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1.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22279589

Résumé

BACKGROUNDThe rising breakthrough infections caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, especially Omicron and its sub-lineages, have raised an urgent need to develop broad-spectrum vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We have developed a mosaic-type recombinant vaccine candidate, named NVSI-06-09, having immune potentials against a broad range of SARS-CoV-2 variants. METHODSAn ongoing randomized, double-blind, controlled phase 2 trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of NVSI-06-09 as a booster dose in subjects aged 18 years and older from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), who had completed two or three doses of BBIBP-CorV vaccinations at least 6 months prior to the enrollment. The participants were randomly assigned with 1:1 to receive a booster dose of NVSI-06-09 or BBIBP-CorV. The primary outcomes were immunogenicity and safety against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, and the exploratory outcome was cross-immunogenicity against other circulating strains. RESULTSA total of 516 participants received booster vaccination. Interim results showed a similar safety profile between NVSI-06-09 and BBIBP-CorV booster groups, with low incidence of adverse reactions of grade 1 or 2. For immunogenicity, by day 14 after the booster vaccination, the fold rises in neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) from baseline level elicited by NVSI-06-09 were remarkably higher than those by BBIBP-CorV against the prototype strain (19.67 vs 4.47-fold), Omicron BA.1.1 (42.35 vs 3.78-fold), BA.2 (25.09 vs 2.91-fold), BA.4 (22.42 vs 2.69-fold), and BA.5 variants (27.06 vs 4.73-fold). Similarly, the neutralizing GMTs boosted by NVSI-06-09 against Beta and Delta variants were also 6.60-fold and 7.17-fold higher than those boosted by BBIBP-CorV. CONCLUSIONSA booster dose of NVSI-06-09 was well-tolerated and elicited broad-spectrum neutralizing responses against SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain and immune-evasive variants, including Omicron and its sub-lineages. The immunogenicity of NVSI-06-09 as a booster vaccine was superior to that of BBIBP-CorV. (Funded by LIBP and BIBP of Sinopharm; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT05293548).

2.
Viruses ; 14(8):1744, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1979415

Résumé

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been endemic in most parts of the world since its emergence in the 1970s. It infects the small intestine and intestinal villous cells, spreads rapidly, and causes infectious intestinal disease characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration, leading to high mortality in newborn piglets and causing massive economic losses to the pig industry. The entry of PEDV into cells is mediated by the binding of its spike protein (S protein) to a host cell receptor. Here, we review the structure of PEDV, its strains, and the structure and function of the S protein shared by coronaviruses, and summarize the progress of research on possible host cell receptors since the discovery of PEDV.

3.
Building and Environment ; : 109444, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1977087

Résumé

Public open spaces are important assets that play a significant role in city lives, based on which a great number of behaviour-based studies are being conducted. These studies often use one or more case studies to observe people's preferences and usage habits and to investigate their influencing factors such as outdoor thermal comfort, environmental conditions, urban configuration, and local settings. Because the subject is complex and falls within the purview of multiple academic disciplines, it is a challenging task to understand the current status and development trends of existing studies. To fill this gap, this article presents a systematic review of quantitative evidence-based behaviour studies in public open spaces. Following the PRISMA method and searching using eight academic search engines, full texts of 116 research articles have been included for this review. The main contributions of this review are that: (1) it proposed a relatively complete system that categorizes people's behaviour in public open spaces;(2) it introduced outdoor subjective influencing procedure including behaviour, feeling and health impacts;(3) the review illustrated the distribution of existing research as well as research trends;and finally (4) the article also timely discussed the influence of the COVID-19 on people's behaviour in public open spaces. The authors consider this article to be useful as it can facilitate further behaviour-based studies in public open spaces. With a robust classification and future trend discussion of factors associated, fellow researchers, urban designers, city managers, and policymakers are easier to integrate and use the knowledge learned.

