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1.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 34(2): 187-198, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956585

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospitalizations for COVID-19 dramatically increase with age. This is likely because of increases in fragility across biological repair systems and a weakened immune system, including loss of the cardiorenal protective arm of the renin--angiotensin system (RAS), composed of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2)/angiotensin-(1--7) [Ang-(1--7)] and its actions through the Mas receptor. The purpose of this review is to explore how cardiac ACE2 changes with age, cardiac diseases, comorbid conditions and pharmaceutical regimens in order to shed light on a potential hormonal unbalance facilitating SARs-CoV-2 vulnerabilities in older adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased ACE2 gene expression has been reported in human hearts with myocardial infarction, cardiac remodeling and heart failure. We also found ACE2 mRNA in atrial appendage tissue from cardiac surgical patients to be positively associated with age, elevated by certain comorbid conditions (e.g. COPD and previous stroke) and increased in conjunction with patients' chronic use of antithrombotic agents and thiazide diuretics but not drugs that block the renin--angiotensin system. SUMMARY: Cardiac ACE2 may have bifunctional roles in COVID-19 as ACE2 not only mediates cellular susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection but also protects the heart via the ACE2/Ang-(1--7) pathway. Linking tissue ACE2 from cardiac surgery patients to their comorbid conditions and medical regimens provides a unique latform to address the influence that altered expression of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis might have on SARs-CoV-2 vulnerability in older adults.


Asunto(s)
Apéndice Atrial , COVID-19 , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Cardíacos , Anciano , Envejecimiento , Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2 , Angiotensinas , Apéndice Atrial/cirugía , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e045889, 2021 01 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832434

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on delivery of social support services. This might be expected to particularly affect older adults and people living with dementia (PLWD), and to reduce their well-being. AIMS: To explore how social support service use by older adults, carers and PLWD, and their mental well-being changed over the first 3 months since the pandemic outbreak. METHODS: Unpaid dementia carers, PLWD and older adults took part in a longitudinal online or telephone survey collected between April and May 2020, and at two subsequent timepoints 6 and 12 weeks after baseline. Participants were asked about their social support service usage in a typical week prior to the pandemic (at baseline), and in the past week at each of the three timepoints. They also completed measures of levels of depression, anxiety and mental well-being. RESULTS: 377 participants had complete data at all three timepoints. Social support service usage dropped shortly after lockdown measures were imposed at timepoint 1 (T1), to then increase again by T3. The access to paid care was least affected by COVID-19. Cases of anxiety dropped significantly across the study period, while cases of depression rose. Well-being increased significantly for older adults and PLWD from T1 to T3. CONCLUSIONS: Access to social support services has been significantly affected by the pandemic, which is starting to recover slowly. With mental well-being differently affected across groups, support needs to be put in place to maintain better well-being across those vulnerable groups during the ongoing pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Cuidadores/psicología , Demencia/psicología , Clausura de las Instituciones de Salud , Servicio Social , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ansiedad/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Apoyo Social , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
3.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(10): 670-674, 2020 05.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721670

RESUMEN

The Coronavirus Disease Pandemic 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), started in December 2019 in China. SARS-CoV-2 is easily transmitted by droplet infection. After an incubation period of 1-14 days, COVID-19 shows a mild course in 80 % of observed cases and a severe course in 20 %, with a lethality rate of 0.3-5.8 %. Elderly people and people with underlying diseases have a higher risk of severe courses with mandatory ventilation. So far there are neither effective drugs nor vaccinations available, so only public health interventions such as physical distancing and hygiene measures on the one hand and targeted testing followed by isolation and quarantine measures on the other hand are available. China has shown that maximum use of these measures can control the epidemic. The further course and also the consequences for the global economy cannot be clearly predicted at present.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Salud Pública , COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Infect Dis ; 225(10): 1710-1720, 2022 05 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704375

