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1.
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering ; : 100408, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1996090

Résumé

Antibacterial properties of copper have been known for ages. With the rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), hospital-acquired infections, and the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, copper and copper-derived materials are being widely researched for healthcare ranging from therapeutics to advanced wound dressing to medical devices. We cover current research that highlights the potential uses of metallic and ionic copper, copper alloys, copper nanostructures, and copper composites as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agents, including those against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The applications of copper-enabled engineered materials in medical devices, wound dressings, personal protective equipment, and self-cleaning surfaces are discussed. We emphasize the potential of copper and copper-derived materials in combating AMR and efficiently reducing infections in clinical settings.

2.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 15: 1547-1557, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993637

Résumé

Introduction: Oral conditions exist worldwide, and are related with astounding morbidity. Indian adults' incidence of mild and moderate periodontal conditions was nearly 25%, while about 19% of adults experience severe periodontitis. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse epidemiological factors of periodontal disease among a south Indian population based on the role of sociodemographic factors, habitual factors and set of oral health knowledge, attitude, and behaviour measures. Methods: A sample of 288 participants above 18 years of age residing in Tamil Nadu, India took part in this cross-sectional study. Based on WHO criteria, periodontal disease was measured in our study. Age, ethnicity, smoking, education, and oral health behavior were found to be the covariates. Ordinal logistic regression analysis using R version 3.6.1 was utilized to study the various factors that influence periodontal disease among south Indian adults. Results: Various demographic factors such as age between 25 and 34 years (AOR = 2.25; 95% CI 1.14-4.55), 35-44 years (AOR = 1.80; 95% CI 0.89-3.64), ≥ 45 years old (AOR = 2.89; 95% CI 1.41-6.01), ethnicity (AOR = 2.71; 95% CI 1.25-5.81), smoking (AOR = 0.38; 95% CI 0.16-0.65), primary level education (AOR = 0.07; 95% CI 0.01-0.50) high school level education (AOR = 0.06; 95% CI 0.01-0.27), university level education (AOR = 0.08; 95% CI 0.01-0.36) and an individual's oral health behavior (AOR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.32-1.08) were found to be related with periodontal disease among the south Indian population. The maximum log likelihood residual deviance value was 645.94 in the final model. Conclusion: Based on our epidemiological findings, sociodemographic, habitual factors and oral health behavior play a vital role in an individual's periodontal status among south Indian adults. An epidemiological model derived from the factors from our study will help to bring better understanding of the disease and to implement various preventive strategies to eliminate the causative factors.

3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 2022 Aug 06.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982295

Résumé

The 2019 outbreak of corona virus disease began from Wuhan (China), transforming into a leading pandemic, posing an immense threat to the global population. The WHO coined the term nCOVID-19 for the disease on 11th February, 2020 and the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses named it SARS-CoV-2, on account of its similarity with SARS-CoV-1 of 2003. The infection is associated with fever, cough, pneumonia, lung damage, and ARDS along with clinical implications of lung opacities. Brief understanding of the entry target of virus, i.e., ACE2 receptors has enabled numerous treatment options as discussed in this review. The manuscript provides a holistic picture of treatment options in COVID-19, such as non-specific anti-viral drugs, immunosuppressive agents, anti-inflammatory candidates, anti-HCV, nucleotide inhibitors, antibodies and anti-parasitic, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, anti-retroviral, vitamins and hormones, JAK inhibitors, and blood plasma therapy. The text targets to enlist the investigations conducted on all the above categories of drugs, with respect to the COVID-19 pandemic, to accelerate their significance in hindering the disease progression. The data collected primarily targets recently published articles and most recent records of clinical trials, focusing on the last 10-year database. The current review provides a comprehensive view on the critical need of finding a suitable treatment for the currently prevalent COVID-19 disease, and an opportunity for the researchers to investigate the varying possibilities to find and optimized treatment approach to mitigate and ameliorate the chaos created by the pandemic worldwide.

