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1.
Preprint Dans Anglais | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-468428

Résumé

We seek to completely revise current models of airborne transmission of respiratory viruses by providing never-before-seen atomic-level views of the SARS-CoV-2 virus within a respiratory aerosol. Our work dramatically extends the capabilities of multiscale computational microscopy to address the significant gaps that exist in current experimental methods, which are limited in their ability to interrogate aerosols at the atomic/molecular level and thus ob-scure our understanding of airborne transmission. We demonstrate how our integrated data-driven platform provides a new way of exploring the composition, structure, and dynamics of aerosols and aerosolized viruses, while driving simulation method development along several important axes. We present a series of initial scientific discoveries for the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, noting that the full scientific impact of this work has yet to be realized. ACM Reference FormatAbigail Dommer1{dagger}, Lorenzo Casalino1{dagger}, Fiona Kearns1{dagger}, Mia Rosenfeld1, Nicholas Wauer1, Surl-Hee Ahn1, John Russo,2 Sofia Oliveira3, Clare Morris1, AnthonyBogetti4, AndaTrifan5,6, Alexander Brace5,7, TerraSztain1,8, Austin Clyde5,7, Heng Ma5, Chakra Chennubhotla4, Hyungro Lee9, Matteo Turilli9, Syma Khalid10, Teresa Tamayo-Mendoza11, Matthew Welborn11, Anders Christensen11, Daniel G. A. Smith11, Zhuoran Qiao12, Sai Krishna Sirumalla11, Michael OConnor11, Frederick Manby11, Anima Anandkumar12,13, David Hardy6, James Phillips6, Abraham Stern13, Josh Romero13, David Clark13, Mitchell Dorrell14, Tom Maiden14, Lei Huang15, John McCalpin15, Christo- pherWoods3, Alan Gray13, MattWilliams3, Bryan Barker16, HarindaRajapaksha16, Richard Pitts16, Tom Gibbs13, John Stone6, Daniel Zuckerman2*, Adrian Mulholland3*, Thomas MillerIII11,12*, ShantenuJha9*, Arvind Ramanathan5*, Lillian Chong4*, Rommie Amaro1*. 2021. #COVIDisAirborne: AI-Enabled Multiscale Computational Microscopy ofDeltaSARS-CoV-2 in a Respiratory Aerosol. In Supercomputing 21: International Conference for High Perfor-mance Computing, Networking, Storage, and Analysis. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 14 pages. https://doi.org/finalDOI

2.
Preprint Dans Anglais | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-463779

Résumé

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication transcription complex (RTC) is a multi-domain protein responsible for replicating and transcribing the viral mRNA inside a human cell. Attacking RTC function with pharmaceutical compounds is a pathway to treating COVID-19. Conventional tools, e.g., cryo-electron microscopy and all-atom molecular dynamics (AAMD), do not provide sufficiently high resolution or timescale to capture important dynamics of this molecular machine. Consequently, we develop an innovative workflow that bridges the gap between these resolutions, using mesoscale fluctuating finite element analysis (FFEA) continuum simulations and a hierarchy of AI-methods that continually learn and infer features for maintaining consistency between AAMD and FFEA simulations. We leverage a multi-site distributed workflow manager to orchestrate AI, FFEA, and AAMD jobs, providing optimal resource utilization across HPC centers. Our study provides unprecedented access to study the SARS-CoV-2 RTC machinery, while providing general capability for AI-enabled multi-resolution simulations at scale.

3.
Preprint Dans Anglais | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-437918

Résumé

{beta}-coronaviruses alone have been responsible for three major global outbreaks in the 21st century. The current crisis has led to an urgent requirement to develop therapeutics. Even though a number of vaccines are available, alternative strategies targeting essential viral components are required as a back-up against the emergence of lethal viral variants. One such target is the main protease (Mpro) that plays an indispensible role in viral replication. The availability of over 270 Mpro X-ray structures in complex with inhibitors provides unique insights into ligand-protein interactions. Herein, we provide a comprehensive comparison of all non-redundant ligand-binding sites available for SARS-CoV2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV Mpro. Extensive adaptive sampling has been used to explore conformational dynamics employing convolutional variational auto encoder-based deep learning, and investigates structural conservation of the ligand binding sites using Markov state models across {beta}-coronavirus homologs. Our results indicate that not all ligand-binding sites are dynamically conserved despite high sequence and structural conservation across {beta}-coronavirus homologs. This highlights the complexity in targeting all three Mpro enzymes with a single pan inhibitor.

4.
Preprint Dans Anglais | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-437323

Résumé

Despite the recent availability of vaccines against the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the search for inhibitory therapeutic agents has assumed importance especially in the context of emerging new viral variants. In this paper, we describe the discovery of a novel non-covalent small-molecule inhibitor, MCULE-5948770040, that binds to and inhibits the SARS-Cov-2 main protease (Mpro) by employing a scalable high throughput virtual screening (HTVS) framework and a targeted compound library of over 6.5 million molecules that could be readily ordered and purchased. Our HTVS framework leverages the U.S. supercomputing infrastructure achieving nearly 91% resource utilization and nearly 126 million docking calculations per hour. Downstream biochemical assays validate this Mpro inhibitor with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 2.9 {micro}M [95% CI 2.2, 4.0]. Further, using room-temperature X-ray crystallography, we show that MCULE-5948770040 binds to a cleft in the primary binding site of Mpro forming stable hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions. We then used multiple {micro}s-timescale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and machine learning (ML) techniques to elucidate how the bound ligand alters the conformational states accessed by Mpro, involving motions both proximal and distal to the binding site. Together, our results demonstrate how MCULE-5948770040 inhibits Mpro and offers a springboard for further therapeutic design. O_TEXTBOXSignificance StatementThe ongoing novel coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has prompted a global race towards finding effective therapeutics that can target the various viral proteins. Despite many virtual screening campaigns in development, the discovery of validated inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2 protein targets has been limited. We discover a novel inhibitor against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. Our integrated platform applies downstream biochemical assays, X-ray crystallography, and atomistic simulations to obtain a comprehensive characterization of its inhibitory mechanism. Inhibiting Mpro can lead to significant biomedical advances in targeting SARS-CoV-2 treatment, as it plays a crucial role in viral replication. C_TEXTBOX

5.
Preprint Dans Anglais | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-390187

Résumé

We develop a generalizable AI-driven workflow that leverages heterogeneous HPC resources to explore the time-dependent dynamics of molecular systems. We use this workflow to investigate the mechanisms of infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, the main viral infection machinery. Our workflow enables more efficient investigation of spike dynamics in a variety of complex environments, including within a complete SARS-CoV-2 viral envelope simulation, which contains 305 million atoms and shows strong scaling on ORNL Summit using NAMD. We present several novel scientific discoveries, including the elucidation of the spikes full glycan shield, the role of spike glycans in modulating the infectivity of the virus, and the characterization of the flexible interactions between the spike and the human ACE2 receptor. We also demonstrate how AI can accelerate conformational sampling across different systems and pave the way for the future application of such methods to additional studies in SARS-CoV-2 and other molecular systems. ACM Reference FormatLorenzo Casalino1{dagger}, Abigail Dommer1{dagger}, Zied Gaieb1{dagger}, Emilia P. Barros1, Terra Sztain1, Surl-Hee Ahn1, Anda Trifan2,3, Alexander Brace2, Anthony Bogetti4, Heng Ma2, Hyungro Lee5, Matteo Turilli5, Syma Khalid6, Lillian Chong4, Carlos Simmerling7, David J. Hardy3, Julio D. C. Maia3, James C. Phillips3, Thorsten Kurth8, Abraham Stern8, Lei Huang9, John McCalpin9, Mahidhar Tatineni10, Tom Gibbs8, John E. Stone3, Shantenu Jha5, Arvind Ramanathan2*, Rommie E. Amaro1*. 2020. AI-Driven Multiscale Simulations Illuminate Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Dynamics. In Supercomputing 20: International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage, and Analysis. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 14 pages. https://doi.org/finalDOI

6.
chemRxiv; 2020.
Preprint | ChemRxiv | ID: ppcovidwho-38

Résumé

We present a supercomputer-driven pipeline for iin-silicodrug discovery using enhanced sampling molecular dynamics (MD) and ensemble docking. We also describe preliminary results obtained for 23 systems involving eight protein targets of the proteome of SARS CoV-2. THe MD performed is temperature replica-exchange enhanced sampling, making use of the massively parallel supercomputing on the SUMMIT supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with which more than 1ms of enhanced sampling MD can be generated per day. We have ensemble docked repurposing databases to ten configurations of each of the 23 SARS CoV-2 systems using AutoDock Vina. We also demonstrate that using Autodock-GPU on SUMMIT, it is possible to perform exhaustive docking of one billion compounds in under 24 hours. Finally, we discuss preliminary results and planned improvements to the pipeline, including the use of quantum mechanical (QM), machine learning, and Amethods to cluster MD trajectories and rescore docking poses.

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