Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20
Filtrar
1.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(10): 670-674, 2020 05.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721670

RESUMEN

The Coronavirus Disease Pandemic 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), started in December 2019 in China. SARS-CoV-2 is easily transmitted by droplet infection. After an incubation period of 1-14 days, COVID-19 shows a mild course in 80 % of observed cases and a severe course in 20 %, with a lethality rate of 0.3-5.8 %. Elderly people and people with underlying diseases have a higher risk of severe courses with mandatory ventilation. So far there are neither effective drugs nor vaccinations available, so only public health interventions such as physical distancing and hygiene measures on the one hand and targeted testing followed by isolation and quarantine measures on the other hand are available. China has shown that maximum use of these measures can control the epidemic. The further course and also the consequences for the global economy cannot be clearly predicted at present.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Salud Pública , COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Geriatr Nurs ; 42(5): 1230-1239, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575510

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the association between dementia and mortality among older adults with COVID-19. To do so, we conducted a search of 7 databases for relevant full-text articles. A cohort study and case-control study were included. A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize the pooled odds ratio with a random-effects model. We identified studies that reported mortality among older adults with dementia and non-dementia who have COVID-19. The pooled mortality rates of dementia and non-dementia older adults infected with COVID-19 were 39% (95% CI: 0.23-0.54%, I2 = 83.48%) and 20% (95% CI: 0.16-0.25%, I2 = 83.48%), respectively. Overall, dementia was the main factor influencing poor health outcomes and high rates of mortality in older adults with COVID-19 infection (odds ratio 2.96; 95% CI 2.00-4.38, I2 = 29.7%), respectively. Our results show that older adults with dementia with COVID-19 infection have a higher risk of mortality compared with older adults without dementia. This current study further highlights the need to provide focused care to the older adults with dementia or cognitive impairment who have COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Demencia , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , SARS-CoV-2
3.
JAMA ; 323(19): 1915-1923, 2020 May 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441893

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, and it is unknown whether a combination of public health interventions can improve control of the outbreak. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of public health interventions with the epidemiological features of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan by 5 periods according to key events and interventions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this cohort study, individual-level data on 32 583 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases reported between December 8, 2019, and March 8, 2020, were extracted from the municipal Notifiable Disease Report System, including patients' age, sex, residential location, occupation, and severity classification. EXPOSURES: Nonpharmaceutical public health interventions including cordons sanitaire, traffic restriction, social distancing, home confinement, centralized quarantine, and universal symptom survey. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Rates of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infections (defined as the number of cases per day per million people), across age, sex, and geographic locations were calculated across 5 periods: December 8 to January 9 (no intervention), January 10 to 22 (massive human movement due to the Chinese New Year holiday), January 23 to February 1 (cordons sanitaire, traffic restriction and home quarantine), February 2 to 16 (centralized quarantine and treatment), and February 17 to March 8 (universal symptom survey). The effective reproduction number of SARS-CoV-2 (an indicator of secondary transmission) was also calculated over the periods. RESULTS: Among 32 583 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases, the median patient age was 56.7 years (range, 0-103; interquartile range, 43.4-66.8) and 16 817 (51.6%) were women. The daily confirmed case rate peaked in the third period and declined afterward across geographic regions and sex and age groups, except for children and adolescents, whose rate of confirmed cases continued to increase. The daily confirmed case rate over the whole period in local health care workers (130.5 per million people [95% CI, 123.9-137.2]) was higher than that in the general population (41.5 per million people [95% CI, 41.0-41.9]). The proportion of severe and critical cases decreased from 53.1% to 10.3% over the 5 periods. The severity risk increased with age: compared with those aged 20 to 39 years (proportion of severe and critical cases, 12.1%), elderly people (≥80 years) had a higher risk of having severe or critical disease (proportion, 41.3%; risk ratio, 3.61 [95% CI, 3.31-3.95]) while younger people (<20 years) had a lower risk (proportion, 4.1%; risk ratio, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.31-0.70]). The effective reproduction number fluctuated above 3.0 before January 26, decreased to below 1.0 after February 6, and decreased further to less than 0.3 after March 1. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: A series of multifaceted public health interventions was temporally associated with improved control of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China. These findings may inform public health policy in other countries and regions.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19 , Niño , China/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Femenino , Política de Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Joven
4.
BMJ ; 373: n1088, 2021 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228861

