Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 36
Filtrar
4.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 16(1): 48-53, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298996

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory virus coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a male bias in mortality likely driven by both gender and sex-based differences between male and female individuals. This is consistent with sex and gender-based features of HIV infection and overlap between the two diseases will highlight potential mechanistic pathways of disease and guide research questions and policy interventions. In this review, the emerging findings from SARS-CoV-2 infection will be placed in the context of sex and gender research in the more mature HIV epidemic. RECENT FINDINGS: This review will focus on the new field of literature on prevention, immunopathogenesis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 referencing relevant articles in HIV for context from a broader time period, consistent with the evolving understanding of sex and gender in HIV infection. Sex-specific features of epidemiology and immunopathogenesis reported in COVID-19 disease will be discussed and potential sex and gender-specific factors of relevance to prevention and treatment will be emphasized. SUMMARY: Multilayered impacts of sex and gender on HIV infection have illuminated pathways of disease and identified important goals for public health interventions. SARS-CoV-2 has strong evidence for a male bias in disease severity and exploring that difference will yield important insights.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/virología , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Animales , COVID-19/epidemiología , Femenino , VIH/genética , VIH/fisiología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Factores Sexuales
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 2021 May 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295586

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic, telemedicine has become a necessary component of clinical practice for the purpose of providing safer patient care, and it has been used to support the healthcare needs of COVID-19 patients and routine primary care patients alike. However, this change has not been fully consolidated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the determinants of healthcare professionals' intention to use the eConsulta digital clinical consultations tool in the post-COVID-19 context. METHODS: A literature review of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) allowed us to construct a theoretical model and establish a set of hypotheses derived from it about the influence that a variety of different factors relating to both healthcare professionals and the institutions where they work had on those professionals' intention to use eConsulta. In order to confirm the proposed model, a mixed qualitative and quantitative methodology was used, and a questionnaire was designed to serve as the data collection instrument. The data were analysed using univariate and bivariate analysis techniques. To confirm the theoretical model, exploratory factor analysis and binary logistic regression were applied. RESULTS: The most important variables were those referring to perceived benefits (B=2.408) and the type of use that individuals habitually made of eConsulta (B=0.715). Environmental pressure (B=0.678), experience of technology (B=0.542), gender (B=0.639) and the degree of eConsulta implementation (B=0.266) were other variables influencing the intention to use the tool in the post-COVID-19 context. When replicating the previous analysis by professional group, experience of technology and gender in the physician group, and experience of the tool's use and the centre where a professional works in the nurse group, were found to be of considerable importance. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation and use of eConsulta had increased significantly as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the majority of the healthcare professionals were satisfied with its use in practice and planned to incorporate it into their practices in the post-COVID-19 context. Perceived benefits and environmental pressure were determining factors in the attitude towards and intention to use eConsulta.

6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 680422, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266655

RESUMEN

Background: Sex and gender are crucial variables in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We sought to provide information on differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes between male and female patients and to explore the effect of estrogen in disease outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Method: In this retrospective, multi-center study, we included all confirmed cases of COVID-19 admitted to four hospitals in Hubei province, China from Dec 31, 2019 to Mar 31, 2020. Cases were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and were analyzed for demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiographic parameters. Random-effect logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between sex and disease outcomes. Results: A total of 2501 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included in the present study. The clinical manifestations of male and female patients with COVID-19 were similar, while male patients have more comorbidities than female patients. In terms of laboratory findings, compared with female patients, male patients were more likely to have lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, inflammatory response, hypoproteinemia, and extrapulmonary organ damage. Random-effect logistic regression analysis indicated that male patients were more likely to progress into severe type, and prone to ARDS, secondary bacterial infection, and death than females. However, there was no significant difference in disease outcomes between postmenopausal and premenopausal females after propensity score matching (PSM) by age. Conclusions: Male patients, especially those age-matched with postmenopausal females, are more likely to have poor outcomes. Sex-specific differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes do exist in patients with COVID-19, but estrogen may not be the primary cause. Further studies are needed to explore the causes of the differences in disease outcomes between the sexes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Linfopenia , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 17: 17455065211022262, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259152

