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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 563-569, 2020.
Artículo | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100779

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare professionals are one of the groups most affected by a pandemic that affects the whole world. This study aimed to determine the anxiety level of emergency medical services professionals in Ankara, Turkey after the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In the first part of the survey, the participants of the study were asked about their socio-demographic characteristics and their contact with the COVID-19 patients. In the second part, a survey with 20 questions that determined the state anxiety level derived from the State Anxiety Inventory was performed after obtaining verbal consent. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 33.1±6.9, while 52.7% of all participants were males. In this study, the mean STAI Anxiety Score was 50.7±11.6. Anxiety scores were higher in females and those who had family members at risk of COVID-19 infection (p<0.05). The majority of those who had family members at risk of the infection started to stay in guesthouses instead of going home. Participants were worried about transmitting the infection to their family members (p<0.05). They felt more anxious when treating COVID-19 diagnosed or other patients (p<0.05). In addition, they thought that their anxiety level increased in general (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic caused an anxiety increase in EMS workers in Turkey. Protecting the physical and mental health of the EMS employees who work at the front line against the COVID-19 pandemic and who have a high risk of infection, and ensuring their efficient work should be the main priority.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Turquia/epidemiología
2.
Egypt Heart J ; 72(1): 41, 2020 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098495

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has drastically affected global health. Despite several studies, there is yet a dearth of data regarding the mechanisms of cardiac injury, clinical presentation, risk factors, and treatment of COVID-19-associated cardiovascular disease. This systematic review and meta-analysis is aimed at defining the clinical, electrocardiographic, and pathologic spectrum of cardiovascular disease (CVD), frequency of elevated cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers, and their frequency and relationship with severity of the disease and mortality in COVID-19 patients and to develop a triage risk stratification tool (TRST) that can serve as a guide for the timely recognition of the high-risk patients and mechanism-targeted therapy. We conducted an online search in databases of PubMed and Embase to identify relevant studies. Data selection was in concordance with PRISMA guidelines. Results were presented as pooled frequencies, odds ratio, standardized mean difference (SMD), and forest and funnel plots. RESULTS: We gathered a total of 54 studies and included 35 of them in our meta-analysis. Acute cardiac injury occurred in more than 25% of cases, mortality was 20 times higher, and admission to intensive care unit increased by 13.5 times. Hypertension was the most common pre-existing comorbidity with a frequency of 29.2%, followed by diabetes mellitus (13.5%). The deceased group of patients had higher cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers, with statistically significant SMD, compared with survivors. Pediatric patients were predominantly mildly affected. However, less frequently, the presentation was very similar to Kawasaki disease or Kawasaki shock syndrome. This latter presentation hass been called as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement in COVID-19 patients, and hence a Triage Risk Stratification Tool can serve as a guide for the timely recognition of the high-risk patients and mechanism-targeted therapy.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e017364, 2020 11 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064368

RESUMEN

Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor to enter human cells. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARB) are associated with ACE-2 upregulation. We hypothesized that antecedent use of ACEI/ARB may be associated with mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods and Results We used the Coracle registry, which contains data of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 4 regions of Italy, and restricted analyses to those ≥50 years of age. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Among these 781 patients, 133 (17.0%) used an ARB and 171 (21.9%) used an ACEI. While neither sex nor smoking status differed by user groups, patients on ACEI/ARB were older and more likely to have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure. The overall mortality rate was 15.1% (118/781) and increased with age (PTrend<0.0001). The crude odds ratios (ORs) for death for ACEI users and ARB users were 0.98, 95% CI, 0.60-1.60, P=0.9333, and 1.13, 95% CI, 0.67-1.91, P=0.6385, respectively. After adjusting for age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure, antecedent ACEI administration was associated with reduced mortality (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31-0.98, P=0.0436); a similar, but weaker trend was observed for ARB administration (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.32-1.07, P=0.0796). Conclusions In those aged ≥50 years hospitalized with COVID-19, antecedent use of ACEI was independently associated with reduced risk of inpatient death. Our findings suggest a protective role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition in patients with high cardiovascular risk affected by COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/terapia , Hospitalización , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidad , Femenino , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Protectores , Sistema de Registros , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120 Suppl 1: S77-S85, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972179

