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3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320153

Résumé

The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted profound effects on parents, which may translate into elevated child abuse risk. Prior literature demonstrates that Social Information Processing theory is a useful framework for understanding the cognitive processes that can contribute to parental abuse risk, but the model has not adequately integrated affective processes that may coincide with such cognitions. Given that parents are experiencing intense emotions during the pandemic, the current study sought to examine how socio-emotional processes might account for abuse risk during the pandemic (perceived pandemic-related increases in harsh parenting, reported physical and psychological aggression, and child abuse potential). A sample of 304 mothers participated in an online study, reporting on their abuse risk as well as a number of socio-emotional processes. Greater approval of physical discipline and weaker anger regulation abilities were directly or indirectly related to measures of abuse risk during the pandemic, with maternal justification to use parent-child aggression to ensure obedience consistently relating to all indicators of abuse risk during the pandemic. Socio-emotional processes that include anger appear particularly relevant during the heightened period of strain induced by the pandemic. By studying multiple factors simultaneously, the current findings can inform child abuse prevention efforts.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320152

Résumé

Purpose: Preliminary research early in the COVID-19 pandemic suggested children appeared to be at increased risk for child maltreatment, particularly as parents struggled with mental health and economic strains. To identify the potential affective elements that may contribute to such increased maltreatment risk, the current study focused on whether maternal worry about children’s behavior specifically and maternal anger were related to increased risk for neglect or physical or psychological aggression six months into the pandemic. Method: The racially diverse sample included 193 mothers who completed an online survey during late September-early October 2020. Results: Mothers’ reported increases in neglect and physical and psychological aggression during the pandemic were significantly related with established measures of maltreatment risk. Furthermore, path models indicated that maternal anger and worry about children’s behavior, as well as their interaction, were significantly related to indicators of physical aggression risk and neglect during the pandemic, but only maternal anger related to increased psychological aggression during the pandemic. Conclusions: Maternal worry and anger about children’s behavior may be exacerbating risk for maltreatment under the stressful conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings suggest affective reactions of both parental worry and anger focused on child behavior warrants greater empirical attention and consideration in intervention efforts.

5.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):914-915, 2021.
Article Dans Anglais | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584315

Résumé

The COVID-19 pandemic has created challenges and opportunities for research. This is especially true for research on essential workers, such as hospital nurses. In adaptation to the pandemic, the current study aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a fully remote study to collect data on psychological and behavioral measures such as daily stress and sleep, utilizing ecological momentary assessments (EMA) and sleep actigraphy. Our remote study protocol was conducted through a web platform that provided detailed video and written instructions regarding the study and facilitated virtual onboarding meetings with participants. Outpatient day shift nurses (n=86) responded to a background survey, 84 of whom completed 14 days of EMA and sleep actigraphy. Feasibility was assessed by compliance rates to the 14-day study protocol. Acceptability was assessed by analyzing qualitative feedback provided during onboarding meetings (n=82). The compliance rates of EMA (91.8%) and actigraphy (97.9%) were high. The EMA compliance was higher than that from a pre-COVID, non-remote study of inpatient day shift nurses from the same hospital (86.6%, p=.030). Themes from content analysis were mostly positive with 51.2% reporting “easy, clear, simple onboarding process” and 16.3% reporting “helpful website”. Only six participants provided solely negative feedback (e.g., “communication problems” or “technical difficulties/preferences”). Our remote study protocol was feasible and well-accepted by nurses. A similar methodology could be used in studies on broader healthcare workers and those caring for aging populations to better understand their unique challenges and develop effective strategies to help them, both during and after the pandemic.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291345

Résumé

Stringent public health measures imposed across Canada to control the COVID-19 pandemic have nearly suppressed most seasonal respiratory viruses, with the notable exception of human rhinovirus/enterovirus (hRV/EV). Thanks to this unexpected persistence, we highlight that hRV/EV could serve as a sentinel for levels of contact rate in populations to inform on the efficiency¬, or the need of, public health measures to control the subsequent COVID-19 epidemic, but also for future epidemics from other seasonal or emerging respiratory pathogens.

7.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21262715

Résumé

Although the respiratory tract is the primary site of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the ensuing immunopathology, respiratory immune responses are understudied and urgently needed to understand mechanisms underlying COVID-19 disease pathogenesis. We collected paired longitudinal blood and respiratory tract samples (endotracheal aspirate, sputum or pleural fluid) from hospitalized COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19 controls. Cellular, humoral and cytokine responses were analysed and correlated with clinical data. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies were detected using ELISA and multiplex assay in both the respiratory tract and blood of COVID-19 patients, although a higher receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific IgM and IgG seroconversion level was found in respiratory specimens. SARS-CoV-2 neutralization activity in respiratory samples was detected only when high levels of RBD-specific antibodies were present. Strikingly, cytokine/chemokine levels and profiles greatly differed between respiratory samples and plasma, indicating that inflammation needs to be assessed in respiratory specimens for the accurate assessment of SARS-CoV-2 immunopathology. Diverse immune cell subsets were detected in respiratory samples, albeit dominated by neutrophils. Importantly, we also showed that dexamethasone and/or remdesivir treatment did not affect humoral responses in blood of COVID-19 patients. Overall, our study unveils stark differences in innate and adaptive immune responses between respiratory samples and blood and provides important insights into effect of drug therapy on immune responses in COVID-19 patients.

8.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20126813

Résumé

Summary ParagraphDespite social distancing and shelter-in-place policies, COVID-19 continues to spread in the United States. A lack of timely information about factors influencing COVID-19 spread and testing has hampered agile responses to the pandemic. We developed How We Feel, an extensible web and mobile application that aggregates self-reported survey responses, to fill gaps in the collection of COVID-19-related data. How We Feel collects longitudinal and geographically localized information on users health, behavior, and demographics. Here we report results from over 500,000 users in the United States from April 2, 2020 to May 12, 2020. We show that self-reported surveys can be used to build predictive models of COVID-19 test results, which may aid in identification of likely COVID-19 positive individuals. We find evidence among our users for asymptomatic or presymptomatic presentation, as well as for household and community exposure, occupation, and demographics being strong risk factors for COVID-19. We further reveal factors for which users have been SARS-CoV-2 PCR tested, as well as the temporal dynamics of self-reported symptoms and self-isolation behavior in positive and negative users. These results highlight the utility of collecting a diverse set of symptomatic, demographic, and behavioral self-reported data to fight the COVID-19 pandemic.

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