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ssrn; 2024.
Preprint Dans Anglais | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.4786061
13.; 2024.
Preprint Dans Anglais | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202404.0708.v1


Currently, SARS-CoV-2 has evolved into various variants, including the numerous highly mutated Omicron sub-lineages, significantly increasing immune evasion ability. The development raises concerns about possibly diminished effectiveness of available vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics. Here, we describe those representative categories of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that retain prominent effectiveness against emerging variants including Omicron sub-lineages. The molecular characteristics, epitope conservation, and resistance mechanisms of these antibodies are further detailed, aiming to offer suggestion or direction for the development of therapeutic antibodies, and facilitate the vaccine design with broad-spectrum potential.

14.; 2024.
Preprint Dans Anglais | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202404.0727.v1


Our study essentially concerns the dynamic behavior of an SIRS epidemic model in discrete time. Two equilibrium points are obtained; one is disease-free while the other is endemic. We are interested in the endemic fixed point as well as its asymptotic stability. Depending on the parameters which are estimated using the data from US Department of health and SIRS modelling with optimization, two Flip and Transcritical bifurcations appear. We illustrate their diagrams, as well as their bifurcation curves using the method of Carcasses \cite{carcasses1993determination,carcasses1995singularities} for the Flip bifurcation and by an implicit function deduced from such an equation for the Transcritical bifurcation. We use the scanning of the parametric plane to have a global view of the behavior of the model and to highlight the zones of stability of the existing singularities. A superposition of the bifurcation curves with the parametric plane can show the overlap of the curves with the boundaries of the stability domains, which confirms the smooth running of the simulation and its correspondence with the theory, we finish this article with constrained optimal control applied to infection rate and recruitment rate for an SIRS discrete epidemic model. Pontryagin's maximum principle is used to determine these optimal controls. Finally using COVID-19 data in the USA, we obtain results that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy to mitigate the spread of the pandemic.

15.; 2024.
Preprint Dans Anglais | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202404.0731.v1


Understanding the motivations and decisions behind COVID-19 vaccine acceptance is crucial for designing targeted public health interventions to address vaccine hesitancy. We conducted a qualitative analysis to explore COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among diverse ethnic subgroups of Black Americans in the United States. This study investigates the responses of 79 African American, Afro-Caribbean, and African respondents over the age of 18 in Washington State and Texas between 2021-2022. Qualitative responses were analyzed by content category and ethnic subgroup. Of the 79 responses, 60 expressed favorable perceptions, 16 unfavorable, and 3 neutral. Dominant categories among participants in favor of the vaccine included personal health (26), concern for health of family/or community members (13), and desire to protect others (11). Among the 42 vaccinated African American respondents, the primary motivation was personal health (20). The 12 unvaccinated African American respondents cited fear of side-effects as the dominate motivation. Caribbean respondents cited family or elders as motivation for their decision. African respondents were nearly unanimous in taking the vaccine (13/16), citing trust in healthcare, protecting friends and family, and personal health as reasons. Community and personal relationships were critical decision-making factors in accepting the COVID-19 vaccine with African Americans having the strongest hesitancy.

arxiv; 2024.
Preprint Dans Anglais | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2404.06962v1


Forecasting the short-term spread of an ongoing disease outbreak is a formidable challenge due to the complexity of contributing factors, some of which can be characterized through interlinked, multi-modality variables such as epidemiological time series data, viral biology, population demographics, and the intersection of public policy and human behavior. Existing forecasting model frameworks struggle with the multifaceted nature of relevant data and robust results translation, which hinders their performances and the provision of actionable insights for public health decision-makers. Our work introduces PandemicLLM, a novel framework with multi-modal Large Language Models (LLMs) that reformulates real-time forecasting of disease spread as a text reasoning problem, with the ability to incorporate real-time, complex, non-numerical information that previously unattainable in traditional forecasting models. This approach, through a unique AI-human cooperative prompt design and time series representation learning, encodes multi-modal data for LLMs. The model is applied to the COVID-19 pandemic, and trained to utilize textual public health policies, genomic surveillance, spatial, and epidemiological time series data, and is subsequently tested across all 50 states of the U.S. Empirically, PandemicLLM is shown to be a high-performing pandemic forecasting framework that effectively captures the impact of emerging variants and can provide timely and accurate predictions. The proposed PandemicLLM opens avenues for incorporating various pandemic-related data in heterogeneous formats and exhibits performance benefits over existing models. This study illuminates the potential of adapting LLMs and representation learning to enhance pandemic forecasting, illustrating how AI innovations can strengthen pandemic responses and crisis management in the future.

ssrn; 2024.
Preprint Dans Anglais | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.4776519
ssrn; 2024.
Preprint Dans Anglais | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.4776838
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