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1.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.07.06.21259982

Résumé

Objectives: To determine whether early oral or parenteral corticosteroids compared to no corticosteroids are associated with decreased mortality in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who are not on intensive respiratory support (IRS) within 48 hours of admission. Design: Observational cohort study Setting: Nationwide cohort of patients receiving care in the Department of Veterans Affairs, a large integrated US national healthcare system Participants: 9,058 patients admitted to a Veterans Affairs Medical Center between June 7, 2020-December 5, 2020 within 14-days after SARS-CoV-2 positive test; exclusion criteria include less than a 48 hour stay, receipt of prior systemic corticosteroids, and no indication of acute medical care for COVID-19. Main outcome measure: 90-day all-cause mortality Results: Of 9,058 total patients (95% men, median age 71 years, 27% black), 6,825 (75%) were not on IRS within 48 hours. Among the 3,025 patients on no oxygen, 598 (20%) received corticosteroids and 283 (9%) died; of 3,800 patients on low-flow nasal cannula oxygen (NC), 2,808 (74%) received corticosteroids and 514 (13%) died. In stratified, inverse probability weighted Cox proportional hazards models comparing those who did and did not receive corticosteroids, patients on no oxygen experienced an 89% increased risk for 90-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33 to 2.68); there was weak evidence of increased mortality among patients on NC (HR 1.21, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.57). Results were robust in subgroup analyses including restricting corticosteroids to dexamethasone, and in sensitivity analyses employing different modeling approaches. Conclusions: In patients hospitalized with COVID-19, we found no evidence of a mortality benefit associated with early initiation of corticosteroids among those on no oxygen or NC in the first 48 hours, though there was evidence of potential harm. These real-world findings support that clinicians should consider withholding corticosteroids in these populations and further clinical trials may be warranted.

2.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.03.08.21253090

Résumé

Objectives We aimed to describe trends in the incidence of adverse outcomes among patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between February and September 2020 within a national healthcare system. Setting US Veterans Affairs national healthcare system. Participants Enrollees in the VA healthcare system who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 2/28/2020 and 9/30/2020 (n=55,952). Outcomes Death, hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation within 30 days of testing positive.The incidence of these outcomes was examined among patients infected each month and trends were evaluated using an interrupted time-series analysis. Results Between February and July 2020, during the first wave of the US pandemic, there were marked downward trends in the 30-day incidence of hospitalization (44.2% to 15.8%), ICU admission (20.3% to 5.3%), mechanical ventilation (12.7% to 2.2%), and death (12.5% to 4.4%), with subsequent stabilization between July and September 2020. These trends persisted after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, and documented symptoms and after additional adjustment for laboratory test results among hospitalized patients, including among subgroups admitted to the ICU and treated with mechanical ventilation. Among hospitalized patients, use of hydroxychloroquine (56.5% to 0%), azithromycin (48.3% to 16.6%) vasopressors (20.6% to 8.7%), and dialysis (11.6% to 3.8%) decreased while use of dexamethasone (3.4% to 53.1%), other corticosteroids (4.9% to 29.0%) and remdesivir (1.7% to 45.4%) increased from February to September. Conclusions Among patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in a large national US healthcare system, risk for a range of adverse outcomes decreased markedly between February and July, with subsequent stabilization from July to September. These trends were not explained by changes in measured baseline patient characteristics.

3.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.05.12.20099135

Résumé

Background: There is growing concern that racial and ethnic minority communities around the world are experiencing a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality from symptomatic SARS-Cov-2 infection or coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Most studies investigating racial and ethnic disparities to date have focused on hospitalized patients or have not characterized who received testing or those who tested positive for Covid-19. Objective: To compare patterns of testing and test results for coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) and subsequent mortality by race and ethnicity in the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Participants: 5,834,543 individuals in care, among whom 62,098 were tested and 5,630 tested positive for Covid-19 between February 8 and May 4, 2020. Exposures: Self-reported race/ethnicity. Main outcome measures: We evaluated associations between race/ethnicity and receipt of Covid-19 testing, a positive test result, and 30-day mortality, accounting for a wide range of demographic and clinical risk factors including comorbid conditions, site of care, and urban versus rural residence. Results: Among all individuals in care, 74% were non-Hispanic white (white), 19% non-Hispanic black (black), and 7% Hispanic. Compared with white individuals, black and Hispanic individuals were more likely to be tested for Covid-19 (tests per 1000: white=9.0, [95% CI 8.9 to 9.1]; black=16.4, [16.2 to 16.7]; and Hispanic=12.2, [11.9 to 12.5]). While individuals from minority backgrounds were more likely to test positive (black vs white: OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.81 to 2.12; Hispanic vs white: OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.53 to 1.96), 30-day mortality did not differ by race/ethnicity (black vs white: OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.33; Hispanic vs white: OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.87). Conclusions: Black and Hispanic individuals are experiencing an excess burden of Covid-19 not entirely explained by underlying medical conditions or where they live or receive care. While there was no observed difference in mortality by race or ethnicity, our findings may underestimate risk in the broader US population as health disparities tend to be reduced in VA.

4.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.04.09.20059964

Résumé

Importance: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), an evolving pandemic. Limited data are available characterizing SARS-Cov-2 infection in the United States. Objective: To determine associations between demographic and clinical factors and testing positive for coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19+), and among Covid-19+ subsequent hospitalization and intensive care. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study including all patients tested for Covid-19 between February 8 and March 30, 2020, inclusive. We extracted electronic health record data from the national Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States, on 2,026,227 patients born between 1945 and 1965 and active in care. Exposures: Demographic data, comorbidities, medication history, substance use, vital signs, and laboratory measures. Laboratory tests were analyzed first individually and then grouped into a validated summary measure of physiologic injury (VACS Index). Main Outcomes and Measures: We evaluated which factors were associated with Covid-19+ among all who tested. Among Covid-19+ we identified factors associated with hospitalization or intensive care. We identified independent associations using multivariable and conditional multivariable logistic regression with multiple imputation of missing values. Results: Among Veterans aged 54-75 years, 585/3,789 (15.4%) tested Covid-19+. In adjusted analysis (C-statistic=0.806) black race was associated with Covid-19+ (OR 4.68, 95% CI 3.79-5.78) and the association remained in analyses conditional on site (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.89-3.46). In adjusted models, laboratory abnormalities (especially fibrosis-4 score [FIB-4] >3.25 OR 8.73, 95% CI 4.11-18.56), and VACS Index (per 5-point increase OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.43-1.84) were strongly associated with hospitalization. Associations were similar for intensive care. Although significant in unadjusted analyses, associations with comorbid conditions and medications were substantially reduced and, in most cases, no longer significant after adjustment. Conclusions and Relevance: Black race was strongly associated with Covid-19+, but not with hospitalization or intensive care. Among Covid-19+, risk of hospitalization and intensive care may be better characterized by laboratory measures and vital signs than by comorbid conditions or prior medication exposure.

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