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1.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22272426

Résumé

BackgroundIt is unclear whether a third dose of mRNA platform vaccines, or antibody response to prior infection or vaccination confer protection from the Omicron variant among patients receiving dialysis. MethodsMonthly since February 2021, we tested plasma from 4,697 patients receiving dialysis for antibodies to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. We assessed semiquantitative median IgG index values over time among patients vaccinated with at least one dose of the two mRNA vaccines. We ascertained documented COVID-19 diagnoses after December 25, 2021 and up to January 31, 2022. We estimated the relative risk for documented SARS-CoV-2 infection by vaccination status using a log-binomial model accounting for age, sex, and prior clinical COVID-19. Among patients with RBD IgG index value available during December 1-December 24, 2021, we also evaluated the association between the circulating RBD IgG titer and risk for Omicron variant SARS-CoV-2 infection. ResultsOf the 4,697 patients we followed with monthly RBD assays, 3576 are included in the main analysis cohort; among these, 852 (24%) were unvaccinated. Antibody response to third doses was robust (median peak index IgG value at assay limit of 150, equivalent to 3270 binding antibody units/mL). Between December 25-January 31, 2022, SARS-CoV-2 infection was documented 340 patients (7%), 115 (36%) of whom were hospitalized. The final doses of vaccines were given a median of 272 (25th, 75th percentile, 245-303) days and 58 (25th, 75th percentile, 51-95) days prior to infection for the 1-2 dose and 3 dose vaccine groups respectively. Relative risks for infection were higher among patients without vaccination (RR 2.1 [95%CI 1.6, 2.8]), and patients with 1-2 doses (RR 1.3 [95%CI 1.0, 1.8]), compared with patients with three doses of the mRNA vaccines. Relative risks for infection were higher among patients with RBD index values < 23 (506 BAU/mL), compared with RBD index value [≥] 23 (RR 2.4 [95%CI 1.9, 3.0]). The higher risk for infection among patients with RBD index values < 23 was present among patients who received three doses (RR 2.1 [95%CI 1.3, 3.4]). ConclusionsAmong patients receiving hemodialysis, patients unvaccinated, without a third mRNA vaccine dose, or those lacking robust circulating antibody response are at higher risk for Omicron variant infection. Low circulating antibodies could identify the subgroup needing intensified surveillance, prophylaxis or treatment in this patient population.

2.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22269670

Résumé

SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells are likely important in immunity against COVID-19, but our understanding of CD4+ longitudinal dynamics following infection and specific features that correlate with the maintenance of neutralizing antibodies remains limited. We characterized SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells in a longitudinal cohort of 109 COVID-19 outpatients. The quality of the SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ response shifted from cells producing IFN{gamma} to TNF+ from five days to four months post-enrollment, with IFN{gamma}-IL21-TNF+ CD4+ T cells the predominant population detected at later timepoints. Greater percentages of IFN{gamma}-IL21-TNF+ CD4+ T cells on day 28 correlated with SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies measured seven months post-infection ({rho}=0.4, P=0.01). mRNA vaccination following SARS-CoV-2 infection boosted both IFN{gamma} and TNF producing, spike protein-specific CD4+ T cells. These data suggest that SARS-CoV-2-specific, TNF-producing CD4+ T cells may play an important role in antibody maintenance following COVID-19.