RESUMEN

In COVID-19 disease, are reported gender differences in relation to severity and death. The aim of this review is to highlight gender differences in the immune response to COVID-19. The included studies were identified using PubMed, until 30 October 2020. The search included the following keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, gender, age, sex, and immune system. Literature described that females compared to males have greater inflammatory, antiviral, and humoral immune responses. In female, estrogen is a potential ally to alleviate SARS-COV-2 disease. In male, testosterone reduces vaccination response and depresses the cytokine response. In the older patients, and in particular, in female older patients, it has been reported a progressive functional decline in the immune systems. Differences by gender were reported in infection diseases, including SARS-CoV-2. These data should be confirmed by the other epidemiological studies.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/inmunología , COVID-19/inmunología , Sistema Inmunológico/fisiología , Inmunidad/fisiología , Factores Sexuales , Estrógenos/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Testosterona/metabolismo , Vacunación
8.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 30(4): 1022-1032, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234237

RESUMEN

Disasters including public health crises like the COVID-19 pandemic are known to increase instances of family violence against women, children, and other diverse populations. This paper discusses and provides evidence of disaster-related vulnerability of and violence towards specific groups of people. We argue that the COVID-19 pandemic presents the 'perfect storm' for family violence, where a set of rare circumstances combine, resulting in a significant aggravation of the resulting event. Given the mental health implications of family violence, mental health professionals need to be aware of this issue during the pandemic and ready to assist with the development of strategies to overcome the situation where possible. To provide protection and prevent violence, there is a need to include at-risk groups in disaster response and community planning. Such a plan could involve gender and disaster working groups at the local community, state, and national levels.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Desastres , Violencia Doméstica , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Neurology ; 96(16): e2109-e2120, 2021 04 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223789

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and identify factors associated with COVID-19 severity in patients with MG. METHODS: The CO-MY-COVID registry was a multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study conducted in neuromuscular referral centers and general hospitals of the FILNEMUS (Filière Neuromusculaire) network (between March 1, 2020, and June 8, 2020), including patients with MG with a confirmed or highly suspected diagnosis of COVID-19. COVID-19 was diagnosed based on a PCR test from a nasopharyngeal swab or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serology, thoracic CT scan, or typical symptoms. The main outcome was COVID-19 severity based on location of treatment/management (home, hospitalized in a medical unit, or in an intensive care unit). We collected information on demographic variables, general history, and risk factors for severe COVID-19. Multivariate ordinal regression models were used to identify factors associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes. RESULTS: Among 3,558 patients with MG registered in the French database for rare disorders, 34 (0.96%) had COVID-19. The mean age at COVID-19 onset was 55.0 ± 19.9 years (mean MG duration: 8.5 ± 8.5 years). By the end of the study period, 28 patients recovered from COVID-19, 1 remained affected, and 5 died. Only high Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) class (≥IV) before COVID-19 was associated with severe COVID-19 (p = 0.004); factors that were not associated included sex, MG duration, and medium MGFA classes (≤IIIb). The type of MG treatment had no independent effect on COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS: This registry-based cohort study shows that COVID-19 had a limited effect on most patients, and immunosuppressive medications and corticosteroids used for MG management are not risk factors for poorer outcomes. However, the risk of severe COVID-19 is elevated in patients with high MGFA classes (odds ratio, 102.6 [4.4-2,371.9]). These results are important for establishing evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with MG during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virología , Miastenia Gravis/virología , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Francia , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
10.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(1): 17-26, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207566

RESUMEN

This article examines gender-based health inequalities arising from the COVID-19 pandemic by drawing on insights from research into the 'gender health paradox'. Decades of international research shows that, across Europe, men have shorter life expectancies and higher mortality rates than women, and yet, women report higher morbidity. These gender-based health inequalities also appear to be evident within the pandemic and its aftermath. The article starts by providing an overview of the 'gender health paradox' and the biological, social, economic and political explanations for it. It then outlines the international estimates of gender-based inequalities in COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates - where emerging data suggests that women are more likely to be diagnosed with COVID-19 but that men have a higher mortality rate. It then explores the longer term consequences for gender-based health inequalities of the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on the impacts of government policy responses and the emerging economic crisis, suggesting that this might lead to increased mortality amongst men and increased morbidity amongst women. The essay concludes by reflecting on the pathways shaping gender-based health inequalities in the COVID-19 pandemic and the responses needed to ensure that it does not exacerbate gender-based health inequalities into the future.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribución por Sexo
11.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(7): 886-891, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198898