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: A synthesis design and multistate analysis is required for assessing the clinical efficacy of antiviral therapy on dynamics of multistate disease progression and in reducing the mortality and enhancing the recovery of patients with COVID-19. A case study on remdesivir was illustrated for the clinical application of such a novel design and analysis. METHODS: A Bayesian synthesis design was applied to integrating the empirical evidence on the one-arm compassion study and the two-arm ACTT-1 trial for COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir. A multistate model was developed to model the dynamics of hospitalized COVID-19 patients from three transient states of low, medium-, and high-risk until the two outcomes of recovery and death. The outcome measures for clinical efficacy comprised high-risk state, death, and discharge. RESULTS: The efficacy of remdesivir in reducing the risk of death and enhancing the odds of recovery were estimated as 31% (95% CI, 18-44%) and 10% (95% CI, 1-18%), respectively. Remdesivir therapy for patients with low-risk state showed the efficacy in reducing subsequent progression to high-risk state and death by 26% (relative rate (RR), 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.93) and 62% (RR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.29-0.48), respectively. Less but still statistically significant efficacy in mortality reduction was noted for the medium- and high-risk patients. Remdesivir treated patients had a significantly shorter period of hospitalization (9.9 days) compared with standard care group (12.9 days). CONCLUSION: The clinical efficacy of remdesvir therapy in reducing mortality and accelerating discharge has been proved by the Bayesian synthesis design and multistate analysis.


Asunto(s)
Adenosina Monofosfato/uso terapéutico , Alanina/uso terapéutico , Antivirales , COVID-19 , Adenosina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(4): 592-596, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898682

RESUMEN

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess coinfection rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with other respiratory infections on presentation. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of data from a 2 hospital academic medical centers and 2 urgent care centers during the initial 2 weeks of testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), March 10, 2020 to March 23, 2020. Testing was targeted toward high-risk patients following US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Demographics include age group and sex. Laboratory test results included SARS-CoV-2, rapid influenza A/B, and upper respiratory pathogen nucleic acid detection. Patient demographics and coinfections are presented overall and by test results with descriptive statistics. Results: Complete laboratory results from the first 2 weeks of testing were available for 471 emergency department patients and 117 urgent care center patients who were tested for SARS-CoV. A total of 51 (8.7%) patients tested positive for COVID-19 with only 1 of these patients also testing positive for another respiratory infection. One of the patients positive for COVID-19 also tested positive for influenza A. Among the 537 patients who were screened and tested negative for COVID-19, there were 33 (6.1%) patients who tested positive in the upper respiratory pathogen nucleic acid detection test. Conclusion: In our study investigating coinfections among 51 patients testing positive for COVID-19, 1 patient also tested positive for influenza A. Although we found limited coinfections in our emergency department and urgent care center patient populations, further research is needed to assess potential coinfection in patients with COVID-19.

6.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 8(5): e2868, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795027

RESUMEN

The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a health threat worldwide and has been declared global pandemic by the World Health Organization. Possible transmission routes, including respiratory droplets, close contact, and aerosol propagation, have put plastic and reconstructive healthcare professionals at high risk, especially during surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to summarize and share our experience of infection control measures and corresponding outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Infection control measures, including workflow optimization, useful epidemiologic survey methods, and personal full protective clothing, were discussed. Characteristics and outcomes of emergency cases and elective cases under local and general anesthesia during the COVID-19 pandemic were summarized. RESULTS: A hierarchy of interventions were applied mainly from 4 aspects. First, administration control and online consultation significantly decreased patient attendance. Second, a triage workflow was established to identify high-/low-risk patients, with clinical manifestations (fever, fatigue, cough, nasal discharge, etc), epidemiologic survey, blood test, chest computed tomographic scan, and coronavirus test if necessary. Third, strict environmental control was adopted using increasing ventilation, isolated room for inpatients, etc. Fourth, proper rotation of healthcare staff was ensured to reduce workload and minimize possible contact. A total of 904 emergency interventions, 2561 local anesthesia, and 570 general anesthesia were performed during this period, and none of the cases/healthcare professionals were found to be infected. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience could help global plastic and reconstructive healthcare professionals to get better preparation and continue to give qualified medical services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Proper adjustments should be taken according to their own clinical settings.

