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2.
Life ; 12(2):141, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1625852

Résumé

(1) Background: Persistent olfactory (POD) and gustatory (PGD) dysfunctions are one of the most frequent symptoms of long-Coronavirus Disease 2019 but their effect on the quality of life (QoL) of patients is still largely unexplored. (2) Methods: An online survey was administered to individuals who reported to have had SARS-CoV-2 infection at least 6 months prior with persisting COVID-19 symptoms (using the COVID symptom index), including ratings of POD and PGD, and their physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) components of quality of life were assessed using the standardized short form 12 questionnaire (SF-12). (3) Results: Responses from 431 unique individuals were included in the analyses. The most frequent persistent symptoms were: fatigue (185 cases, 42.9%), olfactory dysfunction (127 cases, 29.5%), gustatory dysfunction (96 cases, 22.3%) and muscle pain (83 cases, 19.3%). Respondents who reported persisting muscle pain, joint pain, fatigue, headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, and dyspnea had significantly worse PCS. Those experiencing persistent fatigue and dyspnea also showed significantly lower MCS. Respondents reporting POD or PGD showed significantly worse QoL, but only pertaining to the MCS. Multiple regressions predicted MCS based on olfactory and marginally on gustatory ratings, but not PCS. Age significantly affected the prediction of PCS but not MCS, and gender and temporal distance from the COVID-19 diagnosis had no effect. (4) Conclusions: POD and PGD are frequent symptoms of the long-COVID-19 syndrome and significantly reduce QoL, specifically in the mental health component. This evidence should stimulate the establishment of appropriate infrastructure to support individuals with persistent CD, while research on effective therapies scales up.

3.
CHEST ; 161(1):A103-A103, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1625850
6.
Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs ; : 14550725211069287, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | Sage | ID: covidwho-1625845

Résumé

Background: Use of drug consumption rooms is a novel harm reduction approach to reach marginalised and isolated people who used drugs, under the high risk of overdose deaths and infectious diseases. The aim of this article was to evaluate the policy opportunities and barriers of the Helsinki City initiative for establishing the first drug consumption room (DCR) in Finland from the multiple streams framework. Method: A qualitative interview research method is used to evaluate the perspectives of stakeholders. By including 23 participants, we analysed the political, social and policy level advantages and disadvantages of the current initiative. Findings: Our results show that the cost of DCRs, the COVID-19 burdens on public resources, the requirement of legislative change, public unawareness, potential policy failure of DCRs, and its impacts on electoral votes constitute the main policy barriers. On the other hand, an increase in drug-related deaths, economic benefits of DCR for society, its effects on street safety and public order, being a local initiative, prospectus change in national drug strategy plans and motivation to catch up with EU standards were underlined as policy opportunities. Four issues, leadership, moral perspective, social change and generational differences, act as mediating factors, which are fluctuated according to public opinions and political environment. Conclusion: By applying the multiple streams framework, our results show that experts? DCR problematisation is still beyond the public and political interest, which needs additional effort around problem identification and prioritisation. Besides public unawareness, the COVID-19 situation seems to be postponing policy progress since the primary attention and available funds have already been dedicated to public health. Already having a local initiative and an upcoming drug strategy plan might be good formal leverage, but unexpected events might also trigger discussions.

7.
Journal of Risk and Financial Management ; 15(2):41, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1625844

Résumé

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has been detrimental toall countries, despite the continuous efforts of governments on all continents to attempt to mitigate its damaging effects. All economic and social indicators have worsened. This study explores the impact of COVID-19 on international trade among the Visegrad Four (V4) countries. We employ data from Eurostat and FRED to explore this influence, using the monthly import and export data for the 2010 M1–2021 M4period. We estimate the trade model for each member country of the V4, exploring their trade relations with other V4 members. We employ a shift dummy and impulse dummy to show the effect of country lockdowns initiating possible structural change. After exploration, we found that the COVID-19 impact was evident in all countries, but not with the same strength. Looking outside the V4 group, we can also see that there are strong trade relations with Germany, which is the strongest European economy. For further exploration, we suggest investigating these outside links to complete the picture.