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the real world effectiveness of the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 and Oxford-AstraZeneca ChAdOx1-S vaccines against confirmed covid-19 symptoms (including the UK variant of concern B.1.1.7), admissions to hospital, and deaths. DESIGN: Test negative case-control study. SETTING: Community testing for covid-19 in England. PARTICIPANTS: 156 930 adults aged 70 years and older who reported symptoms of covid-19 between 8 December 2020 and 19 February 2021 and were successfully linked to vaccination data in the National Immunisation Management System. INTERVENTIONS: Vaccination with BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1-S. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes were polymerase chain reaction confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections, admissions to hospital for covid-19, and deaths with covid-19. RESULTS: Participants aged 80 years and older vaccinated with BNT162b2 before 4 January 2021 had a higher odds of testing positive for covid-19 in the first nine days after vaccination (odds ratio up to 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.77), indicating that those initially targeted had a higher underlying risk of infection. Vaccine effectiveness was therefore compared with the baseline post-vaccination period. Vaccine effects were noted 10 to 13 days after vaccination, reaching a vaccine effectiveness of 70% (95% confidence interval 59% to 78%), then plateauing. From 14 days after the second dose a vaccination effectiveness of 89% (85% to 93%) was found compared with the increased baseline risk. Participants aged 70 years and older vaccinated from 4 January (when ChAdOx1-S delivery commenced) had a similar underlying risk of covid-19 to unvaccinated individuals. With BNT162b2, vaccine effectiveness reached 61% (51% to 69%) from 28 to 34 days after vaccination, then plateaued. With ChAdOx1-S, effects were seen from 14 to 20 days after vaccination, reaching an effectiveness of 60% (41% to 73%) from 28 to 34 days, increasing to 73% (27% to 90%) from day 35 onwards. On top of the protection against symptomatic disease, a further 43% (33% to 52%) reduced risk of emergency hospital admission and 51% (37% to 62%) reduced risk of death was observed in those who had received one dose of BNT162b2. Participants who had received one dose of ChAdOx1-S had a further 37% (3% to 59%) reduced risk of emergency hospital admission. Follow-up was insufficient to assess the effect of ChAdOx1-S on mortality. Combined with the effect against symptomatic disease, a single dose of either vaccine was about 80% effective at preventing admission to hospital with covid-19 and a single dose of BNT162b2 was 85% effective at preventing death with covid-19. CONCLUSION: Vaccination with either one dose of BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1-S was associated with a significant reduction in symptomatic covid-19 in older adults, and with further protection against severe disease. Both vaccines showed similar effects. Protection was maintained for the duration of follow-up (>6 weeks). A second dose of BNT162b2 was associated with further protection against symptomatic disease. A clear effect of the vaccines against the B.1.1.7 variant was found.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , COVID-19/prevención & control , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación/métodos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/mortalidad , Prueba de COVID-19/métodos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/efectos de los fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
5.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 287, 2021 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208405

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a threat to ongoing clinical trials necessitating regular face-to-face, in-person meetings, particularly in participants with a high risk of complications. Guidance on how to handle and safely continue such trials is lacking. Chronically ill elderly individuals require-in addition to protection from infection-regular physical exercise and social contact to remain healthy. Solutions on how to handle these conflicting necessities are needed. The ENTAIER-randomised controlled trial was investigating the influence of mindful movements on fall risk, fear of falling, mobility, balance, life quality, and other outcomes. The study population was planned to comprise of 550 chronically ill elderly individuals with a high risk of falling. The movements were regularly performed in coached groups over 6 months. After the trial began, COVID-19 lockdowns stopped all in-person meetings, and it was expected that the limitations of this pandemic would continue for a long term. Therefore, the exercise programme, which involved complex movements and was typically conducted face-to-face in groups, had to be substituted by a telemedicine programme within a short timeframe. The objectives, therefore, were to identify challenges and tasks that could to be resolved and steps that could to be taken to achieve high-quality, efficacy, safety, and enable human encounter and motivation. METHODS: We proceeded with four steps: 1) A literature review on the quality and feasibility issues of telemedicine in general, and specifically, in exercise training in elderly individuals. 2) Participation in two international telemedicine task forces on integrative medicine, particularly, mind-body medicine. 3) Interviews with study therapists, (for practical purposes, eurythmy therapists and Tai Chi teachers are summarized here as therapists) personnel, and international experts on providing mindful movement exercises and other physiotherapies via live telecommunication technology, and with scientists and patient representatives. 4) Final evaluation by the core trial team and subsequent planning and implementation of changes in the trial organisation. RESULTS: Various tasks and challenges were identified: for the technical equipment for therapists and patients; for the ability of therapists and trial participants to adequately manage the technology and telemedicine intervention; the reservations and concerns about the technology among therapists and participants; safety and data protection in using the technology; and study design. The two major options found on how to continue the trial in the COVID-19 situation were a complete switch to telemedicine and a partial switch in the form of risk management implemented into the former design. CONCLUSIONS: The management of an ongoing clinical trial in a national or international crisis with a minimum of available time and extra financial resources, alongside with two checklists on steps and procedures for trial continuation and telemedicine implementation, may be informative for other researchers or healthcare providers faced with similar challenges and making similar decisions in the current situation or similar future scenarios. TRAIL REGISTRATION: www.drks.de . DRKS00016609. Registered July 30, 2019.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas , COVID-19 , Anciano , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Terapia por Ejercicio , Miedo , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(4): 1145-1147, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111389

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has caused over 95 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and over 2 million deaths worldwide. According to current literature data, older adults have higher risk of severe disease and mortality due to COVID-19. It is also known that older adults often do not present typical symptoms of diseases. The aim of the study was to assess if the prevalence of typical COVID-19-related symptoms varies by age group. METHODS: Medical charts of a random sample of COVID-19 patients dying in-hospital were retrieved through an integrated national surveillance system and reviewed by a group of researchers at the Italian National Institute of Health. Detailed information on COVID-19-related symptoms were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: 3241 confirmed cases of COVID-19-related deaths were identified from 4391 reviewed medical charts. The mean number of COVID-19-related symptoms progressively declined with age, from 2.1 in patients aged < 60 years to 1.7 in those aged 90 years or older (p < 0.001). Moreover, fever, cough, and diarrhea significantly declined with increasing age. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults have atypical presentation of symptoms and may be paucisymptomatic. This may lead to a diagnostic and therapeutic delay which aggravates the prognosis of COVID-19. Special attention should be posed when assessing individuals aged 65 years and older with suspected COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Fiebre , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Prevalencia , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Geriatrics (Basel) ; 6(1)2021 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050602

RESUMEN

In December 2019, a coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), began infecting humans, causing a novel disease, coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). This was first described in the Wuhan province of the People's Republic of China. SARS-CoV-2 has spread throughout the world, causing a global pandemic. To date, thousands of cases of COVID-19 have been reported in the United Kingdom, and over 45,000 patients have died. Some progress has been achieved in managing this disease, but the biological determinants of health, in addition to age, that affect SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and mortality are under scrutiny. Recent studies show that several medical conditions, including diabetes and hypertension, increase the risk of COVID-19 and death. The increased vulnerability of elderly individuals and those with comorbidities, together with the prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases with advanced age, led us to investigate the links between neurodegeneration and COVID-19. We analysed the primary health records of 13,338 UK individuals tested for COVID-19 between March and July 2020. We show that a pre-existing diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease predicts the highest risk of COVID-19 and mortality among elderly individuals. In contrast, Parkinson's disease patients were found to have a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection but not mortality from COVID-19. We conclude that there are disease-specific differences in COVID-19 susceptibility among patients affected by neurodegenerative disorders.

8.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 590343, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045496

RESUMEN

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and sleep problems among caregivers of persons living with neurocognitive disorders (PLWND) during the COVID-19 pandemic in China and investigate whether the COVID-19-related experiences were associated with the presence of anxiety, depression, and sleep problems. Methods: From March 1 to 31, 2020, 160 caregivers of PLWND participated in an online cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and sleep problems. The 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) was administered to measure anxiety symptoms, and the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) was used to assess depressive symptoms. Questions on sleep duration and sleep quality enquired about sleep problems. Six items were used to explore the COVID-19-related experiences, including community-level infection contact and the level of exposure to media information. We computed the prevalence rate of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep problems. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate factors associated with these mental health problems. Results: The prevalence rate of anxiety, depression, and sleep problems were 46.9%, 36.3%, and 9.4%. Approximately 55 participants (34.4%) presented with two or more mental health problems. Women had a higher risk of developing anxiety symptoms (OR, 5.284; 95% CI, 2.068-13.503; p = 0.001). Having a mental disorder (OR, 5.104; 95% CI, 1.522-17.114; p = 0.008) was associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms. Caregivers who preferred to access positive information (OR, 0.215; 95% CI, 0.058-0.793; p = 0.021) was associated with decreased risk of sleep problems. Conclusion: Anxiety and depressive symptoms were common among caregivers of older adults with dementia or mild cognitive impairment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Being female was an independent risk factor for experiencing anxiety symptoms. Preexisting mental disorders increased the risk of depressive symptoms among caregivers, while caregivers who prefer to access positive media information decreased sleep problems.

9.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963735

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with high risk of malnutrition, primarily in older people; assessing nutritional risk using appropriate screening tools is critical. This systematic review identified applicable tools and assessed their measurement properties. Literature was searched in the MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS databases. Four studies conducted in China met the eligibility criteria. Sample sizes ranged from six to 182, and participants' ages from 65 to 87 years. Seven nutritional screening and assessment tools were used: the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002), the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), the MNA-short form (MNA-sf), the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), the Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), the Geriatric NRI (GNRI), and modified Nutrition Risk in the Critically ill (mNUTRIC) score. Nutritional risk was identified in 27.5% to 100% of participants. The NRS-2002, MNA, MNA-sf, NRI, and MUST demonstrated high sensitivity; the MUST had better specificity. The MNA and MUST demonstrated better criterion validity. The MNA-sf demonstrated better predictive validity for poor appetite and weight loss; the NRS-2002 demonstrated better predictive validity for prolonged hospitalization. mNUTRIC score demonstrated good predictive validity for hospital mortality. Most instruments demonstrate high sensitivity for identifying nutritional risk, but none are acknowledged as the best for nutritional screening in older adults with COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Evaluación Geriátrica , Desnutrición/diagnóstico , Evaluación Nutricional , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrición/virología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Medición de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
10.
Bone Jt Open ; 1(6): 222-228, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940050

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to unprecedented challenges to healthcare systems worldwide. Orthopaedic departments have adopted business continuity models and guidelines for essential and non-essential surgeries to preserve hospital resources as well as protect patients and staff. These guidelines broadly encompass reduction of ambulatory care with a move towards telemedicine, redeployment of orthopaedic surgeons/residents to the frontline battle against COVID-19, continuation of education and research through web-based means, and cancellation of non-essential elective procedures. However, if containment of COVID-19 community spread is achieved, resumption of elective orthopaedic procedures and transition plans to return to normalcy must be considered for orthopaedic departments. The COVID-19 pandemic also presents a moral dilemma to the orthopaedic surgeon considering elective procedures. What is the best treatment for our patients and how does the fear of COVID-19 influence the risk-benefit discussion during a pandemic? Surgeons must deliberate the fine balance between elective surgery for a patient's wellbeing versus risks to the operating team and utilization of precious hospital resources. Attrition of healthcare workers or Orthopaedic surgeons from restarting elective procedures prematurely or in an unsafe manner may render us ill-equipped to handle the second wave of infections. This highlights the need to develop effective screening protocols or preoperative COVID-19 testing before elective procedures in high-risk, elderly individuals with comorbidities. Alternatively, high-risk individuals should be postponed until the risk of nosocomial COVID-19 infection is minimal. In addition, given the higher mortality and perioperative morbidity of patients with COVID-19 undergoing surgery, the decision to operate must be carefully deliberated. As we ramp-up elective services and get "back to business" as orthopaedic surgeons, we have to be constantly mindful to proceed in a cautious and calibrated fashion, delivering the best care, while maintaining utmost vigilance to prevent the resurgence of COVID-19 during this critical transition period. Cite this article: Bone Joint Open 2020;1-6:222-228.