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an immeasurable impact, affecting healthcare systems, the global economy, and society. Exploration of trends within the existing COVID-19 data may guide directions for further study and novel treatment development. As the world faces COVID-19 disease, it is essential to study its epidemiological and clinical characteristics further to better understand and aid in its detection and containment. METHODS: We aimed to study the clinical characteristics of patients infected with COVID-19 in Dubai, a multi-national Society. RESULTS: Our findings demonstrate that during the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic, age, gender, and country of origin were associated with more severe cases of COVID-19, higher risk for hospitalization and death. Male individuals between 41 and 60 years of age from India had the most significant hospitalization and death predictor (p=.0001). The predictors for COVID-19 related deaths were slightly less than UAE Nationals by individuals from GCC (p=.02) that were followed closely behind by Pilipino (p=.02) and Arabs (p=.001). CONCLUSION: The vulnerability of individuals to infection and in the spectrum of COVID-19 symptoms remains to be understood. There are large variations in disease severity, one component of which may be genetic variability in responding to the virus. Genomics of susceptibility to COVID-19 infection and the wide variation in clinical response to COVID-19 in patients should become active investigation areas.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalización , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino , Pandemias , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
12.
Int Heart J ; 62(2): 337-343, 2021 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190190

RESUMEN

It is unclear whether patients with hypertension are more likely to be infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) than the general population and whether there is a difference in the severity of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia in patients who have taken ACEI/ARB drugs compared with those who have not.This observational study included data from all patients with clinically confirmed COVID-19 admitted to Hankou Hospital, Wuhan, China, between January 5 and March 8, 2020. Data were extracted from clinical and laboratory records. Follow-up was cut off on March 8, 2020.A total of 274 patients, 75 with hypertension and 199 without hypertension, were included in the analysis. Compared with patients without hypertension, patients with hypertension were older and were more likely to have preexisting comorbidities, including chronic renal insufficiency, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular disease. Moreover, patients with hypertension tended to have higher positive rate for SARS-CoV-2 PCR detection. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age (P = 0.005) and gender (P = 0.019) were independent risk factors associated with the severity of pneumonia in patients on admission, whereas ACEI/ARB treatment (P = 0.184) was not.Patients with COVID-19 with hypertension were significantly older and were more likely to have underlying comorbidities, including chronic renal insufficiency, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular disease. ACEI/ARB drugs did not influence the severity of pneumonia in patients with SARS-CoV-2. In future studies, a larger sample size and multi-center clinical data would be needed to support these conclusions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/diagnóstico , China , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 705, 2021 04 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181098

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Significant differences in COVID-19 incidence by gender, class and race/ethnicity are recorded in many countries in the world. Lockdown measures, shown to be effective in reducing the number of new cases, may not have been effective in the same way for all, failing to protect the most vulnerable populations. This survey aims to assess social inequalities in the trends in COVID-19 infections following lockdown. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey conducted among the general population in France in April 2020, during COVID-19 lockdown. Ten thousand one hundred one participants aged 18-64, from a national cohort who lived in the three metropolitan French regions most affected by the first wave of COVID-19. The main outcome was occurrence of possible COVID-19 symptoms, defined as the occurrence of sudden onset of cough, fever, dyspnea, ageusia and/or anosmia, that lasted more than 3 days in the 15 days before the survey. We used multinomial regression models to identify social and health factors related to possible COVID-19 before and during the lockdown. RESULTS: In all, 1304 (13.0%; 95% CI: 12.0-14.0%) reported cases of possible COVID-19. The effect of lockdown on the occurrence of possible COVID-19 was different across social hierarchies. The most privileged class individuals saw a significant decline in possible COVID-19 infections between the period prior to lockdown and during the lockdown (from 8.8 to 4.3%, P = 0.0001) while the decline was less pronounced among working class individuals (6.9% before lockdown and 5.5% during lockdown, P = 0.03). This differential effect of lockdown remained significant after adjusting for other factors including history of chronic disease. The odds of being infected during lockdown as opposed to the prior period increased by 57% among working class individuals (OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.00-2.48). The same was true for those engaged in in-person professional activities during lockdown (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.03-2.29). CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown was associated with social inequalities in the decline in COVID-19 infections, calling for the adoption of preventive policies to account for living and working conditions. Such adoptions are critical to reduce social inequalities related to COVID-19, as working-class individuals also have the highest COVID-19 related mortality, due to higher prevalence of comorbidities.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Política Pública , Cuarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuarentena/legislación & jurisprudencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
14.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(3): e23492, 2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167217