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While secondary pneumococcal pneumonia occurs less commonly after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) than after other viral infections, it remains unclear whether other interactions occur between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS: We probed potential interactions between these pathogens among adults aged ≥65 years by measuring associations of COVID-19 outcomes with pneumococcal vaccination (13-valent conjugate vaccine [PCV13] and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine [PPSV23]). We estimated adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) using Cox proportional hazards models with doubly robust inverse-propensity weighting. We assessed effect modification by antibiotic exposure to further test the biologic plausibility of a causal role for pneumococci. RESULTS: Among 531 033 adults, there were 3677 COVID-19 diagnoses, leading to 1075 hospitalizations and 334 fatalities, between 1 March and 22 July 2020. Estimated aHRs for COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalization, and mortality associated with prior PCV13 receipt were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI], .59-.72), 0.68 (95% CI, .57-.83), and 0.68 (95% CI, .49-.95), respectively. Prior PPSV23 receipt was not associated with protection against the 3 outcomes. COVID-19 diagnosis was not associated with prior PCV13 within 90 days following antibiotic receipt, whereas aHR estimates were 0.65 (95% CI, .50-.84) and 0.62 (95% CI, .56-.70) during the risk periods 91-365 days and >365 days, respectively, following antibiotic receipt. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced risk of COVID-19 among PCV13 recipients, transiently attenuated by antibiotic exposure, suggests that pneumococci may interact with SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones Neumocócicas , Anciano , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Prueba de COVID-19 , Humanos , Infecciones Neumocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Neumocócicas/prevención & control , Vacunas Neumococicas , Sistema Respiratorio , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vacunas Conjugadas
6.
Geriatr Nurs ; 42(5): 1230-1239, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575510

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the association between dementia and mortality among older adults with COVID-19. To do so, we conducted a search of 7 databases for relevant full-text articles. A cohort study and case-control study were included. A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize the pooled odds ratio with a random-effects model. We identified studies that reported mortality among older adults with dementia and non-dementia who have COVID-19. The pooled mortality rates of dementia and non-dementia older adults infected with COVID-19 were 39% (95% CI: 0.23-0.54%, I2 = 83.48%) and 20% (95% CI: 0.16-0.25%, I2 = 83.48%), respectively. Overall, dementia was the main factor influencing poor health outcomes and high rates of mortality in older adults with COVID-19 infection (odds ratio 2.96; 95% CI 2.00-4.38, I2 = 29.7%), respectively. Our results show that older adults with dementia with COVID-19 infection have a higher risk of mortality compared with older adults without dementia. This current study further highlights the need to provide focused care to the older adults with dementia or cognitive impairment who have COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Demencia , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575182

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the impact of food insecurity and poor nutrient intake on the psychological health of middle-aged and older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. A sub-sample of 535 individuals aged 52 years and above, from the earlier cohort and interventional studies (n = 4) from four selected states in Peninsular Malaysia, were recruited during the COVID-19 outbreak (April to June 2020). Telephone interviews were conducted by trained interviewers with a health sciences background to obtain participants' information on health status, physical activity, food security, and psychological health (General Health Questionnaire-12; normal and psychological distress). Univariate analyses were performed for each variable, followed by a logistic regression analysis using SPSS Statistics version 25.0. Results revealed food insecurity (OR = 17.06, 95% CI: 8.24-35.32, p < 0.001), low protein (OR = 0.981, 95% CI: 0.965-0.998, p < 0.05), and fiber intakes (OR = 0.822, 95% CI: 0.695-0.972, p < 0.05) were found to be significant factors associated with the psychological distress group after adjusting for confounding factors. The findings suggested that food insecurity and insufficiencies of protein and fiber intakes heightened the psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Optimal nutrition is vital to ensure the physical and psychological health of the older population, specifically during the current pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Distrés Psicológico , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Anciano , COVID-19/economía , COVID-19/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Inseguridad Alimentaria/economía , Humanos , Vida Independiente/economía , Vida Independiente/psicología , Vida Independiente/estadística & datos numéricos , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/economía , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26570, 2021 02 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574329