11.
Br J Health Psychol ; 25(4): 1039-1054, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744705

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Development of a vaccine against COVID-19 will be key to controlling the pandemic. We need to understand the barriers and facilitators to receiving a future COVID-19 vaccine so that we can provide recommendations for the design of interventions aimed at maximizing public acceptance. DESIGN: Cross-sectional UK survey with older adults and patients with chronic respiratory disease. METHODS: During the UK's early April 2020 'lockdown' period, 527 participants (311 older adults, mean age = 70.4 years; 216 chronic respiratory participants, mean age = 43.8 years) completed an online questionnaire assessing willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, perceptions of COVID-19, and intention to receive influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. A free text response (n = 502) examined barriers and facilitators to uptake. The Behaviour Change Wheel informed the analysis of these responses, which were coded to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Behaviour change techniques (BCTs) were identified. RESULTS: Eighty-six per cent of respondents want to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. This was positively correlated with the perception that COVID-19 will persist over time, and negatively associated with perceiving the media to have over-exaggerated the risk. The majority of barriers and facilitators were mapped onto the 'beliefs about consequences' TDF domain, with themes relating to personal health, health consequences to others, concerns of vaccine safety, and severity of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination is currently high among high-risk individuals. Mass media interventions aimed at maximizing vaccine uptake should utilize the BCTs of information about health, emotional, social and environmental consequences, and salience of consequences.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Vacunación , COVID-19 , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunas Virales
12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 515, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732885

RESUMEN

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which primarily targets the human respiratory system and may lead to severe pneumonia and ultimately death. Mortality rate is particurlarly high among people beyond the sixth decade of life with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The discovery that the SARS-CoV-2 uses the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) component ACE2 as a receptor to invade host epithelial cells and cause organs damage resulted in a debate regarding the role of ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) therapies during COVID-19 pandemic. Some authors proposed the discontinuation of ACEIs and ARBs for cardiovascular, kidney, and metabolic diseases, while expert opinions have discouraged that due to limited empirical evidence of their negative effect on COVID-19 outcomes, and that withdrawing treatment may contribute to clinical decompensation in high-risk patients. Moreover, as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases are associated with neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, especially among older adults, a critical appraisal of the potential positive effects of ACEIs and ARBs is highly needed. Herein, we aim to discuss the conundrum of ACEIs and ARBs use in high-risk patients for COVID-19, and their potential protective role on the development and/or progression of geriatric neuropsychiatric disorders.

13.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(11): 2587-2593, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670586

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Frailty, loneliness, and social isolation are all associated with adverse outcomes in older adults, but little is known about their combined impact on mortality. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling older adults aged 65 and older (n = 1,427). MEASUREMENTS: Frailty was measured with the frailty phenotype (Fried criteria). Loneliness was assessed with the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Social isolation was operationalized using information on partner status, social support, and network size. Two categorical variables were created, for each possible combination regarding frailty and loneliness (FL) and frailty and social isolation (FS), respectively. Mortality was monitored over a period of 22 years (1995-2017). Survival curves and Cox proportional hazard models were used to study the effects of the FL and FS combinations on mortality. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, depression, chronic diseases, and smoking. RESULTS: Frailty prevalence was 13%, and 5.9% of the sample were frail and lonely, and 6.2% frail and socially isolated. In fully adjusted models, older adults who were only frail had a higher risk of mortality compared with people without any of the conditions (hazard ratio [HR] range = 1.40-1.48; P < .01). However, the highest risk of mortality was observed in people with a combined presence of frailty and loneliness or social isolation (HRFL = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.42-2.37; HRFS = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.36-2.30). Sensitivity analyses using a frailty index based on the deficit accumulation approach instead of the frailty phenotype showed similar results, confirming the robustness of our findings. CONCLUSION: Frail older adults are at increased risk of mortality, but this risk is even higher for those who are also lonely or socially isolated. To optimize well-being and health outcomes in physically frail older adults, targeted interventions focusing on both subjective and objective social vulnerability are needed.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad/psicología , Soledad/psicología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Fragilidad/diagnóstico , Fragilidad/mortalidad , Evaluación Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Vida Independiente/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos
14.
J Community Health ; 46(2): 292-297, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-645740