3.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21267565

Résumé

ImportanceUnderstanding how SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence varies regionally across California is critical to the public health response to the pandemic. ObjectiveTo estimate how many Californians have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 from prior infection or vaccination. DesignWave 1 of CalScope: a repeated cross-sectional serosurvey of adults and children enrolled between April 20, 2021 and June 16, 2021. SettingA population-based random sample of households in seven counties in California (Alameda, El Dorado, Kern, Los Angeles, Monterey, San Diego, and Shasta) were invited to complete an at-home SARS-CoV-2 antibody test and survey instrument. ParticipantsInvitations were sent to 200,000 randomly selected households in the seven counties. From each household, 1 adult (18 years and older) and 1 child (aged 6 months to 17 years) could enroll in the study. There were no exclusion criteria. Main Outcome(s) and MeasuresAll specimens were tested for antibodies against the nucleocapsid and spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2. The primary outcome was serostatus category, which was determined based on antibody test results and self-reported vaccination status: seronegative, antibodies from infection only, antibodies from infection and vaccination, and antibodies from vaccination alone. We used inverse probability of selection weights and iterative proportional fitting to account for non-response. Results11,161 households enrolled in wave 1 of CalScope, with 7,483 adults and 1,375 children completing antibody testing. As of June 2021, 27% (95%CI [23%, 31%]) of adults and 30% (95%CI [24%, 36%]) of children had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection; 33% (95%CI [28%, 37%]) of adults and 57% (95%CI [48%, 66%]) of children were seronegative. Serostatus varied regionally. Californians 65 years or older were most likely to have antibodies from vaccine alone (59%; 95%CI [48%, 69%]) and children between 5-11 years old were most likely to have antibodies from prior infection alone (36%; 95%CI [21%, 52%]). Conclusions and RelevanceAs of June 2021, a third of adults in California and most children under 18 remained seronegative. Seroprevalence varied regionally and by demographic group, suggesting that some regions or populations might remain more vulnerable to subsequent surges than others. Key PointsO_ST_ABSQuestionC_ST_ABSWhat is the prevalence of vaccine and infection derived antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in adults and children in California? FindingsIn this population-based serosurvey that included 11,161 households, as of June 2021, 33% of adults and 57% of children were seronegative; 18% of adults and 26% of children had antibodies from infection alone; 9% of adults and 5% of children had antibodies from both infection and vaccination; and 41% of adults and 13% of children had antibodies from vaccination alone. MeaningSerostatus varied considerably across geographic regions, suggesting that certain areas might be at increased risk for future COVID-19 surges.

4.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21266690

Résumé

BackgroundFavipiravir is an oral, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor with in vitro activity against SARS-CoV2. Despite limited data, favipiravir is administered to patients with COVID-19 in several countries. MethodsWe conducted a phase 2 double-blind randomized controlled outpatient trial of favipiravir in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic adults with a positive SARS-CoV2 RT-PCR within 72 hours of enrollment. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive placebo or favipiravir (1800 mg BID Day 1, 800mg BID Days 2-10). The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 shedding cessation in a modified intention-to-treat (mITT) cohort of participants with positive enrollment RT-PCRs. Using SARS-CoV-2 deep sequencing, we assessed favipiravirs impact on mutagenesis. ResultsFrom July 8, 2020 - March 23, 2021, we randomized 149 participants with 116 included in the mITT cohort. The participants mean age was 43 years (SD 12.5) and 57 (49%) were women. We found no difference in time to shedding cessation by treatment arm overall (HR 0.76 favoring placebo, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48 - 1.20) or in sub-group analyses (age, sex, high-risk comorbidities, seropositivity or symptom duration at enrollment). We observed no difference in time to symptom resolution (initial: HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.54 - 1.29; sustained: HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.52 - 1.45). We detected no difference in accumulation of transition mutations in the viral genome during treatment. ConclusionsOur data do not support favipiravir use at commonly used doses in outpatients with uncomplicated COVID-19. Further research is needed to ascertain if higher doses of favipiravir are effective and safe for patients with COVID-19. Trial registration numberNCT04346628 SummaryIn this phase 2 double-blind randomized controlled outpatient trial of favipiravir in asymptomatic or uncomplicated patients with COVID-19, we found no difference in time to shedding cessation or time to symptom resolution by treatment arm.

5.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21264860

Résumé

BackgroundPatients receiving dialysis are a sentinel population for groups at high risk for death and disability from COVID-19. Understanding correlates of protection post-vaccination can inform immunization and mitigation strategies. MethodsMonthly since January 2021, we tested plasma from 4791 patients receiving dialysis for antibodies to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 using a high-throughput assay. We qualitatively assessed the proportion without a detectable RBD response and among those with a response, semiquantitative median IgG index values. Using a nested case-control design, we matched each breakthrough case to five controls by age, sex, and vaccination-month to determine whether peak and pre-breakthrough RBD IgG index values were associated with risk for infection post-vaccination. ResultsAmong 2563 vaccinated patients, the proportion without a detectable RBD response increased from 6.6% [95% CI 5.5-8.1] in 14-30 days post-vaccination to 20.2% [95% CI 17.1-23.8], and median index values declined from 92.7 (95% CI 77.8-107.5) to 3.7 (95% CI 3.1-4.3) after 5 months. Persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection prior-to-vaccination had higher peak index values than persons without prior infection, but values equalized by 5 months (p=0.230). Breakthrough infections occurred in 56 patients, with samples collected a median of 21 days pre-breakthrough. Peak and pre-breakthrough RBD values <23 (equivalent to <506 WHO BAU/mL) were associated with higher odds for breakthrough infection (OR: 3.7 [95% CI 2.0-6.8] and 9.8 [95% CI 2.9-32.8], respectively). ConclusionsThe antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination wanes rapidly, and in persons receiving dialysis, the persisting antibody response is associated with risk for breakthrough infection.

6.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21263527

Résumé

BackgroundAn immunodiagnostic assay that sensitively detects a cell-mediated immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is needed for epidemiological investigation and for clinical assessment of T cell-mediated immune response to vaccines, particularly in the context of emerging variants that might escape antibody responses. MethodsThe performance of a whole blood interferon-gamma (IFN-{gamma}) release assay (IGRA) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells was evaluated in COVID-19 convalescents tested serially up to 10 months post-infection and in healthy blood donors. SARS-CoV-2 IGRA was applied in contacts of households with index cases. Freshly collected blood in the lithium heparin tube was left unstimulated, stimulated with a SARS-CoV-2 peptide pool, and stimulated with mitogen. ResultsThe overall sensitivity and specificity of IGRA were 84.5% (153/181; 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.0-89.0) and 86.6% (123/142; 95% CI;80.0-91.2), respectively. The sensitivity declined from 100% (16/16; 95% CI 80.6-100) at 0.5-month post-infection to 79.5% (31/39; 95% CI 64.4-89.2) at 10 months post-infection (P<0.01). The IFN-{gamma} response remained relatively robust at 10 months post-infection (3.8 vs. 1.3 IU/mL, respectively). In 14 households, IGRA showed a positivity rate of 100% (12/12) and 65.2% (15/23), and IgG of 50.0% (6/12) and 43.5% (10/23) in index cases and contacts, respectively, exhibiting a difference of +50% (95% CI +25.4-+74.6) and +21.7% (95% CI, +9.23-+42.3), respectively. Either IGRA or IgG was positive in 100% (12/12) of index cases and 73.9% (17/23) of contacts. ConclusionsThe SARS-CoV-2 IGRA is a useful clinical diagnostic tool for assessing cell-mediated immune response to SARS-CoV-2. Key pointsSARS-CoV-2 immunodiagnostics are needed to identify infected individuals in order to understand the transmission dynamics of emerging variants and to assess vaccine response. Interferon-gamma release assay maintains sensitivity 10 months post-infection in convalescents and detects more household contacts than IgG.

7.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21262687

Résumé

The great majority of SARS-CoV-2 infections are mild and uncomplicated, but some individuals with initially mild COVID-19 progressively develop more severe symptoms. Furthermore, mild to moderate infections are an important contributor to ongoing transmission. There remains a critical need to identify host immune biomarkers predictive of clinical and virologic outcomes in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Leveraging longitudinal samples and data from a clinical trial of Peginterferon Lambda for treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infected outpatients, we used host proteomics and transcriptomics to characterize the trajectory of the immune response in COVID-19 patients within the first 2 weeks of symptom onset. We define early immune signatures, including plasma levels of RIG-I and the CCR2 ligands (MCP1, MCP2 and MCP3), associated with control of oropharyngeal viral load, the degree of symptom severity, and immune memory (including SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses and spike (S) protein-binding IgG levels). We found that individuals receiving BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine had similar early immune trajectories to those observed in this natural infection cohort, including the induction of both inflammatory cytokines (e.g. MCP1) and negative immune regulators (e.g. TWEAK). Finally, we demonstrate that machine learning models using 8-10 plasma protein markers measured early within the course of infection are able to accurately predict symptom severity, T cell memory, and the antibody response post-infection.

