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Preprint Dans Anglais | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-463779

Résumé

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication transcription complex (RTC) is a multi-domain protein responsible for replicating and transcribing the viral mRNA inside a human cell. Attacking RTC function with pharmaceutical compounds is a pathway to treating COVID-19. Conventional tools, e.g., cryo-electron microscopy and all-atom molecular dynamics (AAMD), do not provide sufficiently high resolution or timescale to capture important dynamics of this molecular machine. Consequently, we develop an innovative workflow that bridges the gap between these resolutions, using mesoscale fluctuating finite element analysis (FFEA) continuum simulations and a hierarchy of AI-methods that continually learn and infer features for maintaining consistency between AAMD and FFEA simulations. We leverage a multi-site distributed workflow manager to orchestrate AI, FFEA, and AAMD jobs, providing optimal resource utilization across HPC centers. Our study provides unprecedented access to study the SARS-CoV-2 RTC machinery, while providing general capability for AI-enabled multi-resolution simulations at scale.

2.
Preprint Dans Anglais | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-357350

Résumé

Infection of human cells by the SARS-CoV2 relies on its binding to a specific receptor and subsequent fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. The fusion peptide (FP), a short peptide segment in the spike protein, plays a central role in the initial penetration of the virus into the host cell membrane, followed by the fusion of the two membranes. Here, we use an array of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations taking advantage of the Highly Mobile Membrane Mimetic (HMMM) model, to investigate the interaction of the SARS-CoV2 FP with a lipid bilayer representing mammalian cellular membranes at an atomic level, and to characterize the membrane-bound form of the peptide. Six independent systems were generated by changing the initial positioning and orientation of the FP with respect to the membrane, and each system was simulated in five independent replicas, each for 300 ns. In 73% of the simulations, the FP reaches a stable, membrane-bound configuration where the peptide deeply penetrated into the membrane. Clustering of the results reveals three major membrane binding modes (binding modes 1-3) where binding mode 1 populates over half of the data points. Taking into account the sequence conservation among the viral FPs and the results of mutagenesis studies establishing the role of specific residues in the helical portion of the FP in membrane association, the significant depth of penetration of the whole peptide, and the dense population of the respective cluster, we propose that the most deeply inserted membrane-bound form (binding mode 1) represents more closely the biologically relevant form. Analysis of FP-lipid interactions shows the involvement of specific residues, previously described as the "fusion active core residues", in membrane binding. Taken together, the results shed light on a key step involved in SARS-CoV2 infection with potential implications in designing novel inhibitors. SignificanceA key step in cellular infection by the SARS-CoV2 virus is its attachment to and penetration into the plasma membrane of human cells. These processes hinge upon the membrane interaction of the viral fusion peptide, a segment exposed by the spike protein upon its conformational changes after encountering the host cell. In this study, using molecular dynamics simulations, we describe how the fusion peptide from the SARS-CoV2 virus binds human cellular membranes and characterize, at an atomic level, lipid-protein interactions important for the stability of its membrane-bound state.

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