RESUMEN

High social risk, as measured by the social determinants of health (SDH), may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, this association has not been studied in rural communities. Using the Atahualpa Project cohort, we aimed to assess the association between SDH and SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in community-dwelling older adults living in rural Ecuador. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were determined in 319 individuals aged ≥ 60 years that completed a validated field instrument to assess their social risk before the introduction of this novel pandemic. Multivariate models were fitted to assess the independent association between SDH-and each of their components-and SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, after adjusting for relevant covariates. According to the Gijon scale, 102 (32%) individuals had a high social risk (≥ 10 points). A total of 141 (44%) individuals were seropositive to SARS-CoV-2. A fully-adjusted logistic regression model showed an independent) association between social risk and SARS-CoV-2 positivity (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.04-1.27; p = 0.008). For every unit of the total SDH score, the odds of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity increased 15% (95% CI 3.7-27%). In addition, multivariate models showed that the individual component of SDH more strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was housing, which suggested that lack of basic home facilities may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Knowledge on the association between high social risk and SARS-CoV-2 infection is indispensable for the development of cost-effective preventive strategies for controlling modifiable factors that are in the path of SARS-CoV-2 infection among older adults living in underserved communities.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Vida Independiente/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Ecuador , Femenino , Humanos , América Latina , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Densidad de Población , Prevalencia , Factores Socioeconómicos
15.
Immunol Lett ; 226: 38-45, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643130

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen of deadly Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, which emerged as a major threat to public health across the world. Although there is no clear gender or socioeconomic discrimination in the incidence of COVID-19, individuals who are older adults and/or with comorbidities and compromised immunity have a relatively higher risk of contracting this disease. Since no specific drug has yet been discovered, strengthening immunity along with maintaining a healthy living is the best way to survive this disease. As a healthy practice, calorie restriction in the form of intermittent fasting (IF) in several clinical settings has been reported to promote several health benefits, including priming of the immune response. This dietary restriction also activates autophagy, a cell surveillance system that boosts up immunity. With these prevailing significance in priming host defense, IF could be a potential strategy amid this outbreak to fighting off SARS-CoV-2 infection. Currently, no review so far available proposing IF as an encouraging strategy in the prevention of COVID-19. A comprehensive review has therefore been planned to highlight the beneficial role of fasting in immunity and autophagy, that underlie the possible defense against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The COVID-19 pathogenesis and its impact on host immune response have also been briefly outlined. This review aimed at revisiting the immunomodulatory potential of IF that may constitute a promising preventive approach against COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Ayuno , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Neumonía Viral/etiología , Neumonía Viral/metabolismo , Autofagia , COVID-19 , Restricción Calórica , Resistencia a la Enfermedad/inmunología , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/inmunología , Ayuno/metabolismo , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/inmunología , Humanos , Evasión Inmune , Inmunidad , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Environ Res ; 188: 109890, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626924