7.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 130(3): 178-189, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747156

RESUMEN

The emergence of a new coronavirus - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) - has resulted in a global pandemic. The associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a high number of death worldwide. Observational studies and case reports have provided insights that older age and the presence of chronic diseases is frequently associated with a higher COVID-19 severity. These individuals also seem to have a higher risk of mortality due to COVID-19. In this review we provide insights into the impact chronic diseases associated with the cardiovascular system, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease might have on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19. Additionally we review recommendations and guidance's of international scientific associations and discuss which key learnings might be of importance for the future.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Corazón , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S85-S89, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726837

RESUMEN

Synergistic associations between infection and nutrition are well known. Impact of nutrition interventions on the outcomes have been scientifically assessed and reported. The role of nutrition in limiting the infection related morbidity and mortality does not appear to be a debatable question but nutrition interventions do not appear to be an essential part of current COVID-19 management strategies. Given the nature of pandemic and lack of organism-specific evidence, variability in nutrition interventions and lack of nutrition interventions is not unexpected. However, delay in realization of the crucial need of nutrition interventions to limit the immediate and long term outcomes at personal and community level may aggravate health related issues that can have long term impact on quality of life and economy. Due to existing undernutrition and lack of nutrition related awareness and competence, need for timely and appropriate interventions is much more critical for developing countries. This manuscript highlights the need and feasibility of various nutrition interventions to assure optimum quality of life during and after COVID-19 pandemic. Available evidence provides enough guidance for nutrition interventions that are safe and promise to accrue various degrees of benefits with almost no likelihood of harm. Nutrition interventions suggested by author are: 1) population level efforts for promoting better use of existing resources; 2) quicker augmentation of nutrition status of high risk people and non-hospitalized cases by use of supplement and individualized guidance and 3) nutritional support of sever case by timely and adequate enteral and parenteral feeding.

9.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(10): 670-674, 2020 05.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721670

RESUMEN

The Coronavirus Disease Pandemic 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), started in December 2019 in China. SARS-CoV-2 is easily transmitted by droplet infection. After an incubation period of 1-14 days, COVID-19 shows a mild course in 80 % of observed cases and a severe course in 20 %, with a lethality rate of 0.3-5.8 %. Elderly people and people with underlying diseases have a higher risk of severe courses with mandatory ventilation. So far there are neither effective drugs nor vaccinations available, so only public health interventions such as physical distancing and hygiene measures on the one hand and targeted testing followed by isolation and quarantine measures on the other hand are available. China has shown that maximum use of these measures can control the epidemic. The further course and also the consequences for the global economy cannot be clearly predicted at present.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Salud Pública , COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 427-436, 2022 02 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684536

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions taking immunomodulatory/suppressive medications may have higher risk of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Chronic disease care has also changed for many patients, with uncertain downstream consequences. METHODS: We included participants with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions followed by specialists at Johns Hopkins. Participants completed periodic surveys querying comorbidities, disease-modifying medications, exposures, COVID-19 testing and outcomes, social behaviors, and disruptions to healthcare. We assessed whether COVID-19 risk is higher among those on immunomodulating or suppressive agents and characterized pandemic-associated changes to care and mental health. RESULTS: In total, 265 (5.6%) developed COVID-19 over 9 months of follow-up (April-December 2020). Patient characteristics (age, race, comorbidity, medications) were associated with differences in social distancing behaviors during the pandemic. Glucocorticoid exposure was associated with higher odds of COVID-19 in models incorporating behavior and other potential confounders (odds ratio [OR]: 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08, 1.89). Other medication classes were not associated with COVID-19 risk. Diabetes (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.73), cardiovascular disease (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.28), and kidney disease (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.97) were associated with higher odds of COVID-19. Of the 2156 reporting pre-pandemic utilization of infusion, mental health or rehabilitative services, 975 (45.2%) reported disruptions therein, which disproportionately affected individuals experiencing changes to employment or income. CONCLUSIONS: Glucocorticoid exposure may increase risk of COVID-19 in people with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions. Disruption to healthcare and related services was common. Those with pandemic-related reduced income may be most vulnerable to care disruptions.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Autoinmunes , COVID-19 , Enfermedades Autoinmunes/epidemiología , Prueba de COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(5): e598-e609, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683792