8.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21261516

Résumé

BackgroundPatients on dialysis vaccinated with the attenuated adenovirus SARS-CoV-2 vaccine might mount an impaired response to vaccination. MethodsWe evaluated the humoral vaccination response among 2,099 fully vaccinated patients receiving dialysis. We used commercially available assays (Siemens) to assess prevalence of no response or diminished response to COVID-19 vaccination by vaccine type. We defined "no seroconversion" as lack of change from negative to positive in total RBD Ig antibody, no detectable response on semiquantitative RBD IgG antibody (index value <1) as "no RBD IgG response", and a semiquantitative RBD IgG index value <10 as "diminished RBD IgG response" ResultsOf the 2,099 fully vaccinated patients on dialysis, the proportion receiving the mRNA1273, BNT162b2, and Ad26.COV2.S were 62% (n=1316), 20% (n=416) and 18% (n=367), respectively. A third (33.3%) of patients receiving the attenuated adenovirus Ad26.COV2.S vaccine failed to seroconvert and an additional 36% had no detectable or diminished IgG response even 28-60 days post vaccination. ConclusionOne in three fully vaccinated patients receiving dialysis had evidence of an impaired immune response to the attenuated adenovirus Ad26.COV2.S vaccine.

9.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21256768

Résumé

BackgroundPatients receiving dialysis may mount impaired responses to COVID19 vaccination. MethodsWe report antibody response to vaccination from 1140 patients without, and 493 patients with pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibody. We used commercially available assays (Siemens) to test remainder plasma monthly in association with vaccination date and type, and assess prevalence of absent total receptor binding antibody, and absent or attenuated (index value < 10) semiquantitative receptor binding domain IgG index values. We used Poisson regression to evaluate risk factors for absent or attenuated response to vaccination. ResultsAmong patients who were seronegative versus seropositive before vaccination, 62% and 56% were [≥]65 years old, 20% and 24% were Hispanic, and 22% and 23% were Black. Median IgG index values rose steadily over time, and were higher among the seropositive than in the seronegative patients after completing vaccination (150 [25th, 75th percentile 23.2, 150.0] versus 41.6 [11.3, 150.0]). Among 610 patients who completed vaccination (assessed [≥]14 days later, median 29 days later), the prevalence of absent total RBD response, and absent and attenuated semiquantitative IgG response was 4.4% (95% CI 3.1, 6.4%), 3.4% (2.4, 5.2%), and 14.3% (11.7, 17.3%) respectively. Risk factors for absent or attenuated response included longer vintage of end-stage kidney disease, and lower pre-vaccination serum albumin. ConclusionsMore than one in five patients receiving dialysis had evidence of an attenuated immune response to COVID19 vaccination. Significance statementPatients receiving dialysis face high likelihood of severe COVID19; at the same time, vaccination may be less efficacious, as prior data indicate impaired immune responses to influenza and Hepatitis B vaccination. We found that 22% of patients receiving dialysis had suboptimal responses to vaccination, irrespective of whether or not they had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Poorer health status and longer duration of end-stage kidney disease increased likelihood of suboptimal response. Ongoing vigilance for COVID19 in dialysis facilities and studies of modified vaccination dosing schedules will be critical to protecting patients receiving dialysis.

10.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21256131

Résumé

BackgroundGiven the persistence of viral RNA in clinically recovered COVID-19 patients, subgenomic RNAs (sgRNA) have been reported as potential molecular viability markers for SARS-CoV-2. However, few data are available on their longitudinal kinetics, compared with genomic RNA (gRNA), in clinical samples. MethodsWe analyzed 536 samples from 205 patients with COVID-19 from placebo-controlled, outpatient trials of Peginterferon Lambda-1a (Lambda; n=177) and favipiravir (n=359). Nasal swabs were collected at three time points in the Lambda (Day 1, 4 and 6) and favipiravir (Day 1, 5, and 10) trials. N-gene gRNA and sgRNA were quantified by RT-qPCR. To investigate the decay kinetics in vitro, we measured gRNA and sgRNA in A549ACE2+ cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, following treatment with remdesivir or DMSO control. ResultsAt six days in the Lambda trial and ten days in the favipiravir trial, sgRNA remained detectable in 51.6% (32/62) and 49.5% (51/106) of the samples, respectively. Cycle threshold (Ct) values for gRNA and sgRNA were highly linearly correlated (Pearsons r=0.87) and the rate of increase did not differ significantly in Lambda (1.36 cycles/day vs 1.36 cycles/day; p = 0.97) or favipiravir (1.03 cycles/day vs 0.94 cycles/day; p=0.26) trials. From samples collected 15-21 days after symptom onset, sgRNA was detectable in 48.1% (40/83) of participants. In SARS-CoV-2 infected A549ACE2+ cells treated with remdesivir, the rate of Ct increase did not differ between gRNA and sgRNA. ConclusionsIn clinical samples and in vitro, sgRNA was highly correlated with gRNA and did not demonstrate different decay patterns to support its application as a viability marker. SummaryWe observed prolonged detection of subgenomic RNA in nasal swabs and equivalent decay rates to genomic RNA in both longitudinal nasal swabs and in remdesivir-treated A549ACE2+ cells infected with SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, these findings suggest that subgenomic RNA from SARS-CoV-2 is comparably stable to genomic RNA and that its detection is therefore not a more reliable indicator of replicating virus.

11.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21255431

Résumé

BackgroundDistribution of mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to healthcare personnel (HCP) in the United States began in December 2020, with efficacy > 90%. However, breakthrough infections in fully vaccinated individuals have been reported. Meanwhile, multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern have emerged worldwide, including the B.1.427/B.1.429 variant first described in California. Little is known about the real-world effectiveness of the mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines against novel variants including B.1.427/B.1.429. MethodsIn this quality improvement project, post-vaccine SARS-CoV-2 cases (PVSCs) were defined as individuals with positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) after receiving at least one dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Chart extraction of demographic and clinical information was performed, and available specimens meeting cycle threshold value criteria were tested for L452R, N501Y and E484K mutations by RT-PCR. ResultsFrom December 2020 to March 2021, 189 PVSCs were identified out of 22,729 healthcare personnel who received at least one dose of an mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Of these, 114 (60.3%) occurred within 14 days of first vaccine dose (early post-vaccination), 49 (25.9%) within 14 days of the second vaccine dose (partially vaccinated), and 26 (13.8%) >14 days after the second dose (fully vaccinated). Of 115 samples available for mutation testing, 42 were positive for L452R alone, presumptive of B.1.427/B.1.429; three had N501Y mutation alone and none were found with E484K mutation. Though on univariate analysis partially- and fully-vaccinated PVSCs were more likely than early post-vaccination PVSCs to be infected with presumptive B.1.427/B.1.429, when adjusted for community prevalence of B.1.427/B.1.429 at the time of infection, partially- and fully-vaccinated PVSC did not have statistically significantly elevated risk ratios for infection with this variant (RR 1.40, 95% CI 0.81-2.43 and RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.59-2.16, respectively). ConclusionsThe great majority of PVSCs occurred prior to the expected onset of full, vaccine-derived immunity. Although the B.1.427/B.1.429 variant did not represent a significantly higher proportion of PVSCs than expected, numbers were small and there was a trend towards higher representation in the partially- and fully-vaccinated subset. Continued infection control measures in the workplace and in the community including social distancing and masking, particularly in the early days post-vaccination, as well as continued variant surveillance in PVSCs, is imperative in order to anticipate and control future surges of infection.

12.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21252786

Résumé

BackgroundTo estimate seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the US, the country with the worlds largest absolute numbers of COVID19 cases and deaths, we conducted a cross-sectional assessment from a sample of patients receiving dialysis in January 2021. MethodsWe tested remainder plasma of 21,424 patients receiving dialysis through the third-largest US dialysis organization, with facilities located nationwide. We used the Siemens spike protein receptor binding domain total antibody assay to estimate crude SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence, and then estimated seroprevalence for the US dialysis and adult population by standardizing by age, sex and region. We also compared January 2021 seroprevalence and case-detection rates to that from a similar subsample of patients receiving dialysis who had been tested in July 2020. ResultsPatients in the sample were disproportionately from older age and minority race/ethnic groups. Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was 18.9% (95% CI: 18.3-19.5%) in the sample, 18.7% (18.1-19.2%) standardized to the US dialysis population, and 21.3% (20.3-22.3%) standardized to the US adult population (range 15.3-20.8% in the Northeast and South respectively). Younger age groups (18-44 years), and persons self-identifying as Hispanic or living in Hispanic neighborhoods, and persons living in the poorest neighborhoods were among the subgroups with the highest seroprevalence (25.9% (24.1-27.8%), 25.1% (23.6-26.4%), 24.8% (23.2-26.5%) respectively). Compared to data from July 2020, we observed diminished variability in seroprevalence by geographic region and urban-rural status. Estimated case detection rate increased from 14% to 23% in July 2020 to January 2021. ConclusionsA year after the first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected in the US, fewer than one in four adults have evidence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Vaccine roll out to majority minority neighborhoods and poorer neighborhoods will be critical to disrupting the spread of infection. FundingAscend Clinical Laboratories funded remainder-plasma testing.

13.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21253011

Résumé

BackgroundThe vast majority of SARS-CoV-2 infections are uncomplicated and do not require hospitalization, but contribute to ongoing transmission. Our understanding of the clinical course of uncomplicated COVID-19 remains limited. MethodsWe detailed the natural history of uncomplicated COVID-19 among 120 outpatients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of Peginterferon Lambda. We characterized symptom trajectory and clusters using exploratory factor analysis, assessed predictors of symptom resolution and cessation of oropharyngeal viral shedding using Cox proportional hazard models, and evaluated associations between symptoms and viral shedding using mixed effects linear models. ResultsHeadache, myalgias and chills peaked at day 4 after symptom onset; cough peaked on day 9. Two distinct symptom cluster trajectories were identified; one with mild, upper respiratory symptoms, and the other with more severe and prolonged inflammatory symptoms. The median time to symptom resolution from earliest symptom onset was 17 days (95% CI 14-18). Neither enrollment SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels (Hazard ratio [HR] 1.88, 95% CI 0.84-4.20) nor oropharyngeal viral load at enrollment (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.98-1.05) were significantly associated with the time to symptom resolution. The median time to cessation of viral shedding was 10 days (95% CI 8-12), with higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels at enrollment associated with hastened resolution of viral shedding (HR 3.12, 95% CI 1.4-6.9, p=0.005). Myalgia, joint pains, and chills were associated with a significantly greater odds of oropharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. ConclusionsIn this outpatient cohort, inflammatory symptoms peaked early and were associated with ongoing SARS-CoV-2 replication. SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were associated with more rapid viral shedding cessation, but not with time to symptom resolution. These findings have important implications for COVID-19 screening approaches and clinical trial design.

14.
Preprint Dans Anglais | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-407015

Résumé

Vaccination and infection promote the formation, tissue distribution, and clonal evolution of B cells encoding humoral immune memory. We evaluated convergent antigen-specific antibody genes of similar sequences shared between individuals in pediatric and adult blood, and deceased organ donor tissues. B cell memory varied for different pathogens. Polysaccharide antigen-specific clones were not exclusive to the spleen. Adults convergent clones often express mutated IgM or IgD in blood and are class-switched in lymphoid tissues; in contrast, children have abundant class-switched convergent clones in blood. Consistent with serological reports, pre-pandemic children had class-switched convergent clones to SARS-CoV-2, enriched in cross-reactive clones for seasonal coronaviruses, while adults showed few such clones in blood or lymphoid tissues. These results extend age-related and anatomical mapping of human humoral pathogen-specific immunity. One Sentence SummaryChildren have elevated frequencies of pathogen-specific class-switched memory B cells, including SARS-CoV-2-binding clones.

15.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20234161

Résumé

Type III interferons have been touted as promising therapeutics in outpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial in 120 patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 to determine whether a single, 180 mcg subcutaneous dose of Peginterferon Lambda-1a (Lambda) could shorten the duration of viral shedding (primary endpoint) or symptoms (secondary endpoint, NCT04331899). In both the 60 patients receiving Lambda and the 60 receiving placebo, the median time to cessation of viral shedding was 7 days (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56 to 1.19). Symptoms resolved in 8 and 9 days in Lambda and placebo, respectively (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.64 to 1.39). At enrollment; 41% of subjects were SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositive; compared to placebo, lambda tended to delay shedding cessation in seronegatives (aHR 0.66, 95% CI 0.39-1.10) and to hasten shedding cessation in seropositives (aHR 1.58, 95% CI 0.88-2.86; p for interaction = 0.03). Liver transaminase elevations were more common in the Lambda vs. placebo arm (15/60 vs 5/60; p = 0.027). In this study, a single dose of subcutaneous Peginterferon Lambda-1a neither shortened the duration of SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding nor improved symptoms in outpatients with uncomplicated COVID-19.

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