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1.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.12.28.22283986

Résumé

ABSTRACT Background: On March 29, 2022, the United States (US) authorized the second booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine for individuals aged 50 years and older. To date, the cost-effectiveness of the second booster strategy remains unassessed. Methods: We developed a decision-analytic SEIR-Markov model by five age groups (0-4yrs with 18,827,338 individuals, 5-11yrs with 28,584,443 individuals, 12-17yrs with 26,154,652 individuals, 18-49yrs with 138,769,369 individuals, and 50+yrs with 119,557,943 individuals) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the second COVID-19 booster vaccination (administered 4 months after the first booster dose) over an evaluation period of 180 days in the US, from a healthcare system perspective. Results: Implementing the second booster strategy among individuals aged 50+ years would cost US$807 million but reduce direct medical care costs by $1,128 million, corresponding to a benefit-cost ratio of 1.40. This strategy would also result in a gain of 1,048 QALYs during the 180 days, indicating it was cost-saving. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the probability of being cost-effective with the strategy was 68%. Further, vaccinating individuals aged 18-49 years with the second booster would result in an additional gain of $1,566 million and 2,276 QALYs. Expanding vaccination to individuals aged 12-17 years would result in an additional gain of $15 million and 89 QALYs. Coverage of the first booster vaccination in age groups under 12 was too low to consider the administration of the second booster. If the social interaction between all age groups was severed, vaccination expansion to 18-49yrs and 12-17yrs would no longer be cost-effective. Conclusion: The second booster strategy was likely to be effective and cost-effective in reducing the disease burden of the COVID-19 pandemic. Expanding the second booster strategy to 18-49yrs and 12-17yrs remains cost-effective due to their social contacts with the older age group. Keywords: COVID-19; Second booster; Cost-effective analysis; SEIR-Markov model; Age groups

2.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint Dans Anglais | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2405391.v1

Résumé

Background Mounting evidence shows association between COVID-19 and new diagnoses of diabetes. It is unclear, however, if COVID-19 increases detection of pre-existing diabetes or if it can induce new-onset of the disease. Methods We established a global online registry of COVID-19-related diabetes (CoviDIAB) using a web-enabled data capture system (Dendrite Clinical Systems). In this study we aimed to investigate whether COVID-19 can induce new-onset diabetes, its subtypes and clinical manifestations. To this end, we analyzed clinical and laboratory data from cases of newly-diagnosed diabetes occurring during or within four weeks from an episode of COVID-19. To exclude pre-existing hyperglycaemia, new-onset diabetes was defined as: blood sugar levels above diabetes thresholds (fasting glycaemia ≥ 126 mg/dL or non-fasting glycemia > 200 mg/dL), no prior history of the disease or use of glucose-lowering medications, and HbA1c < 6·5% at presentation. Results Between October 2020 and April 2022, 67 contributors from 61 hospitals in 25 countries entered data on 537 eligible cases of newly-diagnosed diabetes. New-onset diabetes was identified in 102 of 473 newly-diagnosed cases with recorded HbA1c (22%). Among adults, diabetes subtypes were type 2 (59%) and “not-yet known” (41%). There were two cases of new-onset type 1 diabetes among children. Hyperglycaemia persisted beyond resolution of the infection in 39 of 89 (45%) patients with new-onset diabetes who survived the episode of COVID-19. Further follow-up data beyond 3-months was available for 28 such cases, showing remission of diabetes in five and persistent diabetes in 23 cases (82%). Conclusions This study shows clinical plausibility for a diabetogenic effect of COVID-19, supporting screening for diabetes in people who contract the infection. Further investigation is warranted to confirm mechanisms of viral interference with glucose metabolism. The CoviDIAB registry is accessible online at http://covidiab.e-dendrite.com.

