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2.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e050417, 2022 06 09.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891816

Résumé

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant changes to family life, society and essential health and other services. A rapid review of evidence was conducted to examine emerging evidence on the effects of the pandemic on three components of nurturing care, including responsive caregiving, early learning, and safety and security. DESIGN: Two academic databases, organisational websites and reference lists were searched for original studies published between 1 January and 25 October 2020. A single reviewer completed the study selection and data extraction with verification by a second reviewer. INTERVENTIONS: We included studies with a complete methodology and reporting on quantitative or qualitative evidence related to nurturing care during the pandemic. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Studies reporting on outcomes related to responsive caregiving, early learning, and safety and security were included. RESULTS: The search yielded 4410 citations in total, and 112 studies from over 30 countries met our eligibility criteria. The early evidence base is weighted towards studies in high-income countries, studies related to caregiver mental health and those using quantitative survey designs. Studies reveal issues of concern related to increases in parent and caregiver stress and mental health difficulties during the pandemic, which was linked to harsher and less warm or responsive parenting in some studies. A relatively large number of studies examined child safety and security and indicate a reduction in maltreatment referrals. Lastly, studies suggest that fathers' engagement in caregiving increased during the early phase of the pandemic, children's outdoor play and physical activity decreased (while screen time increased), and emergency room visits for child injuries decreased. CONCLUSION: The results highlight key evidence gaps (ie, breastfeeding support and opportunities for early learning) and suggest the need for increased support and evidence-based interventions to ensure young children and other caregivers are supported and protected during the pandemic.


Sujets)
, Aidants/psychologie , Enfant , Enfant d'âge préscolaire , Humains , Pandémies , Pratiques éducatives parentales , Parents
3.
Bull Natl Res Cent ; 46(1): 47, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841085

Résumé

Background: The World Health Organization declared the outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) as a global health emergency on January 30, 2020, and as a pandemic disease on March 11, 2020. This review highlights the international situation, risk factors, and related protections to be taken as prerequisite measures and probable treatment options for the COVID-19-infected population in the current scenario. Main text: The SARS-CoV-2 viruses and their variants caused mild-to-severe respiratory tract infection and used airborne pathways as a way of contagion. Human-to-human transmission led to an exponential growth in the rise in the number of cases making it a real burden to immobilize the rapid spread of the virus while asymptomatic patients created ambiguity for confirmation in the community. It was clear from the case studies of patients that most of them were asymptomatic but still vulnerable to the people around, and hence, in a flash, many countries around the globe went into a complete lockdown, influencing the economy and thrashing industrial outputs. On the other hand, numerous researches were made to counteract the spread through studies in antiviral therapy, immune-based therapy, vaccination development, and natural remedies. Conclusion: Although exploration for a specific drug required for the COVID-19 treatment is under extensive research worldwide and some of them are in clinical trial now. Virtual drug library screening is one of the current techniques for repurposing accessible compounds. This review could provide beneficial information about the potential current and future treatment strategies to treat the pandemic COVID-19 infection.

6.
Neurology ; 97(23): e2269-e2281, 2021 12 07.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463290

Résumé

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: One year after the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we aimed to summarize the frequency of neurologic manifestations reported in patients with COVID-19 and to investigate the association of these manifestations with disease severity and mortality. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Medline, Cochrane library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and EMBASE for studies from December 31, 2019, to December 15, 2020, enrolling consecutive patients with COVID-19 presenting with neurologic manifestations. Risk of bias was examined with the Joanna Briggs Institute scale. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed, and pooled prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for neurologic manifestations. Odds ratio (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated to determine the association of neurologic manifestations with disease severity and mortality. Presence of heterogeneity was assessed with I 2, meta-regression, and subgroup analyses. Statistical analyses were conducted in R version 3.6.2. RESULTS: Of 2,455 citations, 350 studies were included in this review, providing data on 145,721 patients with COVID-19, 89% of whom were hospitalized. Forty-one neurologic manifestations (24 symptoms and 17 diagnoses) were identified. Pooled prevalence of the most common neurologic symptoms included fatigue (32%), myalgia (20%), taste impairment (21%), smell impairment (19%), and headache (13%). A low risk of bias was observed in 85% of studies; studies with higher risk of bias yielded higher prevalence estimates. Stroke was the most common neurologic diagnosis (pooled prevalence 2%). In patients with COVID-19 ≥60 years of age, the pooled prevalence of acute confusion/delirium was 34%, and the presence of any neurologic manifestations in this age group was associated with mortality (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.11-2.91). DISCUSSION: Up to one-third of patients with COVID-19 analyzed in this review experienced at least 1 neurologic manifestation. One in 50 patients experienced stroke. In those >60 years of age, more than one-third had acute confusion/delirium; the presence of neurologic manifestations in this group was associated with nearly a doubling of mortality. Results must be interpreted with the limitations of observational studies and associated bias in mind. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020181867.


Sujets)
/épidémiologie , Délire avec confusion/épidémiologie , Accident vasculaire cérébral/épidémiologie , /complications , /mortalité , Délire avec confusion/complications , Délire avec confusion/mortalité , Humains , Études observationnelles comme sujet , SARS-CoV-2/pathogénicité , Accident vasculaire cérébral/complications
7.
Alzheimer's & Dementia ; 16(S6):e047721, 2020.
Article Dans Anglais | Wiley | ID: covidwho-959104

Résumé

Abstract Background The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 is focusing all energies on the impact on survival of affected individuals, treatment and prevention, but increasingly attention is focusing on its enduring consequences. We established a global consortium to study a longitudinal representative cohort of individuals, to characterize neurological and neuropsychiatric sequalae from direct viral, immune-, vascular- or accelerated neurodegenerative injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Method We propose to characterize the neurobehavioral phenomenology associated with SARS-CoV-2 in a large, multinational, longitudinal cohort of post COVID-19 infection patients following three sampling strategies: 1) Opportunity sample of patients discharged after hospital admission for COVID-19 related symptoms. 2) A stratified random sample from COVID-19 testing registries (including asymptomatic and negative participants). 3) Ascertaining COVID-19 exposure (antibody) status in ongoing longitudinal, community-based cohort studies that are already collecting biosamples, cognitive, behavioral and neuroimaging data. We will obtain core data within 6 months of discharge or testing. Core characterization will include interviews with the Schedules of Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), neurological exams, emotional reactivity scales and a neurocognitive assessment. Wherever feasible, we will also collect neuroimaging, biosamples and genetic data. Longitudinal follow up will be conducted at 9 and 18 months of the initial evaluation. An mHealth keeping-in-touch process will be set up to minimize attrition rates. The population cohorts provide a large, unbiased, normative and validation sample, albeit with more heterogenous outcome ascertainment. They also permit examination of pre- and post-COVID trends in symptoms and biomarkers. Since some ethnic groups, as well as in individuals with blood type A, are at higher risk of COVID-19 infection and death, a role of genetics in determining susceptibility to infection and poor outcomes seems well supported. We will collect genome-wide genotypes from our cohort individuals to address the role of ancestry and genetic variation on susceptibility to neuropsychiatric sequelae. High rates of mutation in COVID-19 strongly suggest that viral infectivity, including neurotropism, may not be uniform across countries affected by the pandemic. Results Pending. Conclusion Our consortium is in a unique position to address the interaction between genetics (including ancestral DNA), and viral strain variation on CNS sequelae of SARS-CoV-2.

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