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A rapidly increasing number of serological surveys for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 have been reported worldwide. We aimed to synthesise, combine, and assess this large corpus of data. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and five preprint servers for articles published in English between Dec 1, 2019, and Dec 22, 2020. Studies evaluating SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in humans after the first identified case in the area were included. Studies that only reported serological responses among patients with COVID-19, those using known infection status samples, or any animal experiments were all excluded. All data used for analysis were extracted from included papers. Study quality was assessed using a standardised scale. We estimated age-specific, sex-specific, and race-specific seroprevalence by WHO regions and subpopulations with different levels of exposures, and the ratio of serology-identified infections to virologically confirmed cases. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020198253. FINDINGS: 16 506 studies were identified in the initial search, 2523 were assessed for eligibility after removal of duplicates and inappropriate titles and abstracts, and 404 serological studies (representing tests in 5 168 360 individuals) were included in the meta-analysis. In the 82 studies of higher quality, close contacts (18·0%, 95% CI 15·7-20·3) and high-risk health-care workers (17·1%, 9·9-24·4) had higher seroprevalence than did low-risk health-care workers (4·2%, 1·5-6·9) and the general population (8·0%, 6·8-9·2). The heterogeneity between included studies was high, with an overall I2 of 99·9% (p<0·0001). Seroprevalence varied greatly across WHO regions, with the lowest seroprevalence of general populations in the Western Pacific region (1·7%, 95% CI 0·0-5·0). The pooled infection-to-case ratio was similar between the region of the Americas (6·9, 95% CI 2·7-17·3) and the European region (8·4, 6·5-10·7), but higher in India (56·5, 28·5-112·0), the only country in the South-East Asia region with data. INTERPRETATION: Antibody-mediated herd immunity is far from being reached in most settings. Estimates of the ratio of serologically detected infections per virologically confirmed cases across WHO regions can help provide insights into the true proportion of the population infected from routine confirmation data. FUNDING: National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, Key Emergency Project of Shanghai Science and Technology Committee, Program of Shanghai Academic/Technology Research Leader, National Science and Technology Major project of China, the US National Institutes of Health. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Asunto(s)
Prueba Serológica para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 83-91, 2022 01 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621573

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) occurs in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Risks and outcomes remain poorly understood. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of mechanically ventilated adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to 5 Johns Hopkins hospitals was conducted between March and August 2020. CAPA was defined using composite clinical criteria. Fine and Gray competing risks regression was used to analyze clinical outcomes and, multilevel mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression was used to compare longitudinal disease severity scores. RESULTS: In the cohort of 396 people, 39 met criteria for CAPA. Patients with CAPA were more likely than those without CAPA to have underlying pulmonary vascular disease (41% vs 21.6%, respectively; P = .01), liver disease (35.9% vs 18.2%; P = .02), coagulopathy (51.3% vs 33.1%; P = .03), solid tumors (25.6% vs 10.9%; P = .02), multiple myeloma (5.1% vs 0.3%; P = .03), and corticosteroid exposure during the index admission (66.7% vs 42.6%; P = .005), and had lower body mass indexes (median, 26.6 vs 29.9 [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]; P = .04). Patients with CAPA had worse outcomes, as measured by ordinal severity of disease scores, requiring longer time to improvement (adjusted odds ratio, 1.081.091.1; P < .001), and advancing in severity almost twice as quickly (subhazard ratio, 1.31.82.5; P < .001). They were intubated twice as long as those without CAPA (subhazard ratio, 0.40.50.6; P < .001) and had longer hospital stays (median [interquartile range], 41.1 [20.5-72.4) vs 18.5 [10.7-31.8] days; P < .001). CONCLUSION: CAPA is associated with poor outcomes. Attention to preventive measures (screening and/or prophylaxis) is warranted in people with high risk of CAPA.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva , Aspergilosis Pulmonar , Adulto , Humanos , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva/epidemiología , Respiración Artificial/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2257-2264, 2021 12 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596073

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Global vaccine development efforts have been accelerated in response to the devastating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We evaluated the impact of a 2-dose COVID-19 vaccination campaign on reducing incidence, hospitalizations, and deaths in the United States. METHODS: We developed an agent-based model of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission and parameterized it with US demographics and age-specific COVID-19 outcomes. Healthcare workers and high-risk individuals were prioritized for vaccination, whereas children under 18 years of age were not vaccinated. We considered a vaccine efficacy of 95% against disease following 2 doses administered 21 days apart achieving 40% vaccine coverage of the overall population within 284 days. We varied vaccine efficacy against infection and specified 10% preexisting population immunity for the base-case scenario. The model was calibrated to an effective reproduction number of 1.2, accounting for current nonpharmaceutical interventions in the United States. RESULTS: Vaccination reduced the overall attack rate to 4.6% (95% credible interval [CrI]: 4.3%-5.0%) from 9.0% (95% CrI: 8.4%-9.4%) without vaccination, over 300 days. The highest relative reduction (54%-62%) was observed among individuals aged 65 and older. Vaccination markedly reduced adverse outcomes, with non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalizations, ICU hospitalizations, and deaths decreasing by 63.5% (95% CrI: 60.3%-66.7%), 65.6% (95% CrI: 62.2%-68.6%), and 69.3% (95% CrI: 65.5%-73.1%), respectively, across the same period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that vaccination can have a substantial impact on mitigating COVID-19 outbreaks, even with limited protection against infection. However, continued compliance with nonpharmaceutical interventions is essential to achieve this impact.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Niño , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Vacunación
15.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 17: 17455065211013262, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595974