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-related information on social media is overabundant and sometimes questionable, resulting in an "infodemic" during the pandemic. While previous studies suggest social media usage increases the risk of developing anxiety symptoms, how induced anxiety affects attitudes and behaviors is less discussed, let alone during a global pandemic. Little is known about the relationship between older adults using social media during a pandemic and their anxiety, their attitudes toward social trust in information, and behaviors to avoid contracting COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between using social media for COVID-19-related information and anxiety symptoms as well as the mediation effect of anxiety symptoms on social trust in information and COVID-safe behaviors among older adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted in Hong Kong between May and August 2020. A rapid warm-call protocol was developed to train social workers and volunteers from participant nongovernmental organizations to conduct the telephone surveys. Questions related to COVID-safe behaviors, social trust in information, social media use, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and sociodemographic information were asked. The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases at the community level was used to account for the risk of contracting COVID-19. Ordinary least squares regressions examined the associations between social media use and anxiety symptoms, and how they were associated with social trust in information and COVID-safe behaviors. Structural equation modeling further mapped out these relationships to identify the mediation effects of anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: This study collected information regarding 3421 adults aged 60 years and older. Use of social media for COVID-19-related information was associated with more anxiety symptoms and lower social trust in information but had no significant relationship with COVID-safe behaviors. Anxiety symptoms predicted lower social trust in information and higher COVID-safe behaviors. Lower social trust in information was predicted by using social media for COVID-19 information, mediated by anxiety symptoms, while no mediation effect was found for COVID-safe behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults who rely on social media for COVID-19-related information exhibited more anxiety symptoms, while showing mixed effects on attitudes and behaviors. Social trust in information may be challenged by unverified and contradictory information online. The negligible impact on COVID-safe behaviors suggested that social media may have caused more confusion than consolidating a consistent effort against the pandemic. Media literacy education is recommended to promote critical evaluation of COVID-19-related information and responsible sharing among older adults.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , COVID-19/epidemiología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Educación en Salud , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Teléfono , Confianza , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4154-e4165, 2021 12 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559099

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Children and older adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) display a distinct spectrum of disease severity yet the risk factors aren't well understood. We sought to examine the expression pattern of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell-entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the role of lung progenitor cells in children and older patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical features in a cohort of 299 patients with COVID-19. The expression and distribution of ACE2 and lung progenitor cells were systematically examined using a combination of public single-cell RNA-seq data sets, lung biopsies, and ex vivo infection of lung tissues with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in children and older adults. We also followed up patients who had recovered from COVID-19. RESULTS: Compared with children, older patients (>50 years.) were more likely to develop into serious pneumonia with reduced lymphocytes and aberrant inflammatory response (P = .001). The expression level of ACE2 and lung progenitor cell markers were generally decreased in older patients. Notably, ACE2 positive cells were mainly distributed in the alveolar region, including SFTPC positive cells, but rarely in airway regions in the older adults (P < .01). The follow-up of discharged patients revealed a prolonged recovery from pneumonia in the older (P < .025). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to children, ACE2 positive cells are generally decreased in older adults and mainly presented in the lower pulmonary tract. The lung progenitor cells are also decreased. These risk factors may impact disease severity and recovery from pneumonia caused by SARS-Cov-2 infection in older patients.


