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1.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21255135

Résumé

BackgroundEstimates of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness under real-world conditions, and understanding of barriers to uptake, are necessary to inform vaccine rollout. MethodsWe enrolled cases (testing positive) and controls (testing negative) from among the population whose SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnostic test results from 24 February-29 April 2021 were reported to the California Department of Public Health. Participants were matched on age, sex, and geographic region. We assessed participants self-reported history of COVID-19 vaccine receipt (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273). Participants were considered fully vaccinated two weeks after second dose receipt. Among unvaccinated participants, we assessed willingness to receive vaccination, when eligible. We measured vaccine effectiveness (VE) via the matched odds ratio of prior vaccination, comparing cases with controls. ResultsWe enrolled 1023 eligible participants aged [≥]18 years. Among 525 cases, 71 (13.5%) received BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273; 20 (3.8%) were fully vaccinated with either product. Among 498 controls, 185 (37.1%) received BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273; 86 (16.3%) were fully vaccinated with either product. Two weeks after second dose receipt, VE was 86.8% (95% confidence interval: 68.6-94.7%) and 85.6% (69.1-93.9%) for BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, respectively. Fully vaccinated participants receiving either product experienced 91.3% (79.7-96.3%) and 68.3% (28.5-86.0%) VE against symptomatic and asymptomatic infection, respectively. Among unvaccinated participants, 42.4% (159/375) residing in rural regions and 23.8% (67/281) residing in urban regions reported hesitancy to receive COVID-19 vaccination. ConclusionsAuthorized mRNA vaccines are effective at reducing documented SARS-CoV-2 infections within the general population of California. Vaccine hesitancy presents a barrier to reaching coverage levels needed for herd immunity. Brief pointsO_LIVaccination is preventing documented SARS-CoV-2 infection in California, with 68% and 91% effectiveness against asymptomatic and symptomatic infection, respectively. C_LIO_LIVaccine effectiveness was equivalent for BNT126b2 and mRNA-1273. C_LIO_LIOnly 66% of unvaccinated participants were willing to receive the vaccine when eligible. C_LI

2.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21250959

Résumé

SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7, a variant first detected in the United Kingdom in September 20201, has spread to multiple countries worldwide. Several studies have established that B.1.1.7 is more transmissible than preexisting variants, but have not identified whether it leads to any change in disease severity2. We analyse a dataset linking 2,245,263 positive SARS-CoV-2 community tests and 17,452 COVID-19 deaths in England from 1 September 2020 to 14 February 2021. For 1,146,534 (51%) of these tests, the presence or absence of B.1.1.7 can be identified because of mutations in this lineage preventing PCR amplification of the spike gene target (S gene target failure, SGTF1). Based on 4,945 deaths with known SGTF status, we estimate that the hazard of death associated with SGTF is 55% (95% CI 39-72%) higher after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, care home residence, local authority of residence and test date. This corresponds to the absolute risk of death for a 55-69-year-old male increasing from 0.6% to 0.9% (95% CI 0.8-1.0%) within 28 days after a positive test in the community. Correcting for misclassification of SGTF and missingness in SGTF status, we estimate a 61% (42-82%) higher hazard of death associated with B.1.1.7. Our analysis suggests that B.1.1.7 is not only more transmissible than preexisting SARS-CoV-2 variants, but may also cause more severe illness.

3.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21250963

Résumé

ImportanceEssential workers in agriculture and food production have been severely affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. ObjectiveTo identify risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 shedding and antibody response in farmworkers in California. DesignThis cross-sectional study collected survey data and determined current SARS-CoV-2 shedding and seropositivity among 1,107 farmworkers in Californias Salinas Valley from 16 July to 30 November 2020. SettingFarmworkers receiving transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection at federally qualified community clinics and community sites were invited to participate in our study. ParticipantsIndividuals were eligible if they were not pregnant, [≥]18 years old, had conducted farm work since the pandemic started, and were proficient in English or Spanish. ExposuresSociodemographic, household, community, and workplace characteristics. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s)Current (as indicated by TMA positivity) and historical (as indicated by IgG seropositivity) SARS-CoV-2 infection. ResultsMost farmworkers enrolled in the study were born in Mexico, had primary school or lower levels of educational attainment, and were overweight or obese. Current SARS-CoV-2 shedding was associated in multivariable analyses with attained only primary or lower educational levels (RR=1.32; 95% CI: 0.99-1.76), speaking an indigenous language at home (RR=1.30; 0.97-1.73), working in the fields (RR=1.60; 1.03-2.50), and exposure to known or suspected COVID-19 case at home (RR=2.98; 2.06-4.32) or in the workplace (RR=1.59; 1.18-2.14). Antibody detection was associated with residential exposures including living in crowded housing (RR=1.23; 0.98-1.53), with children (RR=1.40; 1.1-1.76) or unrelated roommates (RR=1.40; 1.19-1.64), and with a known or suspected COVID-19 case (RR=1.59; 1.13-2.24). Those who were obese (RR=1.65; 1.01-2.70) or diabetic (RR=1.31; 0.98-1.75) were also more likely to be seropositive. Farmworkers who lived in rural areas other than Greenfield (RR=0.58; 0.47-0.71), worked indoors (RR=0.68; 0.61-0.77), or whose employer provided them with information on how to protect themselves at work (RR=0.59; 0.40-0.86) had lower risk of prior infection. Conclusions and RelevanceOur findings suggest both residential and workplace exposures are contributing to SARS-CoV-2 infection among farmworkers in California. Urgent distribution of COVID-19 vaccines is warranted given this populations increased risk of infection and the essential nature of their work.

4.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21250258

Résumé

Observational studies of the effectiveness of vaccines to prevent COVID-19 are needed to inform real-world use. These are now in planning amid the ongoing rollout of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines globally. While traditional case-control (TCC) and test-negative design (TND) studies feature prominently among strategies used to assess vaccine effectiveness, such studies may encounter important threats to validity. Here we review the theoretical basis for estimation of vaccine direct effects under TCC and TND frameworks, addressing specific natural history parameters of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 relevant to these designs. Bias may be introduced by misclassification of cases and controls, particularly when clinical case criteria include common, non-specific indicators of COVID-19. When using diagnostic assays with high analytical sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 detection, individuals testing positive may be counted as cases even if their symptoms are due to other causes. The TCC may be particularly prone to confounding due to associations of vaccination with healthcare-seeking behavior or risk of infection. The TND reduces but may not eliminate this confounding, for instance if individuals who receive vaccination seek care or testing for less-severe infection. These circumstances indicate the two study designs cannot be applied naively to datasets gathered through public health surveillance or administrative sources. We suggest practical strategies to reduce bias in vaccine effectiveness estimates at the study design and analysis stages.

5.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20248894

Résumé

As essential personnel, United States farmworkers have continued working in-person throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. We undertook prospective surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infection and antibody prevalence among farmworkers in Californias Salinas Valley from 15 June to 30 November, 2020. Over this period, we observed 22.1% (1514/6864) positivity for current SARS-CoV-2 by nucleic acid detection among farmworkers tested at federally-qualified migrant and community health clinics, as compared to 17.2% (1255/7305) among other adults from the same communities (risk ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-1.37). In a nested study enrolling 1,115 farmworkers, prevalence of current infection was 27.7% among farmworkers reporting [≥]1 potential COVID-19 symptom, and 7.2% among farmworkers without symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 4.17; 2.86-6.09). Prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies increased from 10.5% (6.0-18.4%) between 16 July-31 August to 21.2% (16.6-27.4%) between 1-30 November. The high observed prevalence of infection among farmworkers underscores the need for vaccination and other preventive interventions.

6.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20094441

Résumé

Determining the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions on transmission of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is paramount for the design and deployment of effective public health policies. Incorporating Apple Maps mobility data into an epidemiological model of daily deaths and hospitalizations allowed us to estimate an explicit relationship between human mobility and transmission in the United States. We find that reduced mobility explains a large decrease in the effective reproductive number (RE) attained by April 1st and further identify state-to-state variation in the inferred transmission-mobility relationship. These findings indicate that simply relaxing stay-at-home orders can rapidly lead to outbreaks exceeding the scale of transmission that has occurred to date. Our findings provide quantitative guidance on the impact policies must achieve against transmission to safely relax social distancing measures.

7.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20062943

Résumé

BackgroundThe United States is now the country reporting the highest number of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases and deaths. However, little is known about the epidemiology and burden of severe COVID-19 to inform planning within healthcare systems and modeling of intervention impact. MethodsWe assessed incidence, duration of hospitalization, and clinical outcomes of acute COVID-19 inpatient admissions in a prospectively-followed cohort of 9,596,321 individuals enrolled in comprehensive, integrated healthcare delivery plans from Kaiser Permanente in California and Washington state. We also estimated the effective reproductive number (RE) describing transmission in the study populations. ResultsData covered 1277 hospitalized patients with laboratory- or clinically-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis by April 9, 2020. Cumulative incidence of first COVID-19 acute inpatient admission was 10.6-12.4 per 100,000 cohort members across the study regions. Mean censoring-adjusted duration of hospitalization was 10.7 days (2.5-97.5%iles: 0.8-30.1) among survivors and 13.7 days (2.5-97.5%iles: 1.7-34.6) among non-survivors. Among all hospitalized confirmed cases, censoring-adjusted probabilities of ICU admission and mortality were 41.9% (95% confidence interval: 34.1-51.4%) and 17.8% (14.3-22.2%), respectively, and higher among men than women. We estimated RE was 1.43 (1.17-1.73), 2.09 (1.63-2.69), and 1.47 (0.07-2.59) in Northern California, Southern California, and Washington, respectively, for infections acquired March 1, 2020. RE declined to 0.98 (0.76-1.27), 0.89 (0.74-1.06), and 0.92 (0.05-1.55) respectively, for infections acquired March 20, 2020. ConclusionsWe identify high probability of ICU admission, long durations of stay, and considerable mortality risk among hospitalized COVID-19 cases in the western United States. Reductions in RE have occurred in conjunction with implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions.

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