWs in the area surrounding Detroit, Michigan. The online survey included questions about demographics, health and clinical factors, and sources of stress. Several tools were used to assess psychiatric symptoms among HCWs, including the Perceived Stress Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item assessment, and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5. The adequacy of personal protective equipment, patient resources, and training for highly contagious diseases were rated. RESULTS: The sample (N = 129) was predominantly female (51.2%) and White (65.9%), with 30.2% screening positive for clinical follow-up to assess anxiety, 20.9% for moderate to severe depression, and 16.3% for elevated traumatic stress. Differences were found by self-reported psychiatric diagnosis and chronic conditions, and role on treatment teams. CONCLUSIONS: Frontline HCWs demonstrate high levels of stress and trauma symptoms. Timely screening and accommodations may be needed during health care crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud , Estrés Laboral , Estrés Psicológico , Adulto , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/etiología , /psicología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/etiología , Femenino , Personal de Salud/psicología , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Michigan/epidemiología , Evaluación de Necesidades , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Estrés Laboral/diagnóstico , Estrés Laboral/epidemiología , Estrés Laboral/etiología , Estrés Laboral/psicología , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Trastornos de Estrés Traumático/etiología , Trastornos de Estrés Traumático/prevención & control , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
9.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(3): 317-329, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192098

RESUMEN

The current study aims to understand the detrimental effects of COVID-19 pandemic on employee job insecurity and its downstream outcomes, as well as how organizations could help alleviate such harmful effects. Drawing on event system theory and literature on job insecurity, we conceptualize COVID-19 as an event relevant to employees' work, and propose that event strength (i.e., novelty, disruption, and criticality) of COVID-19 influences employee job insecurity, which in turn affects employee work and non-work outcomes. We also identified important organization adaptive practices responding to COVID-19 based on a preliminary interview study, and examined its role in mitigating the undesired effects of COVID-19 event strength. Results from a two-wave lagged survey study indicated that employees' perceived COVID-19 event novelty and disruption (but not criticality) were positively related to their job insecurity, which in turn was positively related to their emotional exhaustion, organizational deviance, and saving behavior. Moreover, organization adaptive practices mitigated the effects of COVID-19 event novelty and criticality (but not disruption) on job insecurity. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Empleo/psicología , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Salud Laboral , Administración de Personal/métodos , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Adulto , China , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Teoría Psicológica , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control
10.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(3): 330-344, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192097

RESUMEN

In response to the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global health pandemic, many employees transitioned to remote work, which included remote meetings. With this sudden shift, workers and the media began discussing videoconference fatigue, a potentially new phenomenon of feeling tired and exhausted attributed to a videoconference. In the present study, we examine the nature of videoconference fatigue, when this phenomenon occurs, and what videoconference characteristics are associated with fatigue using a mixed-methods approach. Thematic analysis of qualitative responses indicates that videoconference fatigue exists, often in near temporal proximity to the videoconference, and is affected by various videoconference characteristics. Quantitative data were collected each hour during five workdays from 55 employees who were working remotely because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Latent growth modeling results suggest that videoconferences at different times of the day are related to deviations in employee fatigue beyond what is expected based on typical fatigue trajectories. Results from multilevel modeling of 279 videoconference meetings indicate that turning off the microphone and having higher feelings of group belongingness are related to lower postvideoconference fatigue. Additional analyses suggest that higher levels of group belongingness are the most consistent protective factor against videoconference fatigue. Such findings have immediate practical implications for workers and organizations as they continue to navigate the still relatively new terrain of remote work. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Fatiga/etiología , Identificación Social , Aislamiento Social , Comunicación por Videocoferencia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatiga/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Laboral , Factores Protectores , Investigación Cualitativa , Análisis de Regresión , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009254, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166997

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In order to protect health workers from SARS-CoV-2, there is need to characterise the different types of patient facing health workers. Our first aim was to determine both the infection status and seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in health workers. Our second aim was to evaluate the occupational and demographic predictors of seropositivity to inform the country's infection prevention and control (IPC) strategy. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We invited 713 staff members at 24 out of 35 health facilities in the City of Bulawayo in Zimbabwe. Compliance to testing was defined as the willingness to uptake COVID-19 testing by answering a questionnaire and providing samples for both antibody testing and PCR testing. SARS-COV-2 antibodies were detected using a rapid diagnostic test kit and SAR-COV-2 infection was determined by real-time (RT)-PCR. Of the 713 participants, 635(89%) consented to answering the questionnaire and providing blood sample for antibody testing while 560 (78.5%) agreed to provide nasopharyngeal swabs for the PCR SARS-CoV-2 testing. Of the 635 people (aged 18-73) providing a blood sample 39.1% reported a history of past COVID-19 symptoms while 14.2% reported having current symptoms of COVID-19. The most-prevalent co-morbidity among this group was hypertension (22.0%) followed by asthma (7.0%) and diabetes (6.0%). The SARS-CoV-2 sero-prevalence was 8.9%. Of the 560 participants tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 2 participants (0.36%) were positive for SAR-CoV-2 infection by PCR testing. None of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody positive people were positive for SAR-CoV-2 infection by PCR testing. CONCLUSION AND INTERPRETATION: In addition to clinical staff, several patient-facing health workers were characterised within Zimbabwe's health system and the seroprevalence data indicated that previous exposure to SAR-CoV-2 had occurred across the full spectrum of patient-facing staff with nurses and nurse aides having the highest seroprevalence. Our results highlight the need for including the various health workers in IPC strategies in health centres to ensure effective biosecurity and biosafety.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Personal de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , /transmisión , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Salud Laboral , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
12.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(6): 83-87, 2020 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159496