9.
American Behavioral Scientist ; : 00027642211066027, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | Sage | ID: covidwho-1625842

Résumé

In this paper, we analyze the recessionary effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on digital platform workers. The crisis has been described as a great work-from-home experiment, with platform ecosystems positing as its most advanced form. Our analysis differentiates the direct (health) and indirect (economic) risks incurred by workers, to critically assess the portrayal of platforms as buffers against crisis-induced layoffs. We submit that platform-mediated labor may eventually increase precarity, without necessarily reducing health risks for workers. Our argument is based on a comparison of the three main categories of platform work??on-demand labor? (gigs such as delivery and transportation), ?online labor? (tasks performed remotely, such as data annotation), and ?social networking labor? (content generation and moderation). We discuss the strategies that platforms deploy to transfer risk from clients onto workers, thus deepening existing power imbalances between them. These results question the problematic equivalence between work-from-home and platform labor. Instead of attaining the advantages of the former in terms of direct and indirect risk mitigation, an increasing number of platformized jobs drift toward high economic and insuppressible health risks.

10.
Indian Journal of Public Administration ; : 00195561211058392, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | Sage | ID: covidwho-1625841

Résumé

With the outbreak of the global pandemic of COVID-19, India witnessed one of the largest reverse migrations in its entire history. Amid continuously streaming heart-rending visuals of migrant workers struggling to somehow return to their place of origin, Uttar Pradesh emerged as the recipient of huge 3.2 million migrant workers employed in the informal sector. Accepting, welcoming, helping, encouraging and offering employment to those destitute workers amid the pandemic was a difficult task for the state government.An appropriate management of this problem has made it a classic case of crisis management by a state chief minister who dares to think beyond the reflex paranoia about resource crunch so as to come up with an improvised strategy.Purpose of this article is to discuss the crisis of reverse migration amid COVID-19 and the initiatives taken by the Government of Uttar Pradesh. The article uses case study approach to analyse the problem of livelihood faced by the migrant workers and the innovative model of employment and rehabilitation envisioned and implemented by the state government.Based on secondary data, it observes positive impact of skill mapping and other key strategies of the Government of Uttar Pradesh.

11.
Group Processes & Intergroup Relations ; : 13684302211062129, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | Sage | ID: covidwho-1625840

Résumé

Narratives about Africa as dark, depraved, and diseased justified the exploitation of African land and people. Today, these narratives may still have a hold on people?s fears about disease. We test this in three (pre-COVID-19) experiments (N = 1,803). Across studies, we find that participants report greater worry about a pandemic originating in Africa (vs. elsewhere). In turn, they report greater support for travel bans and for loosening abortion restrictions. We then document these narratives in an archival study of newspaper articles of the 2015?2016 Zika pandemic (N = 1,475). We find that articles were more negative?for example, they included more death-related words?if they mentioned Africa. Finally, we replicate the experimental results within the COVID-19 context, using a representative sample (N = 1,200). Taken together, the studies make clear that reactions to pandemics are biased, and in a way consistent with historical narratives about race and Africa.

12.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 23(2):835, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1625839

Résumé

The global urgency to uncover medical countermeasures to combat the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has revealed an unmet need for robust tissue culture models that faithfully recapitulate key features of human tissues and disease. Infection of the nose is considered the dominant initial site for SARS-CoV-2 infection and models that replicate this entry portal offer the greatest potential for examining and demonstrating the effectiveness of countermeasures designed to prevent or manage this highly communicable disease. Here, we test an air–liquid-interface (ALI) differentiated human nasal epithelium (HNE) culture system as a model of authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Progenitor cells (basal cells) were isolated from nasal turbinate brushings, expanded under conditionally reprogrammed cell (CRC) culture conditions and differentiated at ALI. Differentiated cells were inoculated with different SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolates. Infectious virus release into apical washes was determined by TCID50, while infected cells were visualized by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. We demonstrate robust, reproducible SARS-CoV-2 infection of ALI-HNE established from different donors. Viral entry and release occurred from the apical surface, and infection was primarily observed in ciliated cells. In contrast to the ancestral clinical isolate, the Delta variant caused considerable cell damage. Successful establishment of ALI-HNE is donor dependent. ALI-HNE recapitulate key features of human SARS-CoV-2 infection of the nose and can serve as a pre-clinical model without the need for invasive collection of human respiratory tissue samples.