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To provide estimates of the relative rate of COVID-19 death in people <65 years old versus older individuals in the general population, the absolute risk of COVID-19 death at the population level during the first epidemic wave, and the proportion of COVID-19 deaths in non-elderly people without underlying diseases in epicenters of the pandemic. ELIGIBLE DATA: Cross-sectional survey of countries and US states with at least 800 COVID-19 deaths as of April 24, 2020 and with information on the number of deaths in people with age <65. Data were available for 14 countries (Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, India, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK) and 13 US states (California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania). We also examined available data on COVID-19 deaths in people with age <65 and no underlying diseases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of COVID-19 deaths in people <65 years old; relative mortality rate of COVID-19 death in people <65 versus ≥65 years old; absolute risk of COVID-19 death in people <65 and in those ≥80 years old in the general population as of June 17, 2020; absolute COVID-19 mortality rate expressed as equivalent of mortality rate from driving a motor vehicle. RESULTS: Individuals with age <65 account for 4.5-11.2% of all COVID-19 deaths in European countries and Canada, 8.3-22.7% in the US locations, and were the majority in India and Mexico. People <65 years old had 30- to 100-fold lower risk of COVID-19 death than those ≥65 years old in 11 European countries and Canada, 16- to 52-fold lower risk in US locations, and less than 10-fold in India and Mexico. The absolute risk of COVID-19 death as of June 17, 2020 for people <65 years old in high-income countries ranged from 10 (Germany) to 349 per million (New Jersey) and it was 5 per million in India and 96 per million in Mexico. The absolute risk of COVID-19 death for people ≥80 years old ranged from 0.6 (Florida) to 17.5 per thousand (Connecticut). The COVID-19 mortality rate in people <65 years old during the period of fatalities from the epidemic was equivalent to the mortality rate from driving between 4 and 82 miles per day for 13 countries and 5 states, and was higher (equivalent to the mortality rate from driving 106-483 miles per day) for 8 other states and the UK. People <65 years old without underlying predisposing conditions accounted for only 0.7-3.6% of all COVID-19 deaths in France, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, Georgia, and New York City and 17.7% in Mexico. CONCLUSIONS: People <65 years old have very small risks of COVID-19 death even in pandemic epicenters and deaths for people <65 years without underlying predisposing conditions are remarkably uncommon. Strategies focusing specifically on protecting high-risk elderly individuals should be considered in managing the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Phys Ther ; 100(9): 1444-1457, 2020 08 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607293

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic is rapidly evolving and has led to increased numbers of hospitalizations worldwide. Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 experience a variety of symptoms, including fever, muscle pain, tiredness, cough, and difficulty breathing. Elderly people and those with underlying health conditions are considered to be more at risk of developing severe symptoms and have a higher risk of physical deconditioning during their hospital stay. Physical therapists have an important role in supporting hospitalized patients with COVID-19 but also need to be aware of challenges when treating these patients. In line with international initiatives, this article aims to provide guidance and detailed recommendations for hospital-based physical therapists managing patients hospitalized with COVID-19 through a national approach in the Netherlands. METHODS: A pragmatic approach was used. A working group conducted a purposive scan of the literature and drafted initial recommendations based on the knowledge of symptoms in patients with COVID-19 and current practice for physical therapist management for patients hospitalized with lung disease and patients admitted to the intensive care unit. An expert group of hospital-based physical therapists in the Netherlands provided feedback on the recommendations, which were finalized when consensus was reached among the members of the working group. RESULTS: The recommendations include safety recommendations, treatment recommendations, discharge recommendations, and staffing recommendations. Treatment recommendations address 2 phases of hospitalization: when patients are critically ill and admitted to the intensive care unit, and when patients are severely ill and admitted to the COVID ward. Physical therapist management for patients hospitalized with COVID-19 comprises elements of respiratory support and active mobilization. Respiratory support includes breathing control, thoracic expansion exercises, airway clearance techniques, and respiratory muscle strength training. Recommendations toward active mobilization include bed mobility activities, active range-of-motion exercises, active (assisted) limb exercises, activities-of-daily-living training, transfer training, cycle ergometer, pre-gait exercises, and ambulation.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Atención Dirigida al Paciente/organización & administración , Servicio de Fisioterapia en Hospital/organización & administración , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/organización & administración , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19 , Humanos , Países Bajos , Pandemias , Fisioterapeutas/organización & administración , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(11): 1218-1226, 2020 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381806

RESUMEN

More than 1.6 million Americans have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and more than 10 times that number carry antibodies to it. High-risk patients with progressing symptomatic disease currently have only hospitalization treatment, with its high mortality, available to them. An outpatient treatment that prevents hospitalization is desperately needed. Two candidate medications have been widely discussed: remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZ). Remdesivir has shown mild effectiveness in hospitalized inpatients, but no trials in outpatients have been registered. HCQ + AZ has been widely misrepresented in both clinical reports and public media, and results of outpatient trials are not expected until September. Early outpatient illness is very different from later florid disease requiring hospitalization, and the treatments differ. Evidence about use of HCQ alone, or of HCQ + AZ in inpatients, is irrelevant with regard to the efficacy of HCQ + AZ in early high-risk outpatient disease. Five studies, including 2 controlled clinical trials, have demonstrated significant major outpatient treatment efficacy. HCQ + AZ has been used as the standard of care in more than 300,000 older adults with multiple comorbid conditions; the estimated proportion of such patients diagnosed with cardiac arrhythmia attributable to the medications is 47 per 100,000 users, among whom estimated mortality is less than 20% (9/100,000 users), as compared with the 10,000 Americans now dying each week. These medications need to be made widely available and promoted immediately for physicians to prescribe.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Azitromicina/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efectos adversos , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado del Tratamiento
19.
JMIR Aging ; 3(1): e19007, 2020 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197101

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Older adults and those with pre-existing medical conditions are at risk of death from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2). In this period of quarantine, one of the reasons for going out is physical activity. This issue is important, as the impact of a sedentary lifestyle might be lower for children and young adults, but is far more severe for older adults. Although older adults need to stay at home because they have a higher risk of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), they need to avoid a sedentary lifestyle. Physical activity is important for older adults, especially to maintain their level of independence, mental health, and well-being. Maintaining mobility in old age is necessary, as it may predict loss of independence in older adults. OBJECTIVE: Our first objective was to evaluate the impact of this quarantine period on physical activity programs and on the physical and mental health of older adults. Our second objective was to discuss alternatives to physical activity programs that could be suggested for this population to avoid a sedentary lifestyle. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative survey using semistructured interviews with professionals (managers in charge of physical activity programs for older adults and sports trainers who run these physical activity programs) from the French Federation of Physical Education and Voluntary Gymnastics (FFPEVG) and older adults participating in a physical activity program of the FFPEVG. We followed a common interview guide. For analysis, we carried out a thematic analysis of the interviews. RESULTS: This study suggests that the COVID-19 epidemic has affected, before quarantine measures, the number of seniors attending group physical activity programs in the two study territories. In addition, despite the decline in their participation in group physical activities before the quarantine, older adults expressed the need to perform physical activity at home. There is a need to help older adults integrate simple and safe ways to stay physically active in a limited space. A national policy to support older adults for physical activity at home appears essential in this context. CONCLUSIONS: Given the results of our study, it seems necessary to globally communicate how important it is for older adults to maintain physical activity at home. We are concerned about the level of independence and mental health state of older adults after the end of quarantine if there is no appropriate campaign to promote physical activity among them at home.

20.
Geriatrics (Basel) ; 5(2)2020 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116887

RESUMEN

Italy is one of the oldest countries in Europe and in the world and now it is also one of the first countries that are fighting against COVID-19. In our country, the increasing life expectancy (80.5 for males and 84.9 for females, with a total life expectancy of 82.9) has led to very positive consequences for health and the well-being of elderly people: a very high number of older adults lives and acts independently in their daily life, even if they have one or more than one chronic disease. In the time of COVID-19's outbreak in Italy, the focus of the media was on elderly people for two main reasons. First, many older people demonstrated a very high civic sense and they were helping society to fight against the pandemic. Second, also in Italy, like in China, the older adults are at higher risk in being infected with COVID-19 and if they get ill, they have a higher risk of death. The balance previously achieved between age-related disorders and a good quality of life and good health is now under high pressure. It is very important to protect elderly people from infection, but also it is important to respect them and to support them in this complex situation. There is a great risk of "ageism". In agreement with Lloyd-Sherlock and colleagues (2020), in this editorial we propose some hints of analysis, starting from the ongoing experience in Italy.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA