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1.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22278025

Résumé

Identification of the plasma proteomic changes of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is essential to understanding the pathophysiology of the disease and developing predictive models and novel therapeutics. We performed plasma deep proteomic profiling from 332 COVID-19 patients and 150 controls and pursued replication in an independent cohort (297 cases and 76 controls) to find potential biomarkers and causal proteins for three COVID-19 outcomes (infection, ventilation, and death). We identified and replicated 1,449 proteins associated with any of the three outcomes (841 for infection, 833 for ventilation, and 253 for death) that can be query on a web portal (https://covid.proteomics.wustl.edu/). Using those proteins and machine learning approached we created and validated specific prediction models for ventilation (AUC>0.91), death (AUC>0.95) and either outcome (AUC>0.80). These proteins were also enriched in specific biological processes, including immune and cytokine signaling (FDR [≤] 3.72x10-14), Alzheimers disease (FDR [≤] 5.46x10-10) and coronary artery disease (FDR [≤] 4.64x10-2). Mendelian randomization using pQTL as instrumental variants nominated BCAT2 and GOLM1 as a causal proteins for COVID-19. Causal gene network analyses identified 141 highly connected key proteins, of which 35 have known drug targets with FDA-approved compounds. Our findings provide distinctive prognostic biomarkers for two severe COVID-19 outcomes (ventilation and death), reveal their relationship to Alzheimers disease and coronary artery disease, and identify potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19 outcomes.

2.
Preprint Dans Anglais | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-494162

Résumé

Oral and upper respiratory microbiota play important roles in modulating host immune responses to viral infection. As emerging evidence suggests the host microbiome may be involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19, we aimed to investigate associations between the oral and nasopharyngeal microbiome and COVID-19 severity. We collected saliva (n = 78) and nasopharyngeal swab (n = 66) samples from a COVID-19 cohort and characterized the microbiomes using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We also examined associations between the salivary and nasopharyngeal microbiome and age, COVID-19 symptoms, and blood cytokines. SARS-CoV-2 infection status, but not COVID-19 severity, was associated with community-level differences in the oral and nasopharyngeal microbiomes. Salivary and nasopharyngeal microbiome alpha diversity negatively correlated with age and were associated with fever and diarrhea. Several bacterial genera were differentially abundant by COVID-19 severity, including oral Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Solobacterium, all of which were depleted in patients with severe COVID-19. Nasopharyngeal Paracoccus was depleted while nasopharyngeal Proteus, Cupravidus, and Lactobacillus were increased in patients with severe COVID-19. Further analysis revealed that the abundance of oral Bifidobacterium was negatively associated with plasma concentrations of known COVID-19 biomarkers interleukin 17F (IL-17F) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). In conclusion, our results suggest COVID-19 disease severity is associated with the relative abundance of certain bacterial taxa.

3.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21254427

Résumé

The COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by the largest mobilization of therapeutic convalescent plasma (CCP) in over a century. Initial identification of high titer units was based on dose-response data using the Ortho VITROS IgG assay. The proliferation of SARS-CoV-2 serological assays and non-uniform application has led to uncertainty about their interrelationships. The purpose of this study was to establish correlations and analogous cutoffs between commercially available serological tests (Ortho, Abbott, Roche), a spike ELISA, and a virus neutralization assay using convalescent plasma from a cohort of 79 donors from April 2020. Relationships relative to FDA-approved cutoffs under the CCP EUA were identified by linear regression and receiver operator characteristic curves. Relative to the Ortho VITROS assay, the r2 of the Abbott, Roche, the anti-Spike ELISA and the neutralizing assay were 0.58, 0.5, 0.82, and 0.44, respectively. The best correlative index for establishing high-titer units was 3.82 S/C for the Abbott, 10.89 COI for the Roche, 1:1,202 for the anti-Spike ELISA, and 1:200 by the neutralization assay. The overall agreement using derived cutoffs compared to the CCP EUA Ortho VITROS cutoff of 9.5 was 92.4% for Abbott, 84.8% for Roche, 87.3% for the anti-S ELISA and 78.5% for the neutralization assay. Assays based on antibodies against the nucleoprotein (Roche, Abbott) and neutralizing antibody tests were positively associated with the Ortho assay, although their ability to distinguish FDA high-titer specimens was imperfect. The resulting relationships help reconcile results from the large body of serological data generated during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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