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: We are currently in the midst of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Research into previous infectious disease outbreaks has shown that healthcare workers are at increased risk for burnout during these dire times, with those on the front lines at greatest risk. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the effect that the COVID-19 pandemic has had on the wellness of emergency physicians (EP). METHODS: A survey was sent to 137 EPs in a multi-hospital network in eastern Pennsylvania. We compared 10 primary and two supplemental questions based on how the physicians had been feeling in the prior 2-3 weeks (COVID-19 period) to the same questions based on how they were feeling in the prior 4-6 months (pre-COVID-19 period). RESULTS: We received 55 responses to the survey (40.1% response rate). The study found that during the pandemic, EPs felt less in control (p-value = 0.001); felt decreased happiness while at work (p-value 0.001); had more trouble falling asleep (p-value = 0.001); had an increased sense of dread when thinking of work needing to be done (p-value = 0.04); felt more stress on days not at work (p-value <0.0001); and were more concerned about their own health (p-value <0.0001) and the health of their families and loved ones (p-value <0.0001). CONCLUSION: This study showed a statistically significant decrease in EP wellness during the COVID-19 pandemic when compared to the pre-pandemic period. We need to be aware of evidence-based recommendations to help mitigate the risks and prevent physician burnout.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Salud Laboral , Estrés Laboral/epidemiología , Médicos/psicología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adulto , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Medicina de Emergencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/organización & administración , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevención & control , Pennsylvania , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Estudios Prospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Iran J Immunol ; 18(1): 82-92, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160291

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly transmits in general population, mainly between health-care workers (HCWs) who are in close contact with patients. OBJECTIVE: To study the seropositivity of HCWs as a high-risk group compared to general population. METHODS: 72 samples were obtained from HCWs working in Masih Daneshvari hospital as one of the main COVID-19 admission centers in Tehran, during April 4 to 6, 2020. Also we collected 2021 blood samples from general population. The SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM, and IgG antibodies in the collected serum specimens were measured by commercial ELISA kits. RESULTS: Based on the clinical manifestations, 25.0%, 47.2%, and 27.8% of HCWs were categorized as symptomatic with typical symptoms, symptomatic with atypical symptoms, and asymptomatic, respectively. Symptomatic individuals with typical and atypical symptoms were 63.2% and 36.8% positive in RT-PCR test, respectively. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 15.3% and 27.8% of HCWs samples, respectively. Antibody testing in the general population indicated that SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM and IgG were found in (162/2021) 8%, and (290/2021) 14.4%, respectively. The frequency of positive cases of IgM and IgG were significantly increased in HCWs compared to general population (p= 0.028 for IgM and p= 0.002 for IgG). CONCLUSION: The frequency of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in HCWs was higher than general population indicating a higher viral transmission via close exposure with COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Personal de Salud , Salud Laboral , /inmunología , Adulto , Anciano , Biomarcadores/sangre , /inmunología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Exposición Profesional , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
16.
Prof Inferm ; 73(4): 225, 2020.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156203
17.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(4): 291-295, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153276

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We investigated COVID-19 infection and death among healthcare personnel (HCP) in the United States Veterans Health Administration. METHODS: HCP with positive Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction tests between March 1 and August 31, 2020 were included. Risk ratios were calculated for sex, age, race/ethnicity, Veteran status, occupation category, facility of employment by inpatient COVID-19 test percent positivity and death. RESULTS: Five thousand nine hundred twenty five HCP were COVID-19-infected out of 131,606 tested (4.5% positivity). Highest risk for COVID-19 infection included: HCP working in hospitals with more than 15% inpatient COVID-19 test positivity, nursing staff, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic or Latino HCP and HCP who were Veterans. Among 18 HCP who died after COVID-19 infection, male sex, age more than or equal to 65 years, and Veteran status were significant risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Robust national surveillance testing methods are needed to accurately monitor HCP COVID-19 infections and deaths to improve HCP safety.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , /prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Laboral , Factores de Riesgo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
18.
Soc Work Health Care ; 60(2): 117-130, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152954

RESUMEN

With high levels of burnout, turnover, and secondary traumatic stress, the well-being of the behavioral health workforce was an area of concern prior to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. How the COVID-19 crisis has impacted social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, and other behavioral health professionals is unclear but should be examined. A brief survey evaluated the impact of the pandemic on the well-being of 168 behavioral health clinical and administrative staff serving in an urban behavioral health center in the United States. Staff experienced several personal and organizational-related challenges related to work-life balance, emotional distress, and organizational communication. Nevertheless, staff found an abundance of positive experiences when engaging with clients. Supportive, positive feedback and statements of appreciation from clients, colleagues, and supervisors helped staff to feel at their best. The well-being of behavioral health staff may be facilitated by consistent and supportive communication at the team, supervisory, and organizational levels and by involving staff in planning agency policy.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Centros Comunitarios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Personal de Salud/psicología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Comunicación , Conducta Cooperativa , Procesos de Grupo , Humanos , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Salud Laboral , Pandemias , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Telemedicina/organización & administración , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Equilibrio entre Vida Personal y Laboral
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