Asunto(s)
Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19 , Células Madre , Anciano , Niño , Humanos , Pulmón/citología , Persona de Mediana Edad , RNA-Seq , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
11.
Geroscience ; 43(3): 1093-1112, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499503

RESUMEN

We are in the midst of the global pandemic. Though acute respiratory coronavirus (SARS-COV2) that leads to COVID-19 infects people of all ages, severe symptoms and mortality occur disproportionately in older adults. Geroscience interventions that target biological aging could decrease risk across multiple age-related diseases and improve outcomes in response to infectious disease. This offers hope for a new host-directed therapeutic approach that could (i) improve outcomes following exposure or shorten treatment regimens; (ii) reduce the chronic pathology associated with the infectious disease and subsequent comorbidity, frailty, and disability; and (iii) promote development of immunological memory that protects against relapse or improves response to vaccination. We review the possibility of this approach by examining available evidence in metformin: a generic drug with a proven safety record that will be used in a large-scale multicenter clinical trial. Though rigorous translational research and clinical trials are needed to test this empirically, metformin may improve host immune defenses and confer protection against long-term health consequences of infectious disease, age-related chronic diseases, and geriatric syndromes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Metformina , Anciano , Enfermedades Transmisibles/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Metformina/uso terapéutico , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , ARN Viral , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(5): 499-504, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452452

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Older adults often have atypical presentation of illness and are particularly vulnerable to influenza and its sequelae, making the validity of influenza case definitions particularly relevant. We sought to assess the performance of influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) criteria in hospitalized older adults. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Serious Outcomes Surveillance Network of the Canadian Immunization Research Network undertakes active surveillance for influenza among hospitalized adults. METHODS: Data were pooled from 3 influenza seasons: 2011/12, 2012/13, and 2013/14. The ILI and SARI criteria were defined clinically, and influenza was laboratory confirmed. Frailty was measured using a validated frailty index. RESULTS: Of 11,379 adult inpatients (7,254 aged ≥65 years), 4,942 (2,948 aged ≥65 years) had laboratory-confirmed influenza. Their median age was 72 years (interquartile range [IQR], 58-82) and 52.6% were women. The sensitivity of ILI criteria was 51.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.6-52.6) for younger adults versus 44.6% (95% CI, 43.6-45.8) for older adults. SARI criteria were met by 64.1% (95% CI, 62.7-65.6) of younger adults versus 57.1% (95% CI, 55.9-58.2) of older adults with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Patients with influenza who were prefrail or frail were less likely to meet ILI and SARI case definitions. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of older adults, particularly those who are frail, are missed by standard ILI and SARI case definitions. Surveillance using these case definitions is biased toward identifying younger cases, and does not capture the true burden of influenza. Because of the substantial fraction of cases missed, surveillance definitions should not be used to guide diagnosis and clinical management of influenza.


Asunto(s)
Gripe Humana/diagnóstico , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Sesgo , Canadá/epidemiología , Femenino , Anciano Frágil , Hospitalización , Humanos , Inmunización , Laboratorios de Hospital , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Investigación , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Vigilancia de Guardia
13.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(7): 2043-2051, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491490

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adherence to protective behaviors is central to limiting the spread of COVID-19 and associated risk of serious illness and mortality in older populations. Whether cognition predicts adherence to protective behaviors has not been examined in older adults. AIMS: To examine whether specific cognitive abilities predict adherence to COVID-19 protective behaviors in older adults, independent of other relevant factors. METHODS: Data from 431 older adults (i.e., ≥ 65 years) who took part in the COVID-19 module of the Health and Retirement Study were included in the present study. Separate binary logistic regression models were used to examine whether performance on measures of immediate and delayed recall and working memory predicted adherence to COVID-19 protective behaviors, controlling for demographics, level of COVID-19 concern, depressive symptoms, and medical conditions. RESULTS: For every unit increase in immediate and delayed recall, the probability of adhering to COVID-19 protective behaviors increased by 47% and 69%, respectively. There was no association between the measure of working memory and adherence. DISCUSSION: It is of public interest to understand the factors that reduce adherence to protective behaviors so that we can better protect those most vulnerable and limit community spread. Our findings demonstrate that reduced memory predicts non-adherence to COVID-19 protective behaviors, independent of virus concern, and other relevant demographic and health factors. CONCLUSIONS: Public health strategies aimed at increasing adherence to COVID-19 protective behaviors in community dwelling older adults, should account for the role of reduced cognitive function in limiting adherence.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Anciano , Cognición , Humanos , Vida Independiente , Memoria , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 12(5): 1045-1055, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474202

RESUMEN

AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy of multi-component interventions for prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia in older patients hospitalized in geriatric wards. METHODS: A randomized, parallel-group, controlled trial was undertaken in patients aged 65 and above who were admitted to a tertiary hospital geriatric unit from January 1, 2016 to June 30, 2018 for an acute non-respiratory illness. Participants were randomized by to receive either a multi-component intervention (consisting of reverse Trendelenburg position, dysphagia screening, oral care and vaccinations), or usual care. The outcome measures were the proportion of patients who developed hospital-acquired pneumonia during hospitalisation, and mean time from randomization to the next hospitalisation due to respiratory infections in 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 123 participants (median age, 85; 43.1% male) were randomized, (n = 59) to intervention group and (n = 64) to control group. The multi-component interventions did not significantly reduce the incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia but did increase the mean time to next hospitalisation due to respiratory infection (11.5 months vs. 9.5 months; P = 0.049), and reduced the risk of hospitalisation in 1 year (18.6% vs. 34.4%; P = 0.049). Implementation of multi-component interventions increased diagnoses of oropharyngeal dysphagia (35.6% vs. 20.3%; P < 0.001) and improved the influenza (54.5% vs 17.2%; P < 0.001) and pneumococcal vaccination rates (52.5% vs. 20.3%; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The nosocomial pneumonia multi-component intervention did not significantly reduce the incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia during hospitalisation but reduce subsequent hospitalisations for respiratory infections. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT04347395.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infección Hospitalaria , Neumonía Asociada a la Atención Médica , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Femenino , Neumonía Asociada a la Atención Médica/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado del Tratamiento
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e048109, 2021 06 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462955

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We integrated an established participant-centred active vaccine safety surveillance system with a cloud-based pharmacy immunisation-recording program in order to measure adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) reported via the new surveillance system in pharmacies, compared with AEFI reported via an existing surveillance system in non-pharmacy sites (general practice and other clinics). DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Individuals >10 years receiving influenza immunisations from 22 pharmacies and 90 non-pharmacy (general practice and other clinic) sites between March and October 2020 in Western Australia. Active vaccine safety surveillance was conducted using short message service and smartphone technology, via an opt-out system. OUTCOME MEASURES: Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the primary outcome: differences in proportions of AEFI between participants immunised in pharmacies compared with non-pharmacy sites, adjusting for confounders of age, sex and influenza vaccine brand. A subgroup analysis of participants over 65 years was also performed. RESULTS: Of 101 440 participants (6992 from pharmacies; 94 448 from non-pharmacy sites), 77 498 (76.4%) responded; 96.1% (n=74 448) within 24 hours. Overall, 4.8% (n=247) pharmacy participants reported any AEFI, compared with 6% (n=4356) non-pharmacy participants (adjusted OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76 to 0.99; p=0.039). Similar proportions of AEFIs were reported in pharmacy (5.8%; n=31) and non-pharmacy participants (6; n=1617) aged over 65 years (adjusted OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.65 to 1.35; p=0.725). The most common AEFIs in pharmacy were: pain (2%; n=104), tiredness (1.9%; n=95) and headache (1.7%; n=88); and in non-pharmacy sites: pain (2.3%; n=1660), tiredness (1.9%; n=1362) and swelling (1.5%; n=1121). CONCLUSIONS: High and rapid response rates demonstrate good participant engagement with active surveillance in both pharmacy and non-pharmacy participants. Significantly fewer AEFIs reported after pharmacist immunisations compared with non-pharmacy immunisations, with no difference in older adults, may suggest different cohorts attend pharmacy versus non-pharmacy immunisers. The integrated pharmacy system is rapidly scalable across Australia with global potential.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Farmacias , Sistemas de Registro de Reacción Adversa a Medicamentos , Anciano , Australia/epidemiología , Humanos , Vacunas contra la Influenza/efectos adversos , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Estudios Prospectivos , Estaciones del Año , Vacunación , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
16.
Ann Clin Psychiatry ; 32(2): 114-127, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451576

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines are currently the most commonly prescribed medication for the treatment of anxiety in older adults, although there is a dearth of good-quality data on this subject. The aim of this review was to systematically review studies examining the efficacy and tolerability of benzodiazepines for the treatment of anxiety disorders among older adults. METHODS: The authors conducted a systematic review, searching PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. All searches were limited to English-language articles. The quality of each study was appraised using criteria developed by the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine for randomized controlled trials. RESULTS: A total of 8,785 citations were retrieved and pooled in EndNote and de-duplicated to 3,753. This set was uploaded to Covidence for screening. Two separate screeners (AG and SAF) evaluated the titles, abstracts, and full text of the eligible articles. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies, benzodiazepines were associated with decreased anxiety at the end of the study period. The limited tolerability data show mild adverse effects from the benzodiazepines studied. Limitations of the trials included limited data on the long-term use of benzodiazepines for anxiety and a preponderance of trials examining generalized anxiety disorder, with relatively less data on other anxiety disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Benzodiazepines are effective for treating anxiety disorders in late life, at least in the short term, but more data is needed to establish tolerability and their long-term benefits.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/tratamiento farmacológico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapéutico , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Anciano , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad
17.
J Intern Med ; 289(6): 807-830, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447945

RESUMEN

Ageing of the population, together with population growth, has brought along an ample increase in the number of older individuals living with dementia and disabilities. Dementia is the main cause of disability in old age, and promoting healthy brain ageing is considered as a key element in diminishing the burden of age-related disabilities. The World Health Organization recently launched the first risk reduction guidelines for cognitive impairment and dementia. According to recent estimates, approximately 40% of dementia cases worldwide could be attributable to 12 modifiable risk factors: low education; midlife hypertension and obesity; diabetes, smoking, excessive alcohol use, physical inactivity, depression, low social contact, hearing loss, traumatic brain injury and air pollution indicating clear prevention potential. Dementia and physical disability are closely linked with shared risk factors and possible shared underlying mechanisms supporting the possibility of integrated preventive interventions. FINGER trial was the first large randomized controlled trial indicating that multidomain lifestyle-based intervention can prevent cognitive and functional decline amongst at-risk older adults from the general population. Within the World-Wide FINGERS network, the multidomain FINGER concept is now tested and adapted worldwide proving evidence and tools for effective and easily implementable preventive strategies. Close collaboration between researchers, policymakers and healthcare practitioners, involvement of older adults and utilization of new technologies to support self-management is needed to facilitate the implementation of the research findings. In this scoping review, we present the current scientific evidence in the field of dementia and disability prevention and discuss future directions in the field.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Demencia , Anciano , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/prevención & control , Demencia/epidemiología , Demencia/prevención & control , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo
18.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 96: 104456, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442250

RESUMEN

AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore the inter-relationships among resilience, nutrition, and leisure activity of older patients with cardiovascular disease and possible sarcopenia. Besides, the patterns of these three variables over a long-term follow-up was examine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Quantitative longitudinal study design was used in this study. Sarcopenia is related to aging, lack of physical activity, and malnutrition. Complex inter-relationships exist in patients with regards to their resilience, nutritional status, leisure activities. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used for long-term follow-up observations, and data were collected form one month (T1), three months (T2) and six months (T3). A demographic questionnaire and the Chinese versions of the Resilience Scale (CRS), the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and the Leisure Time Activities Scale (LTAS), were used to collect data. RESULTS: A total of 267 eligible participants were enrolled in this study, of whom 53% were men and 47% were women. The interactions among resilience, nutrition, and leisure activity were reported. Resilience was positively correlated with nutrition. Higher resilience was developed higher participation in leisure activities was found in older adults with possible sarcopenia. CONCLUSION: Resilience is a key factor for greater participation in leisure activities. Health professionals should develop feasible resilience interventions that would enhance patient's participation in leisure activities. Nutritional consulting and physical activity interventions should be combined in the case of older adults to prevent the occurrence of possible sarcopenia.