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic poses unique challenges to healthcare delivery. To limit the exposure of providers and patients to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention encourages providers to use telehealth platforms whenever possible. Given the maternal mortality crisis in the United States and the compounding 2019 coronavirus disease public health emergency, continued access to quality preconception, prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum care are essential to the health and well-being of mother and baby. OBJECTIVE: This commentary explores unique opportunities to optimize virtual obstetric care for low-risk and high-risk mothers at each stage of pregnancy. METHODS: In this review paper, we present evidence-based literature and tools from first-hand experience implementing telemedicine in obstetric care clinics during the pandemic. RESULTS: Using the best evidence-based practices with telemedicine, health care providers can deliver care in the safest, most respectful, and appropriate way possible while providing the critical support necessary in pregnancy. In reviewing the literature, several studies endorse the implementation of specific tools outlined in this article, to facilitate the implementation of telemedicine. From a quality improvement standpoint, evidence-based telemedicine provides a solution for overburdened healthcare systems, greater confidentiality for obstetric services, and a personalized avenue for health care providers to meet maternal health needs in the pandemic. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, continued access to quality prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum care are essential to the health and well-being of mother and baby.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicina , Femenino , Humanos , Madres , Pandemias , Embarazo , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos , Signos Vitales
16.
J Leukoc Biol ; 111(1): 269-281, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591653

RESUMEN

The immune system plays a crucial role in the response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with significant differences among patients. The study investigated the relationships between lymphocyte subsets, cytokines, and disease outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The measurements of peripheral blood lymphocytes subsets and cytokine levels were performed by flow cytometry for 57 COVID-19 patients. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the severity of the disease (nonsevere vs. severe). Total lymphocytes, T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells were decreased in COVID-19 patients and statistical differences were found among different severity of illness and survival states (P ˂ 0.01). The levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher in severe and death groups and negatively correlated with lymphocyte subsets counts. The percentages of Th17 in the peripheral blood of patients were higher than those of healthy controls whereas the percentages of Th2 were lower. For the severe cases, the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of IL-6 was the largest among all the immune parameters (0.964; 95% confidence interval: 0.927-1.000, P < 0.0001). In addition, the preoperative IL-6 concentration of 77.38 pg/ml was the optimal cutoff value (sensitivity: 84.6%, specificity: 100%). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis and ROC curves, IL-6 > 106.44 pg/ml and CD8+ T cell counts <150 cells/µl were found to be associated with mortality. Measuring the immune parameters and defining a risk threshold can segregate patients who develop a severe disease from those with a mild pathology. The identification of these parameters may help clinicians to predict the outcome of the patients with high risk of unfavorable progress of the disease.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/sangre , COVID-19/mortalidad , Interleucina-6/sangre , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , África del Norte , Anciano , Biomarcadores/sangre , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/inmunología , COVID-19/inmunología , Citocinas/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Recuento de Linfocitos , Subgrupos Linfocitarios/inmunología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Pronóstico , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
Stem Cell Investig ; 7: 11, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579497

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented with debilitating respiratory consequences especially more pronounced in high risk individuals. Individuals with underlying systemic diseases are more prone and vulnerable to suffer severe consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. The pathophysiological changes identified cytokine storm mechanism for out setting the series of adverse clinical conditions. Thereby, associating it with high mortality rates. This warrants urgent consideration of divergent modalities such as the cellular therapy. Cellular therapy (CT) is a new medical paradigm wherein cellular material is administered to patients for therapeutic purposes. In this regard, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have yielded the most promising results among stromal vascular fraction (SVF); placental cells; natural killer (NK) cell and platelet lysate respectively. Following the administration of the CT as per preferred route, these play pivotal role in modifying the microenvironment of the lung tissue with their distinct sets of mechanism. Evidences have shown how their immunomodulatory action repairs and prevents lung injury which in turn improvise the compliance of lungs. In this review article we have discussed these emerging novel approaches and their target step serving as a ray of hope to combat severe form of COVID-19. Currently these aren't approved for preventing or treating COVID-19 cases, however clinical trials are afoot to dispense the utmost understanding in terms of efficacy and safety concerns.

18.
Geriatr Nurs ; 42(5): 1230-1239, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575510

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the association between dementia and mortality among older adults with COVID-19. To do so, we conducted a search of 7 databases for relevant full-text articles. A cohort study and case-control study were included. A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize the pooled odds ratio with a random-effects model. We identified studies that reported mortality among older adults with dementia and non-dementia who have COVID-19. The pooled mortality rates of dementia and non-dementia older adults infected with COVID-19 were 39% (95% CI: 0.23-0.54%, I2 = 83.48%) and 20% (95% CI: 0.16-0.25%, I2 = 83.48%), respectively. Overall, dementia was the main factor influencing poor health outcomes and high rates of mortality in older adults with COVID-19 infection (odds ratio 2.96; 95% CI 2.00-4.38, I2 = 29.7%), respectively. Our results show that older adults with dementia with COVID-19 infection have a higher risk of mortality compared with older adults without dementia. This current study further highlights the need to provide focused care to the older adults with dementia or cognitive impairment who have COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Demencia , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): 2045-2054, 2021 12 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560351

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Immunity after dengue virus (DENV) infection has been suggested to cross-protect from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and mortality. METHODS: We tested whether serologically proven prior DENV infection diagnosed in September-October 2019, before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, reduced the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and clinically apparent COVID-19 over the next 13 months in a population-based cohort in Amazonian Brazil. Mixed-effects multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of infection and disease, adjusting for potential individual and household-level confounders. Virus genomes from 14 local SARS-CoV-2 isolates were obtained using whole-genome sequencing. RESULTS: Anti-DENV immunoglobulin G (IgG) was found in 37.0% of 1285 cohort participants (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.3% to 39.7%) in 2019, with 10.4 (95% CI: 6.7-15.5) seroconversion events per 100 person-years during the follow-up. In 2020, 35.2% of the participants (95% CI: 32.6% to 37.8%) had anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and 57.1% of the 448 SARS-CoV-2 seropositives (95% CI: 52.4% to 61.8%) reported clinical manifestations at the time of infection. Participants aged >60 years were twice more likely to have symptomatic COVID-19 than children under 5 years. Locally circulating SARS-CoV-2 isolates were assigned to the B.1.1.33 lineage. Contrary to the cross-protection hypothesis, prior DENV infection was associated with twice the risk of clinically apparent COVID-19 upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, with P values between .025 and .039 after adjustment for identified confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Higher risk of clinically apparent COVID-19 among individuals with prior dengue has important public health implications for communities sequentially exposed to DENV and SARS-CoV-2 epidemics.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Dengue/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): 2073-2082, 2021 12 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560084

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic poses an urgent need for the development of effective therapies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We first tested SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell (CοV-2-ST) immunity and expansion in unexposed donors, COVID-19-infected individuals (convalescent), asymptomatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive subjects, vaccinated individuals, non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalized patients, and ICU patients who either recovered and were discharged (ICU recovered) or had a prolonged stay and/or died (ICU critical). CoV-2-STs were generated from all types of donors and underwent phenotypic and functional assessment. RESULTS: We demonstrate causal relationship between the expansion of endogenous CoV-2-STs and the disease outcome; insufficient expansion of circulating CoV-2-STs identified hospitalized patients at high risk for an adverse outcome. CoV-2-STs with a similarly functional and non-alloreactive, albeit highly cytotoxic, profile against SARS-CoV-2 could be expanded from both convalescent and vaccinated donors generating clinical-scale, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell products with functional activity against both the unmutated virus and its B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants. In contrast, critical COVID-19 patient-originating CoV-2-STs failed to expand, recapitulating the in vivo failure of CoV-2-specific T-cell immunity to control the infection. CoV-2-STs generated from asymptomatic PCR-positive individuals presented only weak responses, whereas their counterparts originating from exposed to other seasonal coronaviruses subjects failed to kill the virus, thus disempowering the hypothesis of protective cross-immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we provide evidence on risk stratification of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and the feasibility of generating powerful CoV-2-ST products from both convalescent and vaccinated donors as an "off-the shelf" T-cell immunotherapy for high-risk patients.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Inmunoterapia Adoptiva , Linfocitos T
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