3.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint Dans Anglais | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2393880.v1

Résumé

Background Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) has been widely used in treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with severe respiratory failure. However, there are few reports of the successful treatment of patients with massive airway hemorrhage in severe COVID-19 during VV-ECMO treatment.Methods We analyzed the treatment process of a patient with massive airway hemorrhage in severe COVID-19, who underwent prolonged VV-ECMO treatment.Results A 59-year-old female patient was admitted to the intensive care unit after confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. VV-ECMO, mechanical ventilation and prone ventilation were administered. Major airway hemorrhage occurred on day 14 of ECMO treatment; conventional management was ineffective. We provided complete VV-ECMO support, discontinued anticoagulation, disconnected the ventilator, clipped the tracheal intubation, and intervened to embolize the descending bronchial arteries. After the pulmonary pemorrhage stopped, we administered cryotherapy under bronchoscopy, low-dose urokinase locally, and bronchoalveolar lavage in the airway to clear the blood clots. The patient’s condition gradually improved; she underwent ECMO weaning and decannulation after 88 days of VV-ECMO treatment, and the membrane oxygenator was changed out four times. She was successfully discharged after 182 days in hospital.Conclusion Massive airway hemorrhage in patients with severe COVID-19 and treated with ECMO is catastrophic. It is feasible to clamp the tracheal tube with the full support of ECMO. Notably, bronchoscopy with cryotherapy is effective for removing blood clots.

4.
Translational Pediatrics ; 11(11):1864-1871, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2124170

Résumé

Background: There has been an increase in research on the potential adverse effects on children's mental health, especially depression and anxiety, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic over the past few months. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate depression and anxiety symptoms among children in shelter hospitals during the 2022 Shanghai lockdown.Methods: A total of 98 infected children aged 7-12 years were enrolled in this study between April 19 and June 4, 2022. The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Anxiety Scale for Children-Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASC-ASD), and Anxiety Scale or Children-Autism Spectrum Disorder Parent Form (ASC-ADS-P) were used to assess children's depression and anxiety symptoms. Children's guardians completed the survey by verbally asking their child/children the questions. The guardians additionally completed the ASC-ASD-P.Results: The prevalence of depression and anxiety was 12.2% and 13.3%, respectively. A total of 66 respondents reported no physical symptoms. Linear regression showed that myalgia [7.198, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.163-11.232], headache (7.189, 95% CI: 3.842-10.535) coryza (5.362, 95% CI: 2.654-8.070), and number of quarantine days (4.378, 95% CI: 3.409-5.348) were significantly correlated with higher levels of depression, whereas chills (14.337, 95% CI: 9.799-18.875), coryza (9.309, 95% CI: 6.467-12.152), headache (7.193, 95% CI: 3.182-11.204), myalgia (5.571, 95% CI: 0.684-10.459), number of quarantine days (3.190, 95% CI: 1.796-4.584), and gender (male) (-4.137, 95% CI: -6.609 to 1.665) were associated with anxiety scores. Persistent fever was correlated with depression (P=0.007), whereas physical discomfort, such as persistent fever, cough, sore throat, headache, myalgia, and coryza were correlated with anxiety (all P<0.05).Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicated a moderate prevalence of depression and anxiety among infected children in a shelter hospital during the 2022 Shanghai lockdown. Therefore, the findings of this study could provide scientific basis for the development of targeted psychological intervention. It could be helpful for policy-makers to focus on psychological health among infected children and help to optimize future interventions.

5.
IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems ; : 1-11, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2123176

Résumé

Multimodal retrieval has received widespread consideration since it can commendably provide massive related data support for the development of computational social systems (CSSs). However, the existing works still face the following challenges: 1) rely on the tedious manual marking process when extended to CSS, which not only introduces subjective errors but also consumes abundant time and labor costs;2) only using strongly aligned data for training, lacks concern for the adjacency information, which makes the poor robustness and semantic heterogeneity gap difficult to be effectively fit;and 3) mapping features into real-valued forms, which leads to the characteristics of high storage and low retrieval efficiency. To address these issues in turn, we have designed a multimodal retrieval framework based on web-knowledge-driven, called unsupervised and robust graph convolutional hashing (URGCH). The specific implementations are as follows: first, a "secondary semantic self-fusion" approach is proposed, which mainly extracts semantic-rich features through pretrained neural networks, constructs the joint semantic matrix through semantic fusion, and eliminates the process of manual marking;second, a "adaptive computing" approach is designed to construct enhanced semantic graph features through the knowledge-infused of neighborhoods and uses graph convolutional networks for knowledge fusion coding, which enables URGCH to sufficiently fit the semantic modality gap while obtaining satisfactory robustness features;Third, combined with hash learning, the multimodality data are mapped into the form of binary code, which reduces storage requirements and improves retrieval efficiency. Eventually, we perform plentiful experiments on the web dataset. The results evidence that URGCH exceeds other baselines about 1%-3.7% in mean average precisions (MAPs), displays superior performance in all the aspects, and can meaningfully provide multimodal data retrieval services to CSS.

6.
Medicine ; 2(4):289-292, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2092397

Résumé

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection is usually self-limited, with a short duration for viral shedding within several weeks. However, prolonged viral shedding has been observed in severe or immune-compromised coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. Here, we reported that three young adult cases of COVID-19 patients, who were either immunosuppressed nor severe, showed prolonged viral RNA shedding from the upper respiratory tract for 58, 81, and 137 days since initial diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the longest duration of viral shedding reported to date in young adult patients. Further studies on factors relevant to prolonged viral positivity, as well as the correlation between viral positivity and transmission risk are needed for the optimal management of COVID-19 patients with prolonged nucleic acid positive.

7.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint Dans Anglais | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2263736.v1

Résumé

The COVID-19 pandemic reveals new features of substantial changes in rates of infection, cure, and death, resulting from social intervention, which significantly challenges traditional SEIR-type models. This paper develops a symmetry-based model for quantifying social interventions in combating COVID-19. We find three key order parameters, separating degree (S) for susceptible populations, healing degree (H) for mild cases, and rescuing degree (R) for server cases, all display logistic dynamics, which establish a novel dynamic model named SHR. Furthermore, we discover two evolutionary patterns of healing degree with a universal power law in 23 areas in the first wave. Remarkably, the model yields a quantitative evaluation of the ‘dynamic back-to-zero’ policy in the third wave in Beijing by 12 datasets of different sizes. In conclusion, the SHR model constitutes a rational basis to understand this complex epidemic, and for policymakers to carry out sustainable anti-epidemic measures to minimize its impact.

8.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(6):850-854, 2022.
Article Dans Chinois | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055474

Résumé

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and explore source of infection of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases imported through an inbound air flight from Kenya to Guangzhou, China.

9.
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology ; 12, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046017

Résumé

Since the end of 2019, COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has spread worldwide, and the understanding of the new coronavirus is in a preliminary stage. Currently, immunotherapy, cell therapy, antiviral therapy, and Chinese herbal medicine have been applied in the clinical treatment of the new coronavirus;however, more efficient and safe drugs to control the progress of the new coronavirus are needed. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs) may provide new therapeutic targets for novel coronavirus treatments. The first aim of this paper is to review research progress on COVID-19 in the respiratory, immune, digestive, circulatory, urinary, reproductive, and nervous systems. The second aim is to review the body systems and potential therapeutic targets of lncRNAs, miRNAs, and circRNAs in patients with COVID-19. The current research on competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) (lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA and circRNA-miRNA-mRNA) in SARS-CoV-2 is summarized. Finally, we predict the possible therapeutic targets of four lncRNAs, MALAT1, NEAT1, TUG1, and GAS5, in COVID-19. Importantly, the role of PTEN gene in the ceRNA network predicted by lncRNA MALAT1 and lncRNA TUG1 may help in the discovery and clinical treatment of effective drugs for COVID-19.

10.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Wannan ; 39(6):573-576, 2020.
Article Dans Chinois | GIM | ID: covidwho-2040044

Résumé

Objective: To assess the clinical value of initial chest CT findings in patients with COVID-19.

12.
Acta Microbiologica Sinica ; 7(23), 2022.
Article Dans Chinois | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025659

Résumé

Objective: The aim of this study is to screen an ideal adjuvant for an inactivated porcine deltacoronavirus(PDCoV) vaccine to induce mucosal immunity and reduce the side effect of the vaccine. We used different mucosal adjuvants to prepare the inactivated PDCoV vaccines. We then used mouse model to evaluate the humoral, cellular and mucosal immune responses induced by the inactivated vaccines via different immunization routes.