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: By 2025, 5 million Canadians will be diagnosed with diabetes, and women from lower socioeconomic groups will likely account for most new diagnoses. Diabetic retinopathy is a primary vision complication of diabetes and a leading cause of blindness among adults, with 26% prevalence among women. Tele-retina is a branch of telemedicine that delivers eye care remotely. Screening for diabetic retinopathy has great potential to reduce the incidence of blindness, yet there is an adverse association among screening, income, and gender. OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore gender disparity in the provision of tele-retina program services for diabetic retinopathy screening in a cohort of women of low socioeconomic status (SES) receiving services in South Riverdale Community Health Centre (SRCHC) between 2014 and 2019. METHODS: Using a convergent mixed methods design, we want to understand patients', providers', administrators', and decision makers' perceptions of the facilitators and barriers associated with the implementation and adoption of tele-retina. Multivariate logistic regression will be utilized to assess the association among client characteristics, referral source, and diabetic retinopathy screening. Guided by a grounded theory approach, systematic coding of data and thematic analysis will be utilized to identify key facilitators and barriers to the implementation and adoption of tele-retina. RESULTS: For the quantitative component, we anticipate a cohort of 2500 patients, and we expect to collect data on the overall patterns of tele-retina program use, including descriptions of program utilization rates (such as data on received and completed diabetic retinopathy screening referrals) along the landscape of patient populations receiving these services. For the qualitative component, we plan to interview up to 21 patients and 14 providers, administrators, and decision makers, and to conduct up to 14 hours of observations alongside review of relevant documents. The interview guide is being developed in collaboration with our patient partners. Through the use of mixed methods research, the inquiry will be approached from different perspectives. Mixed methods will guide us in combining the rich subjective insights on complex realities from qualitative inquiry with the standard generalizable data that will be generated through quantitative research. The study is under review by the University Health Network Research Ethics Board (19-5628). We expect to begin recruitment in winter 2021. CONCLUSIONS: In Ontario, the screening rate for diabetic retinopathy among low income groups remains below 65%. Understanding the facilitators and barriers to diabetic retinopathy screening may be a prerequisite in the development of a successful screening program. This study is the first Ontario study to focus on diabetic retinopathy screening practices in women of low SES, with the aim to improve their health outcomes and revolutionize access to quality care. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/23492.

15.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 136, 2021 03 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164823

RESUMEN

Epidemiological studies of the COVID-19 patients have suggested the male bias in outcomes of lung illness. To experimentally demonstrate the epidemiological results, we performed animal studies to infect male and female Syrian hamsters with SARS-CoV-2. Remarkably, high viral titer in nasal washings was detectable in male hamsters who presented symptoms of weight loss, weakness, piloerection, hunched back and abdominal respiration, as well as severe pneumonia, pulmonary edema, consolidation, and fibrosis. In contrast with the males, the female hamsters showed much lower shedding viral titers, moderate symptoms, and relatively mild lung pathogenesis. The obvious differences in the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and severity of lung pathogenesis between male and female hamsters provided experimental evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infection and the severity of COVID-19 are associated with gender.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuales , Animales , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/patología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Femenino , Masculino , Mesocricetus
16.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(6): e14150, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153499

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection is severe in the presence of older age, male gender and risk factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the level of anxiety created by immensely spreading COVID-19-related information and age, gender and the presence of risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data used in this study were obtained by collecting a 25-question questionnaire created through Google forms with various communication tools. RESULTS: The data of 929 people who answered the questionnaire were used. The level of anxiety increased with age significantly, upon hearing that a person from their age group was harmed by the virus (P < .001). The feelings of being depressed and hopeless significantly increased as the age increased (P < .001). There was no significant difference between the genders in terms of feeling depressed and feeling of lack of joy in life (P = .066, P = .308, respectively). Participants with chronic diseases stated that they felt more depressed and hopeless and a lack of joy in life more frequently (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that individuals with older age and having risk factors were more vulnerable to the stress caused by the pandemic. It is necessary for healthcare providers to identify high-risk groups by considering these situations, in order to make early psychological interventions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
J Glob Infect Dis ; 13(1): 1-2, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147297
18.
J Nephrol ; 34(2): 305-314, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114333