4.
Atmospheric Environment ; : 119310, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1977053

Résumé

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important target for monitoring atmospheric quality. Deriving ground-level NO2 concentrations with much finer resolution, it requires high-resolution satellite tropospheric NO2 column as input and a reliable estimation algorithm. This paper aims to estimate the daily ground-level NO2 concentrations over China based on machine learning models and the TROPOMI NO2 data with high spatial resolution. In this study, four tree-based algorithm machine learning models, decision trees (DT), gradient boost decision tree (GBDT), random forest (RF) and extra-trees (ET), were used to estimate ground-level NO2 concentrations. In addition to considering many influencing factors of the ground-level NO2 concentrations, we especially introduced simplified temporal and spatial information into the estimation models. The results show that the extra-trees with spatial and temporal information (ST-ET) model has great performance in estimating ground-level NO2 concentrations with a cross-validation R2 of 0.81 and RMSE of 3.45 μg/m3 in test datasets. The estimated results for 2019 based on the ST-ET model achieves a satisfactory accuracy with a cross-validation R2 of 0.86 compared with the other models. Through time-space analysis and comparison, it was found that the estimated high-resolution results were consistent with the ground observed NO2 concentrations. Using data from January 2020 to test the prediction power of the models, the results indicate that the ST-ET model has a good performance in predicting ground-level NO2 concentrations. Taking four ground-level NO2 concentrations hotspots as examples, the estimated ground-level NO2 concentrations and ground-based observation data during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic were lower compared with the same period in 2019. The findings offer a solid solution for accurately and efficiently estimating ground-level NO2 concentrations by using satellite observations, and provide useful information for improving our understanding of the regional atmospheric environment.

5.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970641

Résumé

The metabolic characteristics of COVID-19 disease are still largely unknown. Here, 44 patients with COVID-19 (31 mild COVID-19 patients and 13 severe COVID-19 patients), 42 healthy controls (HC), and 42 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), were involved in the study to assess their serum metabolomic profiles. We used widely targeted metabolomics based on an ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The differentially expressed metabolites in the plasma of mild and severe COVID-19 patients, CAP patients, and HC subjects were screened, and the main metabolic pathways involved were analyzed. Multiple mature machine learning algorithms confirmed that the metabolites performed excellently in discriminating COVID-19 groups from CAP and HC subjects, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 1. The specific dysregulation of AMP, dGMP, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and carnitine was observed in the severe COVID-19 group. Moreover, random forest analysis suggested that these metabolites could discriminate between severe COVID-19 patients and mild COVID-19 patients, with an AUC of 0.921. This study may broaden our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19 and may offer an experimental basis for developing novel treatment strategies against it.

6.
Frontiers in microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1905184

Résumé

Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is a member of the genus Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae. It causes acute watery diarrhoea and vomiting in piglets with high a mortality rate. Currently, the GII genotype, PEDV, possesses a high separation rate in wild strains and is usually reported in immunity failure cases, which indicates a need for a portable and sensitive detection method. Here, reverse transcription–recombinase aided amplification (RT-RAA) was combined with the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)/Cas12a system to establish a multiplexable, rapid and portable detection platform for PEDV. The CRISPR RNA (crRNA) against Spike (S) gene of GII PEDV specifically were added into the protocol. This system is suitable for different experimental conditions, including ultra-sensitive fluorescence, visual, UV light, or flow strip detection. Moreover, it exhibits high sensitivity and specificity and can detect at least 100 copies of the target gene in each reaction. The CRISPR/Cas12a detection platform requires less time and represents a rapid, reliable and practical tool for the rapid diagnosis of GII genotype PEDV.

7.
Energy Economics ; 112:106120, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1895018

Résumé

The purpose of this article is to investigate whether various uncertainty measures provide incremental information for the prediction the volatility of crude oil futures under high-frequency heterogeneous autoregressive (HAR) model specifications. Moreover, by considering the information overlap among various uncertainty measures and fully using of the information in various uncertainty measures, this paper uses two prevailing shrinkage methods, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) and elastic nets, to select uncertainty variables during the entire sampling period, before the COVID-19 pandemic and during the COVID-19 pandemic and then uses the HAR model to predict crude oil volatility. The results show that (i) uncertainty measures can be utilized to predict crude oil volatility under the high-frequency framework in both in-sample and out-of-sample analyses. (ii) Because of the information overlap between various uncertainty measures, adding a large number of uncertain variables to the HAR model may not significantly improve the volatility prediction. (iii) Before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) crude oil volatility (OVX) has the greatest impact on crude oil volatility, infectious disease equity market volatility (EMV) exerts a significant influence on crude oil futures volatility forecasts during the COVID-19 period, and CBOE implied volatility (VIX) and the financial stress index (FSI) have substantial impacts on crude oil futures volatility forecasts before COVID-19.