13.
Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica ; 53(6):2024-2028, 2022.
Article Dans Chinois | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025545

Résumé

This study aimed to analyze the proliferation characteristics of porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) in suspension cultured porcine kidney cells LLC-PK1, so as to provide Candidate cell for large-scale production of PDCoV inactivated vaccine. LLC-PK1 cells were suspended by gradually decreasing serum method. PDCoV adaptive monoclonal cell lines were screened by limited dilution method. Indirect immunofluorescence method was used to identify the infectivity of PDCoV. The initial cell density, MOI, time of receiving virus collection and TPCK pancreatin concentration were screened to determine the best suspension culture conditions. The suspension cell strain LLC-PK1Sa which can proliferate PDCoV efficiently was screened out;PDCoV can specifically infect LLC-PK1 cells;PDCoV inoculated LLC-PK1Sa cells with a density of 2 x 106 cells.mL-1 according to the MOI of 10-3, When the final concentration of TPCK pancreatin reached 7.5 g.mL-1, the titer of virus solution harvested 48 h after inoculation was the highest. In this study, the efficient proliferation of PDCoV in LLC-PK1Sa suspension cells was realized for the first time, and the suspension culture conditions were preliminarily optimized, which could provide theoretical reference for large-scale production of PDCoV inactivated vaccine.

14.
Journal of Sensors ; 2022, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1962466

Résumé

The recognition of aircraft wake vortex can provide an indicator of early warning for civil aviation transportation safety. In this paper, several wake vortex recognition models based on deep learning and traditional machine learning were presented. Nonetheless, these models are not completely suitable owing to their dependence on the visualization of LiDAR data that yields the information loss of in reconstructing the behavior patterns of wake vortex. To tackle this problem, we proposed a lightweight deep learning framework to recognize aircraft wake vortex in the wind field of Shenzhen Baoan Airport’s arrival and departure routes. The nature of the introduced model is geared towards three aspects. First, the dilation patch embedding module is used as the input representation of the framework, attaining additional rich semantics information over long distances while maintaining parameters. Second, we combined a separable convolution module with a hybrid attention mechanism, increasing the model’s attention to the space position of wake vortex core. Third, environmental factors that affect the vortex behavior of the aircraft’s wake were encoded into the model. Experiments were conducted on a Doppler LiDAR acquisition dataset to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results show that the proposed network has an accuracy of 0.9963 and a recognition speed at 100 frames per second was achieved on an experimental device with 0.51 M parameters.

16.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint Dans Anglais | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-1644681.v1

Résumé

Background: Coughing response caused by tracheal extubation is the most common in general anesthesia patients with tracheal intubation during recovery from anesthesia. However, high aerosol production by coughing during recovery from general anesthesia in patients with respiratory infections (especially COVID-19) is one of the highest risk factors for infection among healthcare workers. Application of local anesthetics to the endotracheal tube is an effective method to reduce the choking reaction. The most commonly used anaesthetics are compound Lidocaine cream and tetracaine injection. However, there is still a certain number of choking reactions in the clinic when the two anaesthetics are used alone. We speculate that the combined application of compound Lidocaine cream and tetracaine will play a better role in prevent coughing response caused by tracheal extubation.Methods: A total of 211 patients, who had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy or cholecystectomy combined with common bile duct exploration under general anesthesia, were randomly assigned to Group C (saline injection, 53 cases), Group L(compound lidocaine cream, 52 cases), Group T (tetracaine, 52 cases) and Group F (compound lidocaine cream combined tetracaine, 54 cases). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), levels of epinephrine and levels of norepinephrine were recorded or measured immediately before extubation and one minute after extubation. In addition, endotracheal tube tolerance, the incidence of bucking, the incidence of agitation, the active extubation rate, the incidence of postoperative pharyngeal pain and the incidence of postoperative cough were analyzed. Results: Blood pressure and heart rate as well as blood concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine were significantly higher in the group C compared with the every other group at the time of extubation as well as 1 min after extubation (P < 0.001). And group F significantly reduced the Blood pressure and heart rate as well as blood concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine compared group L or group T (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 or P < 0.001). When the patients emerged from general anesthesia, 96% of the group C had cough caused by sputum aspiration and extubation, which was significantly reduced by group L (61.5%, P < 0.001), group T (75%, P < 0.05) and group F (22.2%, P < 0.001), furthermore, group F significantly reduced the incidence of cough compared group L or group T (P < 0.01). Assessment of endotracheal tube tolerance, the score in the group C ((1, 3) 4, P < 0.001) is higher than group L ((0, 1) 2), group T ((0, 1.25) 3) and group F ((0, 0) 1), furthermore, group F significantly reduced the score compared group L or group T (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively). The incidence of agitation and the active extubation rate were also higher in group C (96.2%, 71.7%, respectively, P < 0.001) than group L (48.1%, 15.4%, respectively), group T (61.5%, 26.9%,respectively) and group F (17.3%, 7.7%,respectively), furthermore,group F significantly reduced the incidence of cough compared group L or group T (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In addition, the incidence of postoperative pharyngeal pain and the incidence of postoperative cough were no statistical difference between every groupConclusions: Compound Lidocaine cream combined tetracaine may be a more advantageous approach for preventing choking and stabilizing circulation during extubation in emergence from general anesthesia, which may play an important role in preventing medical staff from contracting respiratory infectious diseases. Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2200058429 (registration date: 09-04-2020) “retrospectively registered”. 