14.
Education Sciences ; 12(2):61, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1625826

Résumé

The COVID-19 outbreak spurred unplanned closures and transitions to online classes. Physical environments that once fostered social interaction and community were rendered inactive. We conducted interviews and administered surveys to examine undergraduate STEM students’feelings of belonging and engagement while in physical isolation, and identified online teaching modes associated with these feelings. Surveys from a racially diverse group of 43 undergraduate students at a Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI) revealed that interactive synchronous instruction was positively associated with feelings of interest and belonging, particularly for students of color, while noninteractive instruction reduced social belonging, but was related to more cognitive engagement. Small group and one-on-one interviews with 23 of these students suggest that students derived feelings of connectedness from their instructors, peers, and prior experiences and relied on their sense of competency to motivate themselves in the course and feel a sense of belonging. Two embedded cases of students in physics classrooms are compared to highlight the range of student feelings of connectedness and competency during the lockdown. Findings reaffirm that social interaction tends to support belonging and engagement, particularly for under-represented (Black or African American and Hispanic) racial groups in STEM. STEM instructors who aim to support feelings of belonging and engagement in virtual learning environments should consider increasing opportunities for student–student and student–teacher interactions, as well as taking a flexible approach that validates and integrates student voice into instruction. Future research is needed to further explore the themes of relatedness and competency that emerged as aspects of course belonging.

15.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(2):912, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1625825

Résumé

The ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound impact on people’s wellbeing. Here, we proposed that an individual characteristic might be associated with wellbeing;that is, materialism. Specifically, we conducted three studies (total N = 3219) to examine whether people with high levels of materialism would experience poorer wellbeing (i.e., anxiety and depression, in the current case). The results showed that materialism was positively associated with depression (Studies 1A, 1B and 2) and anxiety (Study 2). Moreover, such a relationship was mediated by people’s perceived threat of COVID-19 (Study 2). These findings were observed in both Chinese and American people. The findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical contributions.

16.
Viruses ; 14(1):143, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1625824

Résumé

Infection with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been linked with severe neurological disease such as acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) in recent years. However, active surveillance for EV-D68 is lacking, which makes full assessment of this association difficult. Although a high number of EV-D68 infections were expected in 2020 based on the EV-D68′s known biannual circulation patterns, no apparent increase in EV-D68 detections or AFM cases was observed during 2020. We describe an upsurge of EV-D68 detections in wastewater samples from the United Kingdom between July and November 2021 mirroring the recently reported rise in EV-D68 detections in clinical samples from various European countries. We provide the first publicly available 2021 EV-D68 sequences showing co-circulation of EV-D68 strains from genetic clade D and sub-clade B3 as in previous years. Our results show the value of environmental surveillance (ES) for the early detection of circulating and clinically relevant human viruses. The use of a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach helped us to estimate the prevalence of EV-D68 viruses among EV strains from other EV serotypes and to detect EV-D68 minor variants. The utility of ES at reducing gaps in virus surveillance for EV-D68 and the possible impact of nonpharmaceutical interventions introduced to control the COVID-19 pandemic on EV-D68 transmission dynamics are discussed.

17.
Brain Sciences ; 12(2):131, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1625823

Résumé

Continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP) is a highly effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but CPAP adherence remains suboptimal. The COVID-19 pandemic significantly altered sleep medicine services and aspects of daily living for sleep medicine patients, which may further compromise CPAP adherence. Sleep medicine patients were distributed an online survey at baseline and six months later (January–May 2021). Participants answered questions regarding CPAP use (any changes in CPAP use, sleep quality with CPAP use, CPAP use as advised, and changes in daily habits). Eighty-one adults completed the baseline survey, and 54 adults completed the follow-up survey. Twenty-seven participants reported a diagnosis of OSA and were prescribed CPAP (mean age 58 ±18.2 years, 48% female, 67% Caucasian). Longitudinal analysis with chi-square association testing showed significant changes in CPAP use as advised and significant improvements in sleep quality with CPAP use when comparing the baseline to six-month follow-up survey. Additionally, logistic regression was performed to determine if pre-pandemic sleep study results (apnea-hypopnea index and respiratory disturbance index) predicted self-reported CPAP use during the pandemic, though no association was found. Throughout the pandemic, sleep medicine patients improved their CPAP use as advised and reported significant improvements in sleep quality with CPAP use.

18.
Chemical Engineering Transactions ; 88:553-558, 2021.
Article Dans Anglais | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1625821

Résumé

The COVID-19 pandemic posed a huge impact to the global economy and on the environment. Recent developments in battling the pandemic include the availability of vaccines for public use. The distribution of vaccines requires systematic planning as supplies to a given region can be limited. Process integration techniques such as mathematical programming can be applied to develop solutions for systematic planning of COVID-19 vaccine distribution. To enable the use of mathematical programs for policymakers, a graphical user interface is needed. In this study, a web-based application (app) for allocating vaccines is presented, utilizing non-linear programs to optimally distribute vaccines to different population groups. Two models are incorporated in the app: (1) a model that minimizes the number of vaccines required to slow down the spread of the disease, i.e., reduce the reproductive number to less than one and (2) a model that determines the optimal allocation at the minimum reproductive number. The optimization models for the app were written in Python using the Pyomo package while the graphical user interface is written in JavaScript with the use of the React library. The optimization models are accessed through an API served using a Python web server utilizing the web framework Flask. A case study is used to illustrate how the models work in the web application. © 2021, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.

19.
20.
Medicina ; 58(1):118, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1625817

Résumé

Background and Objectives: The incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has increased in Wakayama, Japan, due to the spread of the highly infectious B.1.1.7 variant. Before this event, the medical systems were almost unaffected. We aimed to assess the clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and the risk factors for therapeutic intervention of remdesivir during the fourth pandemic period in Wakayama, Japan. Materials and Methods: This single-center retrospective study enrolled 185 patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 hospitalized in our hospital without intensive care between 14 March and 31 May 2021. Results: In this period, 125 (67.6%) of the 185 patients had the B.1.1.7 variant. Sixty-three patients (34.1%) required remdesivir treatment. Age upon admission and length of hospitalization were significantly different between remdesivir treatment and careful observation groups (mean (standard deviation);59.6 (14.7) versus 45.3 (20.6) years;p < 0.001 and median (interquartile range);10 (9–12) versus 9 (8–10) years;p < 0.001). One patient was transferred to another hospital because of disease progression. At hospital admission, age ≥60 years (odds ratio (OR) 6.90, p < 0.001), a previous history of diabetes mellitus (OR 20.9, p = 0.002), B.1.1.7 variant (OR 5.30;p = 0.005), lower respiratory symptoms (OR 3.13, p = 0.011), headache (OR 3.82, p = 0.011), and fever ≥37.5 °C (OR 4.55, p = 0.001) were independent risk factors to require remdesivir treatment during the admission. Conclusions: Many patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 required the therapeutic intervention of remdesivir during the fourth pandemic period in Wakayama, Japan. From the clinical data obtained at admission, these risk factors could contribute to a prediction regarding the requirement of remdesivir treatment in cases of mild to moderate COVID-19.

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