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In February 2020 the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection started spreading throughout Italy, hitting the Lombardy region very hard. Despite the high diffusion, only a subset of patients developed severe COVID-19: around 25% of them developed acute kidney injury (AKI) and one-third of them died. Elderly patients and patients with high comorbidities were identified as being at higher risk of severe COVID-19. METHODS: Our prospective observational cohort study includes 392 consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in Milan (median age 67 years, 75% male). We evaluated the relationship between blood pressure at presentation, presence of AKI at Emergency Department admission and during hospitalization, and total in-hospital mortality (24%). RESULTS: Although 58% of our study patients reported a history of hypertension (HYP) (86% on treatment), 30% presented with low blood pressure levels. Only 5.5% were diagnosed with AKI on admission; 75% of hypertensive patients discontinued therapy during hospitalization (only 20% were on treatment at discharge). Gender and hypertension were strongly associated with AKI at admission (odds ratio 11). Blood pressure was inversely correlated with increased risk of AKI upon admission, regardless of the severity of respiratory distress. Age over 65, history of hypertension, and severity of respiratory distress were the main predictors of AKI, which developed in 34.7% of cases during hospitalization. AKI was associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Hypertension and low blood pressure at presentation were the main predictors of in-hospital mortality, together with age over 65, baseline pulmonary involvement, and severity of illness. CONCLUSIONS: In patients hospitalized for COVID-19, hypertension and low blood pressure at presentation are important risk factors for AKI and mortality. Early reduction of antihypertensive therapy may improve outcomes in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda/fisiopatología , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Lesión Renal Aguda/epidemiología , Lesión Renal Aguda/etiología , Anciano , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Mortalidad Hospitalaria/tendencias , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Tasa de Supervivencia/tendencias
19.
PeerJ ; 9: e10613, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083206

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been surging globally. Risk strata in medical attention are of dynamic significance for apposite assessment and supply distribution. Presently, no known cultured contrivance is available to fill this gap of this pandemic. The aim of this study is to develop a predictive model based on vector autoregressive moving average (VARMA) model of various orders for gender based daily COVID-19 incidence in Nigeria. This study also aims to proffer empirical evidence that compares incidence between male and female for COVID-19 risk factors. METHODS: Wilcoxon signed-rank test is employed to investigate the significance of the difference in the gender distributions of the daily incidence. A VARMA model of various orders is formulated for the gender based daily COVID-19 incidence in Nigeria. The optimal VARMA model is identified using Bayesian information criterion. Also, a predictive model based on univariate autoregressive moving average model is formulated for the daily death cases in Nigeria. Fold change is estimated based on crude case-fatality risk to investigate whether there is massive underreporting and under-testing of COVID-19 cases in Nigeria. RESULTS: Daily incidence is higher in males on most days from 11 April 2020 to 12 September 2020. Result of Wilcoxon signed-rank test shows that incidence among male is significantly higher than female (p-value < 2.22 × 10-16). White neural network test shows that daily female incidence is not linear in mean (p-value = 0.00058746) while daily male incidence is linear in mean (p-value = 0.4257). McLeod-Li test shows that there is autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity in the female incidence (Maximum p-value = 1.4277 × 10-5) and male incidence (Maximum p-value = 9.0816 × 10-14) at 5% level of significance. Ljung-Box test (Tsay, 2014) shows that the daily incidence cases are not random (p-value=0.0000). The optimal VARMA model for male and female daily incidence is VARMA (0,1). The optimal model for the Nigeria's daily COVID-19 death cases is identified to be ARIMA (0,1,1). There is no evidence of massive underreporting and under-testing of COVID-19 cases in Nigeria. CONCLUSIONS: Comparison of the observed incidence with fitted data by gender shows that the optimal VARMA and ARIMA models fit the data well. Findings highlight the significant roles of gender on daily COVID-19 incidence in Nigeria.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA