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1.
Interact J Med Res ; 11(1): e37880, 2022 Jun 10.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892534

Résumé

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic was well controlled in Taiwan until an outbreak in May 2021. Telemedicine was rapidly implemented to avoid further patient exposure and to unload the already burdened medical system. OBJECTIVE: To understand the effect of COVID-19 on the implementation of video-based virtual clinic visits during this outbreak, we analyzed the logistics of prescribing medications and patient flow for such virtual visits at a tertiary medical center. METHODS: We retrospectively collected information on video-based virtual clinic visits and face-to-face outpatient visits from May 1 to August 31, 2021, from the administrative database at National Taiwan University Hospital. The number of daily new confirmed COVID-19 cases in Taiwan was obtained from an open resource. RESULTS: There were 782 virtual clinic visits during these 3 months, mostly for the departments of internal medicine, neurology, and surgery. The 3 most common categories of medications prescribed were cardiovascular, diabetic, and gastrointestinal, of which cardiovascular medications comprised around one-third of all medications prescribed during virtual clinic visits. The number of virtual clinic visits was significantly correlated with the number of daily new confirmed COVID-19 cases, with approximately a 20-day delay (correlation coefficient 0.735; P<.001). The patient waiting time for video-based virtual clinic visits was significantly shorter compared with face-to-face clinic visits during the same period (median 3, IQR 2-6 min vs median 20, IQR 9-42 min; rank sum P<.001). Although the time saved was appreciated by the patients, online payment with direct delivery of medications without the need to visit a hospital was still their major concern. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that video-based virtual clinics can be implemented rapidly after a COVID-19 outbreak. The virtual clinics were efficient, as demonstrated by the significantly reduced waiting time. However, there are still some barriers to the large-scale implementation of video-based virtual clinics. Better preparation is required to improve performance in possible future large outbreaks.

2.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 21: 23259582221084536, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731505

Résumé

The Ryan White Program (RWP) in Miami-Dade County, Florida made several modifications to keep HIV care accessible during the COVID-19 Pandemic, including expanding telehealth services, increasing access to HIV medications, and waiving required lab tests for service recertification. We assessed ease of access to medical providers, medical case managers, and antiretroviral medications during the COVID-19 Pandemic among 298 Non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and Haitian people with HIV (PWH) served by the RWP Part A, Miami-Dade County, Florida using a telephone-administered survey between October 2020 and January 2021. Overall, most clients reported similar or better access compared to before the Pandemic. Use of videocalls to communicate with HIV medical providers varied by race/ethnicity: Hispanics (49.6%), Non-Hispanic Blacks (37.7%), and Haitian clients (16.0%). Results suggest the modifications helped maintain access to care during an unprecedented health crisis. Permanently adopting many of these modifications should be considered to continue to facilitate access to care.


Sujets)
, Infections à VIH , /épidémiologie , , , Floride/épidémiologie , Infections à VIH/traitement médicamenteux , Infections à VIH/épidémiologie , Haïti/épidémiologie , Humains , Minorités , Pandémies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312698

Résumé

Background: No specific therapeutic agents or vaccines are available for the treatment of Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) yet. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of high dose ulinastatin for patients with Covid-19. Methods: Twelve patients hospitalized with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were treated with high dose of ulinastatin beyond standard care. The changes of clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and chest images were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 10 patients with severe Covid-19 and 2 patients with moderate Covid-19 received ulinastatin treatment. The average age of the patients was 68.0 ± 11.9 years, ranging from 48 to 87 years. Nine of 12 patients (75.0%) had one or more comorbidities. The most common symptoms on admission were fever (8/12, 66.7%), cough (5/12, 41.7%) and dyspnea (5/12, 41.7%). The percentage of lymphocytes was decreased in 41.7% of patients (5/12), and 58.3% of patients (7/12) had elevated hypersensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (mean, 49.70 ± 77.70 mg/L). The white blood cell levels and the percentage of lymphocytes returned to normal in all of the patients, and CRP decreased significantly and returned to normal in 83.3% of patients (10/12;mean, 6.87 ± 6.63 mg/L) on the seventh day after ulinastatin treatment. Clinical symptoms were relieved synchronously. The peripheral oxygen saturation improved and 66.7% of the patients (8/12) did not need further oxygen therapy seven days after ulinastatin treatment. No patients required intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation. All patients revealed different degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions after treatment. No obvious adverse events were observed. Conclusions: Our preliminary data revealed that high dose of ulinastatin treatment was safe and showed a potential beneficial effect for patients with Covid-19.

