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4.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 76(2): 107-118, 2020.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739595

RESUMEN

Knowledge about the new infectious disease COVID-19, which first spread in the city of Wuhan in China, in December 2019, is based on the evidence retrieved from coronaviruses previously known to humans. The main transmission ways of the new SARS-CoV-2 virus are respiratory droplets and direct and close contact with infected individuals and contaminated surfaces. To date, some scientific publications provide initial evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in the air, thus assuming a further route of infection, that airborne, although these results are to be considered preliminary and they need careful interpretation. In support of this hypothesis, ventilation systems, aimed to improve indoor air, could represent an easy way to spread and promote the virus infection especially in hospitals and in all health facilities where the presence of infected individuals is potentially high as well as the possibility of infection by air. Indeed, by generating jets of air at different speeds, they can interfere with the mission of respiratory particles and determine an environmental diffusion of the potentially contaminating droplet. Therefore, ventilation systems could provide a potential transmission channel for the viral load able to spread out in indoor air. Nonetheless, good management, technical and operational practices may lead to a low risk of contagion, both in community and health environments.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Ventilación , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión
5.
R I Med J (2013) ; 103(7): 15-20, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739560

RESUMEN

In December 2019 a respiratory illness known as Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19) broke out in a region in China and rapidly spread to become a pandemic affecting all sporting events worldwide. The Summer Olympics scheduled to be held in Tokyo were postponed until 2021, and all professional leagues in the United States postponed or canceled events. As the United States has begun to open up, there remains uncertainty of when sporting events can safely be held. Many professional leagues and the National Collegiate Athletic Association have established guidelines and recommendations for their athletes to compete safely. In this article, we review the protocols that have been established to allow athletes to return to play, and we review briefly the effects COVID-19 infection may have on athletes.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Volver al Deporte , Deportes/tendencias , Atletas , Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Medición de Riesgo
10.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E391-E392, 2020 08 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732983

RESUMEN

Summary: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on health care delivery and has resulted in a backlog of patients needing surgery. There is a lack of experience and guidance in dealing with this increased demand on an already overburdened health care system. We created an online tool (www.covidbacklog.com) that helps surgeons explore how resource allocation within their group will affect wait times for patients. After inputting a handful of readily available variables, the computer program generates a forecast of how long it will take to see the backlog of patients. This information could be used to allow surgical groups to run simulations to explore different resource allocation strategies in order to help prevent downstream consequences of delayed patient care.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Cirugía General/organización & administración , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Cirujanos/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión
13.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 95, 2020 08 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729723

RESUMEN

Currently, Nigeria is still at the ascending phase of the COVID-19 curve with no sign of deceleration. Thus, the recent decision by governors of states in northern Nigeria to deport Almajirai (itinerant Islamic school pupils) from their states as part of efforts to contain COVID-19 transmission is likely to have a serious backlash. With hundreds of Almajirai testing positive to COVID-19, and millions of others untested, they constitute ubiquitous nodes of transmission. Their deportation has created multiple emigration channels that constitute prospective feeders to covert community transmission. This viewpoint examines this trend within the context of Nigeria's current [in]capacity to manage the spread of COVID-19 and concludes that greater risks seem to lie ahead unless the government takes stringent containment measures.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Evaluación de Necesidades , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Salud Pública , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Regulación Gubernamental , Humanos , Islamismo , Nigeria/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Política , Pobreza , Salud Pública/métodos , Salud Pública/normas
14.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 116, 2020 Aug 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727301

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease (later named as COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan, China and, later on, detected in other parts of China. Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of the evolution of interventions and self-protection measures, estimate the risk of partial lifting control measures and predict the epidemic trend of the virus in the mainland of China excluding Hubei province based on the published data and a novel mathematical model. METHODS: A novel COVID-19 transmission dynamic model incorporating the intervention measures implemented in China is proposed. COVID-19 daily data of the mainland of China excluding Hubei province, including the cumulative confirmed cases, the cumulative deaths, newly confirmed cases and the cumulative recovered cases between 20 January and 3 March 2020, were archived from the National Health Commission of China (NHCC). We parameterize the model by using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method and estimate the control reproduction number (Rc), as well as the effective daily reproduction ratio- Re(t), of the disease transmission in the mainland of China excluding Hubei province. RESULTS: The estimation outcomes indicate that Rc is 3.36 (95% CI: 3.20-3.64) and Re(t) has dropped below 1 since 31 January 2020, which implies that the containment strategies implemented by the Chinese government in the mainland of China are indeed effective and magnificently suppressed COVID-19 transmission. Moreover, our results show that relieving personal protection too early may lead to a prolonged disease transmission period and more people would be infected, and may even cause a second wave of epidemic or outbreaks. By calculating the effective reproduction ratio, we prove that the contact rate should be kept at least less than 30% of the normal level by April, 2020. CONCLUSIONS: To ensure the pandemic ending rapidly, it is necessary to maintain the current integrated restrict interventions and self-protection measures, including travel restriction, quarantine of entry, contact tracing followed by quarantine and isolation and reduction of contact, like wearing masks, keeping social distance, etc. People should be fully aware of the real-time epidemic situation and keep sufficient personal protection until April. If all the above conditions are met, the outbreak is expected to be ended by April in the mainland of China apart from Hubei province.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Modelos Estadísticos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Humanos , Cadenas de Markov , Método de Montecarlo , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Viaje
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238015, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725558

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a serious global health threat. Without a vaccine, behavior change is the most effective means of reducing disease transmission. Identifying psychological factors that may encourage engagement in preventative health behaviors is crucial. The behavioral immune system (BIS) represents a set of psychological processes thought to promote health by encouraging disease avoidance behaviors. This study examined whether individual differences in BIS reactivity (germ aversion, pathogen disgust sensitivity) were associated with concern about COVID-19 and engagement in recommended preventative health behaviors (social distancing, handwashing, cleaning/disinfecting, avoiding touching face, wearing facemasks). From March 20 to 23, 2020, a US national sample (N = 1019) completed an online survey. Germ aversion and pathogen disgust sensitivity were the two variables most consistently associated with COVID-19 concern and preventative health behaviors, while accounting for demographic, health, and psychosocial covariates. Findings have implications for the development of interventions intended to increase preventative health behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios Transversales , Asco , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Masculino , Máscaras , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Autoinforme , Adulto Joven
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