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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 206-211, Feb. 2022. tab
Article Dans Anglais | WHO COVID, LILAS (Amériques) | ID: covidwho-1725082

Résumé

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: A multicentric, cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Coronavirus disease 2019 in medical students and residents from four universities and affiliated hospitals in Brazil. METHODS: A survey about contamination risk and symptoms was sent to all participants through email and WhatsApp. Prevalence was measured by the self-report of positive polymerase chain reaction or serological test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed, and odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated. RESULTS: Prevalence of infection by Sars-CoV-2 was 14.9% (151/1011). The disease was more prevalent in residents and interns than in undergraduate students. Contact with an infected relative outside the hospital or with colleagues without using personal protective equipment was associated with higher contamination. Contact with patients without wearing goggles and higher weekly frequency of contact were the two factors independently associated with the infection by Coronavirus disease 2019 in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Medical students, interns, and residents have a higher prevalence of Coronavirus disease 2019 than the general population, in which the last two groups are significantly at higher risk. Contacting patients at a higher weekly frequency increases the risk for infection. The use of goggles should be reinforced when contacting patients.


Sujets)
Humains , Étudiant médecine/statistiques et données numériques , /diagnostic , /étiologie , /prévention et contrôle , /épidémiologie , Internat et résidence/statistiques et données numériques , Écoles de médecine/statistiques et données numériques , Brésil/épidémiologie , Prévalence , Études transversales , Enquêtes et questionnaires , Facteurs de risque , Centres hospitaliers universitaires/statistiques et données numériques , Équipement de protection individuelle , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Preprint Dans Anglais | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-471045

Résumé

On the 24th November 2021 the sequence of a new SARS CoV-2 viral isolate spreading rapidly in Southern Africa was announced, containing far more mutations in Spike (S) than previously reported variants. Neutralization titres of Omicron by sera from vaccinees and convalescent subjects infected with early pandemic as well as Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta are substantially reduced or fail to neutralize. Titres against Omicron are boosted by third vaccine doses and are high in cases both vaccinated and infected by Delta. Mutations in Omicron knock out or substantially reduce neutralization by most of a large panel of potent monoclonal antibodies and antibodies under commercial development. Omicron S has structural changes from earlier viruses, combining mutations conferring tight binding to ACE2 to unleash evolution driven by immune escape, leading to a large number of mutations in the ACE2 binding site which rebalance receptor affinity to that of early pandemic viruses.

3.
J Virol Methods ; 300: 114382, 2022 02.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536941

Résumé

Until mass vaccination befalls, control of the new betacoronavirus-associated severe acute respiratory syndrome pandemic (SARS-CoV-2) is based on decreasing virus circulation by social distancing and blocking transmission foci after diagnosis. Globally adopted SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic criteria embrace viral RNA detection by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on nasopharynx secretions, which requires healthcare facilities and specialized personnel for sample collection. To develop an alternative protocol, hydrophilic cotton as the material and saliva as the source for biological sample collection in qRT-PCR/RT-endpoint-PCR SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic methods prepared with local consumables were evaluated using 99 archived nasopharynx samples previously diagnosed as positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 111 prospective saliva samples pared with nasopharynx samples from patients attending the local reference ABC Medical School diagnostic laboratory. The kappa agreement coefficient between the SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR and RT-endpoint-PCR was k = 0.97 (95 % CI 0.92-1.00) and k = 0.90 (95 % CI 0.81-0.99), respectively, on SARS-CoV-2-positive archived samples, with the initial qRT-PCR CT under 25. The agreement coefficient of the SARS-CoV-2 alternative saliva diagnostic protocol, when used to test the paired nasopharynx samples, was k = 0.79 (95 % CI 0.56-1,00). These data support that the SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic assay based on self-collected saliva on cotton represents an alternative protocol for mass diagnosis and epidemiological studies in low-income regions.


Sujets)
, SARS-CoV-2 , Humains , Partie nasale du pharynx , Pandémies , Études prospectives , ARN viral/génétique , Salive , Manipulation d'échantillons
4.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21266109

Résumé

The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern (VOC) Gamma during late 2020 and early 2021 in Brazilian settings with high seroprevalence raised some concern about the potential role of reinfections in driving the epidemic. Very few cases of reinfection associated with the VOC Gamma, however, have been reported. Here we describe 25 cases of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection confirmed by real-time RT-PCR twice within months apart in Brazil. SARS-CoV-2 genomic analysis confirmed that individuals were primo-infected between March and December 2020 with distinct viral lineages, including B.1.1, B.1.1.28, B.1.1.33, B.1.195 and P.2, and then reinfected with the VOC Gamma between 3 to 12 months after primo-infection. The overall mean cycle threshold (Ct) value of the first (25.7) and second (24.5) episodes were roughly similar for the whole group and 14 individuals displayed mean Ct values < 25.0 at reinfection. Sera of 14 patients tested by plaque reduction neutralization test after reinfection displayed detectable neutralizing antibodies against Gamma and other SARS-CoV-2 variants (B.1.33, B.1.1.28 and Delta). All individuals have milder or no symptoms after reinfection and none required hospitalization. The present study demonstrates that the VOC Gamma was associated with reinfections during the second Brazilian epidemic wave in 2021 and raised concern about the potential infectiousness of reinfected subjects. Although individuals here analyzed failed to mount a long-term sterilizing immunity, they developed a high anti-Gamma neutralizing antibody response after reinfection that may provide some protection against severe disease.

5.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21263453

Résumé

The Amazonas was one of the most heavily affected Brazilian states by the COVID-19 epidemic. Despite a large number of infected people, particularly during the second wave associated with the spread of the Variant of Concern (VOC) Gamma (lineage P.1), SARS-CoV-2 continues to circulate in the Amazonas. To understand how SARS-CoV-2 persisted in a human population with a high immunity barrier, we generated 1,188 SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequences from individuals diagnosed in the Amazonas state from 1st January to 6th July 2021, of which 38 were vaccine breakthrough infections. Our study reveals a sharp increase in the relative prevalence of Gamma plus (P.1+) variants, designated as Pango Lineages P.1.3 to P.1.6, harboring two types of additional Spike changes: deletions in the N-terminal (NTD) domain (particularly{Delta} 144 or{Delta} 141-144) associated with resistance to anti-NTD neutralizing antibodies or mutations at the S1/S2 junction (N679K or P681H) that probably enhance the binding affinity to the furin cleavage site, as suggested by our molecular dynamics simulations. As lineages P.1.4 (S:N679K) and P.1.6 (S:P681H) expanded (Re > 1) from March to July 2021, the lineage P.1 declined (Re < 1) and the median Ct value of SARS-CoV-2 positive cases in Amazonas significantly decreases. Still, we found no overrepresentation of P.1+ variants among breakthrough cases of fully vaccinated patients (71%) in comparison to unvaccinated individuals (93%). This evidence supports that the ongoing endemic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the Amazonas is driven by the spread of new local Gamma/P.1 sub-lineages that are more transmissible, although not more efficient to evade vaccine-elicited immunity than the parental VOC. Finally, as SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread in human populations with a declining density of susceptible hosts, the risk of selecting new variants with higher infectivity are expected to increase.

6.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21253946

Résumé

Mutations at both the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the amino (N)-terminal domain (NTD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) glycoprotein can alter its antigenicity and promote immune escape. We identified that SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in Brazil with mutations of concern in the RBD independently acquired convergent deletions and insertions in the NTD of the S protein, which altered the NTD antigenic-supersite and other predicted epitopes at this region. These findings support that the ongoing widespread transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil is generating new viral lineages that might be more resistant to neutralization than parental variants of concern.

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