19.
JAMA ; 323(19): 1915-1923, 2020 May 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441893

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, and it is unknown whether a combination of public health interventions can improve control of the outbreak. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of public health interventions with the epidemiological features of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan by 5 periods according to key events and interventions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this cohort study, individual-level data on 32 583 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases reported between December 8, 2019, and March 8, 2020, were extracted from the municipal Notifiable Disease Report System, including patients' age, sex, residential location, occupation, and severity classification. EXPOSURES: Nonpharmaceutical public health interventions including cordons sanitaire, traffic restriction, social distancing, home confinement, centralized quarantine, and universal symptom survey. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Rates of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infections (defined as the number of cases per day per million people), across age, sex, and geographic locations were calculated across 5 periods: December 8 to January 9 (no intervention), January 10 to 22 (massive human movement due to the Chinese New Year holiday), January 23 to February 1 (cordons sanitaire, traffic restriction and home quarantine), February 2 to 16 (centralized quarantine and treatment), and February 17 to March 8 (universal symptom survey). The effective reproduction number of SARS-CoV-2 (an indicator of secondary transmission) was also calculated over the periods. RESULTS: Among 32 583 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases, the median patient age was 56.7 years (range, 0-103; interquartile range, 43.4-66.8) and 16 817 (51.6%) were women. The daily confirmed case rate peaked in the third period and declined afterward across geographic regions and sex and age groups, except for children and adolescents, whose rate of confirmed cases continued to increase. The daily confirmed case rate over the whole period in local health care workers (130.5 per million people [95% CI, 123.9-137.2]) was higher than that in the general population (41.5 per million people [95% CI, 41.0-41.9]). The proportion of severe and critical cases decreased from 53.1% to 10.3% over the 5 periods. The severity risk increased with age: compared with those aged 20 to 39 years (proportion of severe and critical cases, 12.1%), elderly people (≥80 years) had a higher risk of having severe or critical disease (proportion, 41.3%; risk ratio, 3.61 [95% CI, 3.31-3.95]) while younger people (<20 years) had a lower risk (proportion, 4.1%; risk ratio, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.31-0.70]). The effective reproduction number fluctuated above 3.0 before January 26, decreased to below 1.0 after February 6, and decreased further to less than 0.3 after March 1. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: A series of multifaceted public health interventions was temporally associated with improved control of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China. These findings may inform public health policy in other countries and regions.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19 , Niño , China/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Femenino , Política de Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Joven
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5777-5782, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432408

RESUMEN

High antibody titers have been found to correlate with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. Therefore, antibody titers may be higher in older adults, whose disease is known to have a more severe course than younger ones. This study aimed to compare the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody level in the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to test positive older adults with young. Patients aged ≥18 with positive RT-PCR and checked serum IgG antibodies between November 1, 2020 and January 13, 2021 were included. The IgG antibody levels and the time between RT-PCR positivity with the antibody levels were recorded. A total of 1071 patients were divided into two groups as Group 1 <60 years old (n = 902) and Group 2 ≥60 years old (n = 169). The SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody titers were higher in Group 2 (p = 0.001). This height was present in the first 3 months after positive RT-PCR. While the antibody titers were compared by dividing Group 2 into the three groups according to age ranges (60-69, 70-79, and ≥80 years), the antibody titer was higher in ≥80 years patients (p = 0.044). High COVID-19 IgG antibody levels may be associated with the severity of the disease. Also, the humoral immunity advantage was seen in the first 3 months in the older patients, which suggests that older adults with COVID-19 may develop reinfection in the long term.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Seroconversión , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Factores de Tiempo
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