17.
Journal of Shandong University ; 58(5):46-50, 2020.
Article Dans Anglais, Chinois | GIM | ID: covidwho-1812842

Résumé

Objective: To evaluate the application value of chemiluminescent immunoassay in the detection of 2019-nCoV antibodies.

18.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.05.08.22274797

Résumé

Background: Australia implemented an mRNA-based booster vaccination strategy against the COVID-19 Omicron variant in November 2021. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the booster strategy over 180 days. Methods: We developed a decision-analytic Markov model of COVID-19 to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a booster strategy (administered 3 months after 2nd dose) in those aged [≥]16 years in Australia from a healthcare system perspective. The willingness-to-pay threshold was chosen as A$ 50,000. Findings: Compared with 2-doses of COVID-19 vaccines without a booster, Australia's booster strategy would incur an additional cost of A$0.88 billion but save A$1.28 billion in direct medical cost and gain 670 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in 180 days of its implementation. This suggested the booster strategy is cost-saving, corresponding to a benefit-cost ratio of 1.45 and a net monetary benefit of A$0.43 billion. The strategy would prevent 1.32 million new infections, 65,170 hospitalisations, 6,927 ICU admissions and 1,348 deaths from COVID-19 in 180 days. Further, a universal booster strategy of having all individuals vaccinated with the booster shot immediately once their eligibility is met would have resulted in a gain of 1,599 QALYs, a net monetary benefit of A$1.46 billion and a benefit-cost ratio of 1.95 in 180 days. Interpretation: The COVID-19 booster strategy implemented in Australia is likely to be effective and cost-effective for the Omicron epidemic. Universal booster vaccination would have further improved its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.

19.
Health Science Journal ; 15(11):1-3, 2021.
Article Dans Anglais | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1772236

Résumé

Objective: The aim of this evaluation report was to explore the reliability and performance of the All Test COVID-19 Antigen Rapid Test for Self-Testing (Oral Fluid) on clinical specimens collected for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and compared to a laboratory run RT-qPCR (real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) test. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for coronavirus disease 2019, which emerged as a novel human pathogen at the end of 2019. Since its emergence nearly two years ago, the virus has caused more than 257 million confirmed cases and has led to more than 5 million deaths globally as of November 22, 2021 [2]. [...]specimens need to be transported to and examined at sites that have RT-qPCR capability, which delays the test result and increases the anxiety of the suspected COVID-19 patients. Antigen tests are also important in the overall response against COIVD-19 as they can generally be produced at a lower cost than PCR tests and help public health officials better identify infection rates closer to real time.

20.
Chinese Preventive Medicine ; 22(3):223-226, 2021.
Article Dans Chinois | GIM | ID: covidwho-1761322

Résumé

Objective: To determine the infectivity rate following close contact with confirmed COVID-19 cases in Quzhou from January to September 2020, and to provide reference for pandemic control and prevention.

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