8.
Preprint Dans Anglais | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-486173

Résumé

Large-scale populations in the world have been vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines, however, breakthrough infections of SARS-CoV-2 are still growing rapidly due to the emergence of immune-evasive variants, especially Omicron. It is urgent to develop effective broad-spectrum vaccines to better control the pandemic of these variants. Here, we present a mosaic-type trimeric form of spike receptor-binding domain (mos-tri-RBD) as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate, which carries the key mutations from Omicron and other circulating variants. Tests in rats showed that the designed mos-tri-RBD, whether used alone or as a booster shot, elicited potent cross-neutralizing antibodies against not only Omicron but also other immune-evasive variants. Neutralizing antibody titers induced by mos-tri-RBD were substantially higher than those elicited by homo-tri-RBD (containing homologous RBDs from prototype strain) or the inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV. Our study indicates that mos-tri-RBD is highly immunogenic, which may serve as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate in combating SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicron.

9.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22272589

Résumé

Point-of-care (POC) nucleic acid detection technologies are poised to aid gold-standard technologies in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, yet shortcomings in the capability to perform critically needed complex detection--such as multiplexed detection for viral variant surveillance--may limit their widespread adoption. Herein, we developed a robust multiplexed CRISPR-based detection using LwaCas13a and PsmCas13b to simultaneously diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection and pinpoint the causative SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC)-- including globally dominant VOCs Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (B.1.1.529)--all while maintaining high levels of accuracy upon the detection of multiple SARS-CoV-2 gene targets. The platform has several attributes suitable for POC use: premixed, freeze-dried reagents for easy use and storage; convenient direct-to-eye or smartphone-based readouts; and a one-pot variant of the multiplexed detection. To reduce reliance on proprietary reagents and enable sustainable use of such a technology in low- and middle-income countries, we locally produced and formulated our own recombinase polymerase amplification reaction and demonstrated its equivalent efficiency to commercial counterparts. Our tool--CRISPR-based detection for simultaneous COVID-19 diagnosis and variant surveillance which can be locally manufactured--may enable sustainable use of CRISPR diagnostics technologies for COVID- 19 and other diseases in POC settings.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316997

Résumé

Objective: To clarify the clinical and medical expense characteristics of COVID-19. Methods: : In this retrospective, single-center study, 55 cured cases with confirmed COVID-19 were analyzed for demographic, epidemiological, clinical, and radiological features and medical expense data. Results: : The average age of the 54 successfully treated patients with COVID-19 was 53.2 years old (SD 19.0), including 27 men and 27 women. Off this, 31 (57.4%) patients had chronic diseases. Patients commonly had clinical manifestations of fever (45 [83.3%] patients), cough (29[54.7%] patients), expectoration (28 [51.9%] patients), fatigue (24[44.4%] patients) and diarrhea (8[14.8%] patients) on admission. There was a 10-day interval from the onset of signs and symptoms to hospital admission. About 80% of them got recovery after a two-week treatment. The mean interval from the onset of signs and symptoms to hospital discharge was 20.5 (IQR 16-29) days. The median total medical expense of the treated patient, in general, was 2579.6 (IQR 1366.1-4837.6) U.S. dollars. Still, the median medical expense was 8904.1 (IQR 6660.1- 27143.8) U.S. dollars in patients with more than five comorbid illnesses during the treatment. Conclusion: There is a 3-week interval from the onset of signs and symptoms to cure, and most hospitalized patients get recovery within two weeks. The total medical expense of cases with more than five comorbid conditions during the treatment is higher. Quite a few COVID-19 cases with other serious diseases are likely to account for most of the total medical expenses.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315661

Résumé

Background: Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPDD) is a Chinese medicine compound formula recommended for combating corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. This study aims to identify the main constituents in QFPDD and the absorbed components (including prototypes and metabolites) in serum and tissues after oral administration of QFPDD to mice. Methods: : A practical and sensitive method of UHPLC-Q-Exactive-Orbitrap HRMS was developed to identify the chemical constituents in QFPDD and the absorbed prototypes as well as the metabolites in mice serum and tissues following oral administration of QFPDD. Results: : A total of 405 chemicals, including 40 kinds of alkaloids, 162 kinds of flavonoids, 44 kinds of organic acids, 71 kinds of triterpene saponins and 88 kinds of other compounds in the water extract of QFPDD were tentatively identified via comparison with the retention times and MS/MS spectra of the standards or refereed by literature. With the help of the standards and in vitro metabolites, 195 chemical components (including 104 prototypes and 91 metabolites) were identified in mice serum after oral administration of QFPDD. In addition, 165, 177, 112, 120, 44, 53 constituents were identified in the lung, liver, heart, kidney, brain, and spleen of QFPDD-treated mice, respectively. Conclusions: : An UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS based method was established for chemical profiling the constituents in QFPDD, while the absorbed prototypes and metabolites occurring in mice serum and tissues were investigated following oral administration of QFPDD. These findings provided key information and guidance for further investigation on the pharmacologically active substances and clinical applications of QFPDD.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325034

