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Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21265116


The COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil experienced two major country-wide lineage replacements, the first driven by the lineage P.2, formerly classified as variant of interest (VOI) Zeta in late 2020 and the second by the variant of concern (VOC) Gamma in early 2021. To better understand how these SARS-CoV-2 lineage turnovers occurred in Brazil, we analyzed 11,724 high-quality SARS-CoV-2 whole genomes of samples collected in different country regions between September 2020 and April 2021. Our findings indicate that the spatial dispersion of both variants in Brazil was driven by short and long-distance viral transmission. The lineage P.2 harboring Spike mutation E484K probably emerged around late July 2020 in the Rio de Janeiro (RJ) state, which contributed with most ([~]50%) inter-state viral disseminations, and only became locally established in most Brazilian states by October 2020. The VOC Gamma probably arose in November 2020 in the Amazonas (AM) state, which was responsible for 60-70% of the inter-state viral dissemination, and the earliest timing of community transmission of this VOC in many Brazilian states was already traced to December 2020. We estimate that variant Gamma was 1.56-3.06 more transmissible than variant P.2 co-circulating in RJ and that the median effective reproductive number (Re) of Gamma in RJ and SP states (Re = 1.59-1.91) was lower than in AM (Re = 3.55). In summary, although the epicenter of the lineage P.2 dissemination in Brazil was the heavily interconnected Southeastern region, it displayed a slower rate of spatial spread than the VOC Gamma originated in the more isolated Northern Brazilian region. Our findings also support that the VOC Gamma was more transmissible than lineage P.2, although the viral Re of the VOC varied according to the geographic context.

Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20171595


The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in the human population has caused a huge pandemic that is still unfolding in many countries around the world. Multiple epicenters of the pandemic have emerged since the first pneumonia cases in Wuhan, first in Italy followed by the USA and Brazil. Up to now, Brazil is the second most affected country, however, genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2 strains circulating in the country are restricted to some highly impacted states. Although the Pernambuco state, located in the Northeast Region, is the sixth most affected brazilian state and the second considering lethality rate, there is a lack of high quality genomic sequences from the strains circulating in this region. Here, we sequenced 38 strains of SARS-CoV-2 from patients presenting Covid-19 symptoms. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed that three lineages were circulating in the state and 36 samples belong to B1.1 lineage. We detected two introductions from European countries and five clades, corroborating the community spread of the virus between different municipalities of the state. Finally, we detected that all except one strain showed the D614G spike protein amino acid change that may impact virus infectivity in human cells. Our study brought new light to the spread of SARS-CoV-2 strains in one of the most heavily impacted states of Brazil.

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