4.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21262865

Résumé

At the end of 2019 Wuhan witnessed an outbreak of "atypical pneumonia" that later developed into a global pandemic. Metagenomic sequencing rapidly revealed the causative agent of this outbreak to be a novel coronavirus - SARS-CoV-2. Herein, to provide a snapshot of the pathogens in pneumonia-associated respiratory samples from Wuhan prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, we collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from 408 patients presenting with pneumonia and acute respiratory infections at the Central Hospital of Wuhan between 2016 and 2017. Unbiased total RNA sequencing was performed to reveal their "total infectome", including viruses, bacteria and fungi. Consequently, we identified 37 pathogen species, comprising 15 RNA viruses, 3 DNA viruses, 16 bacteria and 3 fungi, often at high abundance and including multiple co-infections (12.8%). However, SARS-CoV-2 was not present. These data depict a stable core infectome comprising common respiratory pathogens such as rhinoviruses and influenza viruses, an atypical respiratory virus (EV-D68), and a single case of a sporadic zoonotic pathogen - Chlamydia psittaci. Samples from patients experiencing respiratory disease on average had higher pathogen abundance than healthy controls. Phylogenetic analyses of individual pathogens revealed multiple origins and global transmission histories, highlighting the connectedness of the Wuhan population. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the pathogens associated with acute respiratory infections and pneumonia, which were more diverse and complex than obtained using targeted PCR or qPCR approaches. These data also suggest that SARS-CoV-2 or closely related viruses were absent from Wuhan in 2016-2017.

5.
Preprint Dans Anglais | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-437323

Résumé

Despite the recent availability of vaccines against the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the search for inhibitory therapeutic agents has assumed importance especially in the context of emerging new viral variants. In this paper, we describe the discovery of a novel non-covalent small-molecule inhibitor, MCULE-5948770040, that binds to and inhibits the SARS-Cov-2 main protease (Mpro) by employing a scalable high throughput virtual screening (HTVS) framework and a targeted compound library of over 6.5 million molecules that could be readily ordered and purchased. Our HTVS framework leverages the U.S. supercomputing infrastructure achieving nearly 91% resource utilization and nearly 126 million docking calculations per hour. Downstream biochemical assays validate this Mpro inhibitor with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 2.9 {micro}M [95% CI 2.2, 4.0]. Further, using room-temperature X-ray crystallography, we show that MCULE-5948770040 binds to a cleft in the primary binding site of Mpro forming stable hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions. We then used multiple {micro}s-timescale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and machine learning (ML) techniques to elucidate how the bound ligand alters the conformational states accessed by Mpro, involving motions both proximal and distal to the binding site. Together, our results demonstrate how MCULE-5948770040 inhibits Mpro and offers a springboard for further therapeutic design. O_TEXTBOXSignificance StatementThe ongoing novel coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has prompted a global race towards finding effective therapeutics that can target the various viral proteins. Despite many virtual screening campaigns in development, the discovery of validated inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2 protein targets has been limited. We discover a novel inhibitor against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. Our integrated platform applies downstream biochemical assays, X-ray crystallography, and atomistic simulations to obtain a comprehensive characterization of its inhibitory mechanism. Inhibiting Mpro can lead to significant biomedical advances in targeting SARS-CoV-2 treatment, as it plays a crucial role in viral replication. C_TEXTBOX

6.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20053769

Résumé

Risk indicators viral load (ORF1ab Ct), lymphocyte percentage (LYM%), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT) and lactic acid (LA) in COVID-19 patients have been proposed in recent studies. However, the predictive effects of those indicators on disease classification and prognosis remains largely unknown. We dynamically measured those reported indicators in 132 cases of COVID-19 patients including the moderate-cured (moderated and cured), severe-cured (severe and cured) and critically ill (died). Our data showed that CRP, PCT, IL-6, LYM%, lactic acid and viral load could predict prognosis and guide classification of COVID-19 patients in different degrees. CRP, IL-6 and LYM% were more effective than other three factors in predicting prognosis. For disease classification, CRP and LYM% were sensitive in identifying the types between critically ill and severe (or moderate). Notably, among the investigated factors, LYM% was the only one that could distinguish between the severe and moderate types. Collectively, we concluded that LYM% was the most sensitive and reliable predictor for disease typing and prognosis. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the precise classification and prognosis prediction are critical for saving the insufficient medical resources, stratified treatment and improving the survival rate of critically ill patients. We recommend that LYM% be used independently or in combination with other indicators in the management of COVID-19.

7.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20040071

Résumé

Prolonged viral shedding is associated with severe status and poor prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Unexpectedly, here we report a non-severe patient with the longest duration of viral shedding. According to the investigation on the clinical and epidemiological information of this case, we concluded that this type of virus might have a low toxicity and transmissibility, but have a prolonged infective ability and was hardly to be eliminated in the body with regular therapy. However, infusion of plasma from recovered patients showed high efficiency in elimination of this virus. Our findings might shed light on the management of COVID-19.

8.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(5): 583-589, 2020 Mar 05.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-10177

Résumé

BACKGROUND: Fever is the most common chief complaint of emergency patients. Early identification of patients at an increasing risk of death may avert adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to establish an early prediction model of fatal adverse prognosis of fever patients by extracting key indicators using big data technology. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients' data was conducted using the Emergency Rescue Database of Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital. Patients were divided into the fatal adverse prognosis group and the good prognosis group. The commonly used clinical indicators were compared. Recursive feature elimination (RFE) method was used to determine the optimal number of the included variables. In the training model, logistic regression, random forest, adaboost and bagging were selected. We also collected the emergency room data from December 2018 to December 2019 with the same inclusion and exclusion criterion. The performance of the model was evaluated by accuracy, F1-score, precision, sensitivity and the areas under receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC-AUC). RESULTS: The accuracy of logistic regression, decision tree, adaboost and bagging was 0.951, 0.928, 0.924, and 0.924, F1-scores were 0.938, 0.933, 0.930, and 0.930, the precision was 0.943, 0.938, 0.937, and 0.937, ROC-AUC were 0.808, 0.738, 0.736, and 0.885, respectively. ROC-AUC of ten-fold cross-validation in logistic and bagging models were 0.80 and 0.87, respectively. The top six coefficients and odds ratio (OR) values of the variables in the Logistic regression were cardiac troponin T (CTnT) (coefficient=0.346, OR = 1.413), temperature (T) (coefficient=0.235, OR = 1.265), respiratory rate (RR) (coefficient= -0.206,OR = 0.814), serum kalium (K) (coefficient=0.137, OR = 1.146), pulse oxygen saturation (SPO2) (coefficient= -0.101, OR = 0.904), and albumin (ALB) (coefficient= -0.043, OR = 0.958). The weights of the top six variables in the bagging model were: CTnT, RR, lactate dehydrogenase, serum amylase, heartrate, and systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The main clinical indicators of concern included CTnT, RR, SPO2, T, ALB and K. The bagging model and logistic regression model had better diagnostic performance comprehesively. Those may be conducive to the early identification of critical patients with fever by physicians.


Sujets)
Fièvre/anatomopathologie , Apprentissage machine , Pression sanguine/physiologie , Rythme cardiaque/physiologie , Humains , Modèles logistiques , Odds ratio , Pronostic , Courbe ROC , Études rétrospectives
9.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20035014

Résumé

BackgroundAt present, PCR-based nucleic acid detection cannot meet the demands for coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) diagnosis. Methods214 confirmed COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in the General Hospital of Central Theater Command of the Peoples Liberation Army between January 18 and February 26, 2020, were recruited. Two Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kits based on recombinant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (rN) and spike protein (rS) were used for detecting IgM and IgG antibodies, and their diagnostic feasibility was evaluated. ResultsAmong the 214 patients, 146 (68.2%) and 150 (70.1%) were successfully diagnosed with the rN-based IgM and IgG ELISAs, respectively; 165 (77.1%) and 159 (74.3%) were successfully diagnosed with the rS-based IgM and IgG ELISAs, respectively. The positive rates of the rN-based and rS-based ELISAs for antibody (IgM and/or IgG) detection were 80.4% and 82.2%, respectively. The sensitivity of the rS-based ELISA for IgM detection was significantly higher than that of the rN-based ELISA. We observed an increase in the positive rate for IgM and IgG with an increasing number of days post-disease onset (d.p.o.), but the positive rate of IgM dropped after 35 d.p.o. The positive rate of rN-based and rS-based IgM and IgG ELISAs was less than 60% during the early stage of the illness 0-10 d.p.o., and that of IgM and IgG was obviously increased after 10 d.p.o. ConclusionsELISA has a high sensitivity, especially for the detection of serum samples from patients after 10 d.p.o, it can be an important supplementary method for COVID-19 diagnosis.

10.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20029074

Résumé

BackgroundCoronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly escalating epidemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Identification of a simple and effective indicator to assess disease severity and prognosis is urgently needed. MethodsDynamic changes of blood lymphocyte percentage (LYM%) in 15 death cases, 15 severe cases as well as 40 moderate cases of COVID-19 patients were retrospectively analyzed. A Time-LYM% model (TLM) was established according to the descriptive studies and was validated in 92 hospitalized cases. ResultsResults from death and severe cases showed that LYM% in blood tests were inversely associated with the severity and prognosis of COVID-19. LYM% in moderate type of patients with COVID-19 remained higher than 20% 10-12 days after symptom onset. In contrast, LYM% was lower than 20% in severe cases. However, LYM% in severe cases was higher than 5% 17-19 days after the onset of the disease, while it fell below 5% in death cases. Accordingly, we established a Time-LYM% model (TLM), which was validated as an independent criterion of disease classification in another 92 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. ConclusionLymphopenia can be used as an indicator of disease severity and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. TLM is worth of application in the clinical practice.

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