4.
Journal of Diabetes and its Complications ; : 108284, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1983396

Résumé

Background There was an unprecedented increase in COVID-19-associated-Mucormycosis (CAM) cases during the second pandemic wave in India. Methods This observational study was done to know the epidemiological profile of CAM cases andincluded all patients admitted with mucormycosis between May 2021 and July 2021. Results Out of the enrolled 208 CAM cases (either SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR or serology positive), 204, three and one had rhino-orbital-cerebral, pulmonary and gastrointestinal mucormycosis, respectively. 95.7 % of the patients had diabetes, out of which 42.3 % were recently diagnosed. Mean HbA1c was 10.16 ± 2.56 %. 82.5 % of the patients were unvaccinated. During their COVID-19 illness, 86.5 % were prescribed antibiotics, 84.6 % zinc preparations, 76.4 % ivermectin, and 64.9 % steroids, while only 39.5 % required oxygen therapy. The frequency of blood groups A, B, O and AB in our CAM patients was 29.5 %, 18.9 %, 38.9 % &12.6 %, respectively. At three months follow up, 60 (28.8 %) patients died, four (1.9 %) stopped antifungal treatment, and 144(69.23 %) were on antifungal treatment. 55 % (n = 33) of deaths occurred within 15 days of admission. Mortality was significantly associated with higher age, RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2, raised serum creatinine and alkaline phosphatase during treatment. At 6 months follow-up, eight more patients died, three due to chronic kidney disease, four patients who had stopped treatment and one patient who was on a ventilator due to COVID-19 associated pneumonia and the rest 140(67.3 %) survived. Conclusion Uncontrolled hyperglycemia, SARS-CoV-2 infection, rampant use of antibiotics, zinc supplementation and steroids were some of the risk factors for mucormycosis. Despite the overwhelming number of patients with an uncommon disease like mucormycosis, the six months mortality was much lower than expected.

5.
6.
Sustainability ; 14(11):6466, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1892961

Résumé

The rise of the COVID-19 outbreak has made handling plastic waste much more difficult. Our superior, hyper-hygienic way of life has changed our behavioural patterns, such as the use of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment), the increased desire for plastic-packaged food and commodities, and the use of disposable utensils, as a result of the fear of transmission. The constraints and inefficiencies of our current waste management system, in dealing with our growing reliance on plastic, could worsen its mismanagement and leakage into the environment, causing a new environmental crisis. A sustainable, systemic, and hierarchical plastic management plan, which clearly outlines the respective responsibilities as well as the socioeconomic and environmental implications of these actions, is required to tackle the problem of plastic pollution. It will necessitate action strategies tailored to individual types of plastic waste and country demand, as well as increased support from policymakers and the general public. The situation of biomedical plastic wastes during the COVID-19 epidemic is alarming. In addition, treatment of plastic waste, sterilisation, incineration, and alternative technologies for transforming bio-plastic waste into value-added products were discussed, elaborately. Our review would help to promote sustainable technologies to manage plastic waste, which can only be achieved with a change in behaviour among individuals and society, which might help to safeguard against going from one disaster to another in the coming days.

7.
Sustainability ; 14(11):6466, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857717

Résumé

The rise of the COVID-19 outbreak has made handling plastic waste much more difficult. Our superior, hyper-hygienic way of life has changed our behavioural patterns, such as the use of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment), the increased desire for plastic-packaged food and commodities, and the use of disposable utensils, as a result of the fear of transmission. The constraints and inefficiencies of our current waste management system, in dealing with our growing reliance on plastic, could worsen its mismanagement and leakage into the environment, causing a new environmental crisis. A sustainable, systemic, and hierarchical plastic management plan, which clearly outlines the respective responsibilities as well as the socioeconomic and environmental implications of these actions, is required to tackle the problem of plastic pollution. It will necessitate action strategies tailored to individual types of plastic waste and country demand, as well as increased support from policymakers and the general public. The situation of biomedical plastic wastes during the COVID-19 epidemic is alarming. In addition, treatment of plastic waste, sterilisation, incineration, and alternative technologies for transforming bio-plastic waste into value-added products were discussed, elaborately. Our review would help to promote sustainable technologies to manage plastic waste, which can only be achieved with a change in behaviour among individuals and society, which might help to safeguard against going from one disaster to another in the coming days.

8.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 2022 Apr 19.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810589

Résumé

COVID-19 vaccination was initially started in India on 16th January 2021 after approval from national authorities. This study was carried out to assess the effect of vaccination status on the severity and clinical outcome among patients infected with COVID-19. The study included all adult COVID-19 patients admitted to our hospital from 1st April to 30th June 2021. A total of 819 patients were enrolled in the study out of which only 183 (22.3%) were vaccinated. The study documented a statistically significant reduction in the severity of illness among the vaccinated (single/double dose) (33% severe COVID-19) against the unvaccinated (43% severe COVID-19) groups; along with a reduction in mortality. On univariate and multivariate analysis, age, severity of illness and lack of COVID-19 vaccination status were associated with a statistically significant increased mortality. To conclude, this study demonstrates the role of vaccination in decreasing the severity and mortality of COVID-19 infection.

10.
Curr Med Imaging ; 2022 Apr 04.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775542

Résumé

Noise in computed tomography (CT) images may occur due to low radiation dose. Hence, the main aim of this paper is to reduce the noise from low dose CT images so that the risk of high radiation dose can be reduced. BACKGROUND: The novel corona virus outbreak has ushered in different new areas of research in medical instrumentation and technology. Medical diagnostics and imaging are one of the ways in which the area and level of infection can be detected. OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 attacks people who have less immunity, so infants, kids, and pregnant women are more vulnerable to the infection. So they need to undergo CT scanning to find the infection level. But the high radiation diagnostic is also fatal for them, so the intensity of radiation needs to be reduced significantly, which may generate the noise in the CT images. METHOD: In this paper, a new denoising technique for such low dose Covid-19 CT images has been introduced using a convolution neural network (CNN) and the method noise-based thresholding. The major concern of the methodology for reducing the risk associated with radiation while diagnosing. RESULTS: The results are evaluated visually and also by using standard performance metrics. From comparative analysis, it was observed that proposed works gives better outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed low-dose COVID-19 CT image denoising model is therefore concluded to have a better potential to be effective in various pragmatic medical image processing applications in terms of noise suppression and clinical edge preservation.

11.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 88(8): 3562-3565, 2022 08.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764882

Résumé

COVID-19 has spread globally, affecting almost 160 million individuals. Elderly and pre-existing patients (such as diabetes, heart disease and asthma) seem more susceptible to severe illness with COVID-19. Roflumilast was licensed for usage in the European Union in July 2010 as a phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor. Under preclinical studies, roflumilast has been shown to decrease bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, lung hydroxyproline and right heart thickening. The current study reviewed existing data that the PDE-4 inhibitor, a roflumilast, protects renal tissues and other major organ systems after COVID-19 infection by decreasing immune cell infiltration. These immune-balancing effects of roflumilast were related to a decrease in oxidative and inflammatory burden, caspase-3 suppression and increased protein kinase A (PKA)/cyclic A.M.P. (cAMP) levels in renal and other organ tissue.


Sujets)
, Inhibiteurs de la phosphodiestérase-4 , Sujet âgé , Aminopyridines/effets indésirables , Benzamides , /traitement médicamenteux , Cyclopropanes/effets indésirables , Humains , Inflammation/traitement médicamenteux , Inhibiteurs de la phosphodiestérase-4/effets indésirables , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Lung India ; 39(2): 208-209, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726388
13.
EuropePMC;
Preprint Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-326397

Résumé

The Second DiCOVA Challenge aims at accelerating the research in diagnosing COVID-19 using acoustics (DiCOVA), a topic at the intersection of acoustics signal processing, machine learning, and healthcare. This challenge is an open call to researchers to analyze a dataset of audio recordings, collected from individuals with and without COVID-19, for a two-class classification. The development set audio recordings correspond to breathing, cough, and speech sound samples collected from 965 (172 COVID) individuals. The challenge features four tracks, one associated with each sound category and a fourth fusion track allowing experimentation with combination of the individual sound categories. In this paper, we introduce the challenge and provide a detailed description of the task and a baseline system.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314642

Résumé

Background: Arterial stiffness has been established as an independent and specific marker of various chronic cardiovascular diseases. Based on the detailed review of available research and case studies reported in reputed international journals, it can be concluded that Endothelial Damage (Endotheliitis) both in small and large arteries may be an important factor of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Despite the pathological evidence of structural damage due to Endotheliitis in COVID-19 patients, the functional deterioration of the vasculature was not yet studied.Hyper activated inflammation of the arteries may lead to sudden rise in arterial stiffness, the functional indicator of severity of cardiovascular impairment, which develops into Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) in COVID-19. Supervising and controlling the arterial Stiffness may be a way to mitigate the morbidities and mortalities caused due to COVID-19. Objective: Our primary objective was to study functional arterial damage in COVID-19 disease and establish the non-invasive measurement of Arterial Stiffness as an independent marker of disease severity.Methods: We recorded the Arterial Stiffness of 23 Mild, 21 Moderate and 20 Severe COVID-19 patients grouped on latest NIH severity criteria. Patients with pre-existing Diabetes and Hypertension were excluded. We observed Arterial Stiffness of COVID-19 patients with standard parameters like non-invasive Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave velocity (cfPWV), Age-Normalized increase in cfPWV (ANI_cfPWV), Age-Normalized increase in Aortic Augmentation Pressure (ANI_AugP) and Heart rate-normalized Augmentation Index (HRN_ AIx).Results: Moderate and Severe COVID-19 patients have extremely significantly elevated arterial stiffness than Mild patients. In Mild patients, cfPWV (829.1 ± 139.2 cm/s) was significantly lower than both Moderate (1067 ± 152.5 cm/s, P < 0.0001)and Severe (1416 ± 253.9 cm/s, P < 0.0001) patients. ANI_cfPWV in Moderate and Severe patients was significantly higher than Mild patients. (Mild: 101.2 ± 126.1 cm/s;Moderate: 279 ± 114.4 cm/s;Severe: 580.1 ± 216.4 cm/s;intergroup P <0.0001).Similarly, ANI_AugP also showed a significant difference in all three groups. (Mild: -1.891 ±2.817 mmHg;Moderate: 3.212 ± 3.124 mmHg;Severe: 7.246 ± 4.908 mmHg;with P <0.0001, P =0.0031, P <0.0001 respectively). HRN_ AIx also showed a significant increase in Moderate and Severe groups in comparison with the Mild Group. (Mild: 13.34 ±14.18;Moderate: 5.656±8.610;Severe: 24.80± 7.745;intergroup P <0.0001).Conclusion: This is the first study establishing the functional deterioration of vasculature in terms of abnormal increase in arterial stiffness in proportion with severity of COVID-19 disease. Our findings strongly suggest that arterial stiffness can be an independent and accurate marker for objective risk stratification and therapeutic alleviation of the acute cardiovascular complications like MODS in COVID-19.Trial Registration: The study design was registered with the Clinical Trials Registry of India (CTRI No. CTRI/2020/10/028489).Funding Statement: No external funding.Declaration of Interests: Authors declare no conflict of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: The study protocol, informed consents and other trial-related documents received the written approval of Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC No. AIIMS/Pat/IEC/2020/595).

15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321258

Résumé

The technology development for point-of-care tests (POCTs) targeting respiratory diseases has witnessed a growing demand in the recent past. Investigating the presence of acoustic biomarkers in modalities such as cough, breathing and speech sounds, and using them for building POCTs can offer fast, contactless and inexpensive testing. In view of this, over the past year, we launched the ``Coswara'' project to collect cough, breathing and speech sound recordings via worldwide crowdsourcing. With this data, a call for development of diagnostic tools was announced in the Interspeech 2021 as a special session titled ``Diagnostics of COVID-19 using Acoustics (DiCOVA) Challenge''. The goal was to bring together researchers and practitioners interested in developing acoustics-based COVID-19 POCTs by enabling them to work on the same set of development and test datasets. As part of the challenge, datasets with breathing, cough, and speech sound samples from COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 individuals were released to the participants. The challenge consisted of two tracks. The Track-1 focused only on cough sounds, and participants competed in a leaderboard setting. In Track-2, breathing and speech samples were provided for the participants, without a competitive leaderboard. The challenge attracted 85 plus registrations with 29 final submissions for Track-1. This paper describes the challenge (datasets, tasks, baseline system), and presents a focused summary of the various systems submitted by the participating teams. An analysis of the results from the top four teams showed that a fusion of the scores from these teams yields an area-under-the-curve of 95.1% on the blind test data. By summarizing the lessons learned, we foresee the challenge overview in this paper to help accelerate technology for acoustic-based POCTs.

17.
Comput Speech Lang ; 73: 101320, 2022 May.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531158

Résumé

The technology development for point-of-care tests (POCTs) targeting respiratory diseases has witnessed a growing demand in the recent past. Investigating the presence of acoustic biomarkers in modalities such as cough, breathing and speech sounds, and using them for building POCTs can offer fast, contactless and inexpensive testing. In view of this, over the past year, we launched the "Coswara" project to collect cough, breathing and speech sound recordings via worldwide crowdsourcing. With this data, a call for development of diagnostic tools was announced in the Interspeech 2021 as a special session titled "Diagnostics of COVID-19 using Acoustics (DiCOVA) Challenge". The goal was to bring together researchers and practitioners interested in developing acoustics-based COVID-19 POCTs by enabling them to work on the same set of development and test datasets. As part of the challenge, datasets with breathing, cough, and speech sound samples from COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 individuals were released to the participants. The challenge consisted of two tracks. The Track-1 focused only on cough sounds, and participants competed in a leaderboard setting. In Track-2, breathing and speech samples were provided for the participants, without a competitive leaderboard. The challenge attracted 85 plus registrations with 29 final submissions for Track-1. This paper describes the challenge (datasets, tasks, baseline system), and presents a focused summary of the various systems submitted by the participating teams. An analysis of the results from the top four teams showed that a fusion of the scores from these teams yields an area-under-the-receiver operating curve (AUC-ROC) of 95.1% on the blind test data. By summarizing the lessons learned, we foresee the challenge overview in this paper to help accelerate technological development of acoustic-based POCTs.

18.
Biomedicines ; 9(11)2021 Oct 20.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480581

Résumé

In an emergency, drug repurposing is the best alternative option against newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, several bioactive natural products have shown potential against SARS-CoV-2 in recent studies. The present study selected sixty-eight broad-spectrum antiviral marine terpenoids and performed molecular docking against two novel SARS-CoV-2 enzymes (main protease or Mpro or 3CLpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). In addition, the present study analysed the physiochemical-toxicity-pharmacokinetic profile, structural activity relationship, and phylogenetic tree with various computational tools to select the 'lead' candidate. The genomic diversity study with multiple sequence analyses and phylogenetic tree confirmed that the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 strain was up to 96% structurally similar to existing CoV-strains. Furthermore, the anti-SARS-CoV-2 potency based on a protein-ligand docking score (kcal/mol) exposed that the marine terpenoid brevione F (-8.4) and stachyflin (-8.4) exhibited similar activity with the reference antiviral drugs lopinavir (-8.4) and darunavir (-7.5) against the target SARS-CoV-Mpro. Similarly, marine terpenoids such as xiamycin (-9.3), thyrsiferol (-9.2), liouvilloside B (-8.9), liouvilloside A (-8.8), and stachyflin (-8.7) exhibited comparatively higher docking scores than the referral drug remdesivir (-7.4), and favipiravir (-5.7) against the target SARS-CoV-2-RdRp. The above in silico investigations concluded that stachyflin is the most 'lead' candidate with the most potential against SARS-CoV-2. Previously, stachyflin also exhibited potential activity against HSV-1 and CoV-A59 within IC50, 0.16-0.82 µM. Therefore, some additional pharmacological studies are needed to develop 'stachyflin' as a drug against SARS-CoV-2.

19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint Dans Anglais | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291467

Résumé

The Second Diagnosis of COVID-19 using Acoustics (DiCOVA) Challenge aimed at accelerating the research in acoustics based detection of COVID-19, a topic at the intersection of acoustics, signal processing, machine learning, and healthcare. This paper presents the details of the challenge, which was an open call for researchers to analyze a dataset of audio recordings consisting of breathing, cough and speech signals. This data was collected from individuals with and without COVID-19 infection, and the task in the challenge was a two-class classification. The development set audio recordings were collected from 965 (172 COVID-19 positive) individuals, while the evaluation set contained data from 471 individuals (71 COVID-19 positive). The challenge featured four tracks, one associated with each sound category of cough, speech and breathing, and a fourth fusion track. A baseline system was also released to benchmark the participants. In this paper, we present an overview of the challenge, the rationale for the data collection and the baseline system. Further, a performance analysis for the systems submitted by the $16$ participating teams in the leaderboard is also presented.

20.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 92(2)2021 Oct 11.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463905

Résumé

The similarities and differences between the mortality patterns of the two waves in India remain largely unknown. This was a retrospective study of medical records conducted in the COVID data center of our hospital This study analyzed data of patients who died in the month of August, 2020 to October 2020 (one month before and after the peak of first wave i.e., 16th September, 2020) and April 2021 to June 2021 (one month before and after the peak of second wave i.e., 6th May, 2021), corresponding to an equal part of the pandemic during first (2020) and second (2021) wave. Out of 1893 patients in the study, 764 patients were admitted during the first wave and 1129 patients during the second wave of pandemic. In total, 420 patients died during the entire study period. Of those, 147 (35%) deaths occurred during the first wave and 273 (65%) during the second wave, reflecting a case fatality rate (CFR) of 19.2% during the first wave and a CFR of 24.18%. There were no significant differences in the age group, gender, presenting complaints, duration of stay and comorbidities. However, the deceased COVID-19 patients had an increase in case fatality rate, average duration of symptoms from onset to hospital admission (DOSHA) and a major shift from MODS to ARDS being the cause of death during the second wave of pandemic. This study demonstrates increased CFR, average DOSHA and a paradigm shift to ARDS as cause of mortality during the second peak of the pandemic. It is necessary to remain vigilant of newer COVID-19 variants of concern, follow COVID-19 appropriate behaviors and keep emphasizing on care of high-risk groups including patients with comorbidities and elderly population to prevent mortality.


Sujets)
, , Adulte , Sujet âgé , Humains , Inde/épidémiologie , Pandémies , Études rétrospectives , SARS-CoV-2 , Centres de soins tertiaires
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