Résumé

Background: A large-scale global outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) out of Wuhan, from China, occurred in January 2020. Objective: To examine the clinical characteristics of COVID-19in infected patients out of Wuhan, from China. Patients and Methods: Thirteen patients were confirmed to be infected with novel coronavirus-2019 (2019-nCoV) between January 27andFebruary 8, 2020, in Baoji city, Shanxi, northwestern China. Epidemiological and clinical information, and computed to morphology imaging data from all COVID-19 patients were collected;cases were divided into two groups according to the severity of infection (mild or severe). Results: : Nine (9/13) COVID-19patientsexhibitedmild disease severity, and defined as second-generation, human-to-human transmission cases. Most patients (11/13) had a history of travel to or from Wuhan. There were no differences in sex and age between the mild and severe cases (all P >0.05). A moderate degree of fever (11/13), cough (13/13), and fatigue (8/13) were common symptoms;however, there was no statistical difference between mild and severe cases in this regard (all P >0.05). Oxyhemoglobin saturation and oxygenation index decreased, and C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) levels were elevated in all patients with COVID-19infection, with statistically significant differences between those with severe disease and mild infection (all P <0.05).Twelve of 13COVID-19patients exhibited changes in chest CT imaging features, and time course changes were different between mild and severe cases (all P <0.05). Conclusion: Most cases of COVID-19infection were second-generation human-to-human transmissions from Wuhan and were mild in severity. The clinical characteristics of COVID-19varied.Oxyhemoglobin saturation, oxygenation index, CRP and SAA levels, and CT features were reliable parameters to evaluate the severity of COVID-19 infection. However, a few patients with mild COVID-19diseaselackedtypicalcharacteristics such as fever and changes in CT imaging features.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325027

Résumé

Background: The rapid spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), initially reported in the city of Wuhan in China, and quickly transmitted to the entire nation and beyond, has become an international public health emergency. Estimating the final number of infection cases and the turning point (time with the fastest spreading rate) is crucial to assessing and improving the national and international control measures currently being applied. Methods: We develop a simple model based on infectious growth with a time-varying infection rate, and estimate the final number of infections and the turning point using data updated daily from 3 February 2020, when China escalated its initial public health measures, to 10 February. Results: Our model provides an extremely good fit to the existing data and therefore a reasonable estimate of the time-varying infection rate that has largely captured the transmission pattern of this epidemic outbreak. Our estimation suggests that (i) the final number of infections in China could reach 78,000 with an upper 95% confidence limit of 88,880;(ii) the turning point of the fastest spread was on the 4th or the 5th of February;and (iii) the projected period for the end of the outbreak (i.e., when 95% of the final predicted number of infection is reached) will be the 24th of February, with an upper 95% confidence limit on the 19th of March. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the current control measures in China are excellent, and more than sufficient to contain the spread of this highly infectious novel coronavirus, and that the application of such measures could be considered internationally for the global control of this outbreak.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315242

Résumé

After fitting a topic model to 40,927 COVID-19-related paragraphs in 3,581 earnings calls over the period January 22 to April 30, 2020, we obtain firm-level measures of exposure and response related to COVID-19 for 2,894 U.S. firms. We show that despite the large negative impact of COVID-19 on their operations, firms with a strong corporate culture outperform their peers without a strong culture. Moreover, these firms are more likely to support their community, embrace digital transformation, and develop new products than those peers. We conclude that corporate culture is an intangible asset designed to meet unforeseen contingencies as they arise.

15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315064

Résumé

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has generated an unprecedented clinical research response, but the data about the characteristics of COVID-19-related clinical studies were scarce. The study aimed to describe the characteristics of COVID-19-related clinical studies registered at ClinicalTrials.gov and further identify factors affecting the recruitment and completeness of these studies. Methods: : The study extracted 5,672 studies and included 5,430 studies relating to COVID-19 registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. We presented the characteristics of all included clinical studies. Identification of risk factors for recruitment status was achieved using the multiple logistic regression models, and identification of risk factors for completion time was obtained using the multiple Cox proportional hazards regression models. Subgroup analyses were also performed in the interventional studies. Results: : Of the included studies, only 19.59% (1064/5430) had completed recruitment, and 55.93% (3037/5430) were interventional studies. The peak of the number of clinical studies relating to COVID-19 was seven months earlier than the first peak of the number of COVID-19 cases globally. In all included studies, participants only including male (P=0.02), Participants including child (P=0.01), smaller enrollment (P<0.01), and studies not being funded by industry (P=0.01) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (P<0.01), and observational studies (P<0.01) tended to be associated to higher completed recruitment rates. Regarding the interventional studies, Participants including child (P=0.04), smaller enrollment (P<0.01), a crossover intervention model (P<0.01), and primary purpose involving in device feasibility (P<0.01) and treatment (P=0.03) were associated with shorter completion time, while being funded by industry (P=0.01) and NIH (P<0.01), primary purpose involving in basic science (P<0.01), and biological interventions (P<0.01) were associated with longer completion time. Conclusion: A multitude of clinical studies relating to COVID-19 are registered in responding to the pandemic and the response is rapid and timely, but these clinical studies are frequently not completed. Increased focus on establishing global initiatives and networks to coordinate recruitment efforts may be needed. Several independent risk factors are identified to guide the design of COVID-19-related clinical studies. This may be significant to avoid waste and ensure that the participation of all participants in clinical researches contributes to the treatment or prevention of COVID-19.

16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311930

Résumé

Background: Social media analysis tools have been used to monitor public sentiment and communication methods during public health emergencies.Public health emergencies are required to better understand the impact of the crisis on the public and to provide reference material for the prevention of future public health emergencies. We are concentrating on the sentiments around the public health emergency created by COVID-19.ObjectiveThis study aims to better understand the impact of public health emergencies on citizens and provide reference material for future public health emergency prevention.MethodsThe Fuzzy-c-means method was used to divide the 850,083 content of Weibo from January 24, 2020, to March 31, 2020, into seven categories of emotions: fear, happiness, disgust, surprise, sadness, anger, and good. The changes in emotion were tracked over time.ResultsThe results indicated that people showed "surprise" overall (55.89%);however with time, the "surprise" decreased. As the knowledge regarding the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) increased (contents about COVID-19 knowledge: from 21.16% to 4.19%), the "surprise" of the citizens decreased (from 59.95% to 46.58%). Citizens' feelings of "fear" and "good" increased as the number of deaths associated with COVID-19 increased ("fear”: from 15.42% to 20.95% "good”: 10.31% to 18.89%). As the infection was suppressed, the feelings of "fear" and "good" diminished ("fear”: from 20.95% to 15.79% "good”: from 18.89% to 8.46%).ConclusionsIn this study, the emotions and changes in emotions of Weibo users were analyzed in chronological order. The results of this study can prepare for future public health emergencies.

17.
Zhongguo Bingdubing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Viral Diseases ; - (6):438, 2021.
Article Dans Anglais | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1675353

Résumé

:Objective To study the kinetics of IgM and IgG antibodies based on nucleocapsid(N) and spike(S) protein of SARS-Co V2-in COVID-19 patients. Methods Immunofluorescent kits were used to detect N and S protein specific IgM and IgG antibodies from Jan.21 to Feb.11, 2020 for the 60 hospitalized COVID-19 patients(48 mild, 12 severe cases) with a total of 290 plasma samples collected 9 weeks after the onset of the disease. Results The level of antibodies specific for S protein varied significantly with the course of disease(Ig M from 27.32 to 110.10 TU/ml, IgG from 56.85 to 135.00 TU/ml), but not for N protein.Higher level of Ig M/Ig G antibodies specific to S protein was observed during the 2-7 week than that to N protein.The seropositive rate of antibodies gradually increased during the early stage of disease.IgM/IgG antibodies specific to N protein changed from 12.50% at the first week to peak level(51.72% and 86.21% respectively) at the 4 th week and those for S protein from 25.00% and 14.58% to 100.00%, and then declined.The seropositive rate of Ig M antibody specific to S protein was higher than that for N protein during 2-8 th week and that for Ig G antibody at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 th week.The seropositive rate of Ig G antibody specific to N protein in severe patients at the third week was higher than that in mild patients(100.00% vs 59.52%,χ2=9.67, P=0.001 9), and the same as to Ig G antibody for S protein at the second week after disease onset(80.00% vs 46.58%, χ2=5.57, P=0.018 2). Conclusions SARS-Co V2-S protein can induc stronger antibody response than N protein, and the antibody level was related to the severity of the disease.

18.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-297104

Résumé

Background: The utilization of mobile health (m-health) has rapidly expanded during the COVID-19 pandemic, and there is still a lack of relevant clinical data pertaining to chronic low-back pain(CLBP)management. This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of m-health based exercise (via guidance plus education) versus exercise (via guidance) during CLBP management. Methods: : Participants (n = 40) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The intervention group received m-health based exercise (via guidance plus education), whereas the control group received m-health based exercise (via guidance). The exercise prescription video and educational content were sent to participants by the application (app), Ding Talk . Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test the baseline’s intervention effects, 6-week follow-up, and 18-week follow-up. We selected function(Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire)and pain intensity (current, mean, and most severe Numeric Rating Scale in the last 2 weeks)as the primary outcomes, changes of negative emotion (depression, anxious), and quality of life as the secondary outcomes. Results: : Time’s significant effect was found in pain, function, and health-related quality of life in both groups, but time did not show significant interaction effects. Participants were able to use m-based education with their anxiety and depression after treatment, but the relief only lasted until Week 6. No differences were found on the aspect of mental health-related quality of life. Conclusion: M-health based exercise (via guidance) is a convenient and effective method to treat CLBP. Additionally, plus education is more helpful in improving treatment adherence than guidance only. However, at the last follow-up(18-week), no significant differences were found between the intervention and control groups. Trial registration: The trial was prospectively registered with the Chinese Clinical Trials Registry Number: ChiCTR2000041459(12/26/2020).

19.
Journal of Advanced Transportation ; 2021, 2021.
Article Dans Anglais | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1556803

Résumé

To provide reliable traffic information and more convenient visual feedback to traffic managers and travelers, we proposed a prediction model that combines a neural network and a Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (MFD) for predicting the traffic state of regional road networks over long periods. The method is broadly divided into the following steps. To obtain the current traffic state of the road network, the traffic state efficiency index formula proposed in this paper is used to derive it, and the MFD of the current state is drawn by using the classification of the design speed and free flow speed of the classified road. Then, based on the collected data from the monitoring stations and the weighting formula of the grade roads, the problem of insufficient measured data is solved. Meanwhile, the prediction performance of NARX, LSTM, and GRU is experimentally compared with traffic prediction, and it is found that NARX NN can predict long-term flow and the prediction performance is slightly better than both LSTM and GRU models. Afterward, the predicted data from the four stations were integrated based on the classified road weighting formula. Finally, according to the traffic state classification interval, the traffic state of the road network for the next day is obtained from the current MFD, the predicted traffic flow, and the corresponding speed. The results indicate that the combination of the NARX NN with the MFD is an effective attempt to predict and describe the long-term traffic state at the macroscopic level.

20.
Preprint Dans Anglais | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-225151

Résumé

Cells must detect and respond to molecular events such as the presence or absence of specific small molecules. To accomplish this, cells have evolved methods to measure the presence and concentration of these small molecules in their environment and enact changes in gene expression or behavior. However, cells dont usually change their DNA in response to such outside stimuli. In this work, we have engineered a genetic circuit that can enact specific and controlled genetic changes in response to changing small molecule concentrations. Known DNA sequences can be repeatedly integrated into a genomic array such that their identity and order encodes information about past small molecule concentrations that the cell has experienced. To accomplish this, we use catalytically inactive CRISPR-Cas9 (dCas9) to bind to and block attachment sites for the integrase Bxb1. Therefore, through the co-expression of dCas9 and guide RNA, Bxb1 can be directed to integrate one of two engineered plasmids, which correspond to two orthogonal small molecule inducers that can be recorded with this system. We identified the optimal location of guide RNA binding to the Bxb1 attP integrase attachment site, and characterized the detection limits of the system by measuring the minimal small molecule concentration and shortest induction time necessary to produce measurable differences in array composition as read out by Oxford Nanopore long read sequencing technology.

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