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1.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22278025

Résumé

Identification of the plasma proteomic changes of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is essential to understanding the pathophysiology of the disease and developing predictive models and novel therapeutics. We performed plasma deep proteomic profiling from 332 COVID-19 patients and 150 controls and pursued replication in an independent cohort (297 cases and 76 controls) to find potential biomarkers and causal proteins for three COVID-19 outcomes (infection, ventilation, and death). We identified and replicated 1,449 proteins associated with any of the three outcomes (841 for infection, 833 for ventilation, and 253 for death) that can be query on a web portal (https://covid.proteomics.wustl.edu/). Using those proteins and machine learning approached we created and validated specific prediction models for ventilation (AUC>0.91), death (AUC>0.95) and either outcome (AUC>0.80). These proteins were also enriched in specific biological processes, including immune and cytokine signaling (FDR [≤] 3.72x10-14), Alzheimers disease (FDR [≤] 5.46x10-10) and coronary artery disease (FDR [≤] 4.64x10-2). Mendelian randomization using pQTL as instrumental variants nominated BCAT2 and GOLM1 as a causal proteins for COVID-19. Causal gene network analyses identified 141 highly connected key proteins, of which 35 have known drug targets with FDA-approved compounds. Our findings provide distinctive prognostic biomarkers for two severe COVID-19 outcomes (ventilation and death), reveal their relationship to Alzheimers disease and coronary artery disease, and identify potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19 outcomes.

2.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22269848

Résumé

Patients with primary antibody deficiency syndromes (PAD) have poor humoral immune responses requiring immunoglobulin replacement therapy. We followed PAD patients after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination by evaluating their immunoglobulin replacement products and serum for anti-spike binding, Fc{gamma}R binding, and neutralizing activities. Immunoglobulin replacement products had low anti-spike and receptor binding domain (RBD) titers and neutralizing activity. In COVID-19-naive PAD patients, anti-spike and RBD titers increased after mRNA vaccination but decreased to pre-immunization levels by 90 days. Patients vaccinated after SARS-CoV-2 infection developed higher responses comparable to healthy donors. Most vaccinated PAD patients had serum neutralizing antibody titers above an estimated correlate of protection against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and Delta virus but not against Omicron virus, although this was improved by boosting. Thus, currently used immunoglobulin replacement products likely have limited protective activity, and immunization and boosting of PAD patients with mRNA vaccines should confer at least short-term immunity against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron.

3.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21264250

Résumé

Although vaccines effectively prevent COVID-19 in healthy individuals, they appear less immunogenic in individuals with chronic inflammatory diseases (CID) and/or under chronic immunosuppression, and there is uncertainty of their activity against emerging variants of concern in this population. Here, we assessed a cohort of 74 CID patients treated as monotherapy with chronic immunosuppressive drugs for functional antibody responses in serum against historical and variant SARS-CoV-2 viruses after immunization with Pfizer mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine. Longitudinal analysis showed the greatest reductions in neutralizing antibodies and Fc effector function capacity in individuals treated with TNF- inhibitors, and this pattern appeared worse against the B.1.617.2 Delta virus. Within five months of vaccination, serum neutralizing titers of the majority of CID patients fell below the presumed threshold correlate for antibody-mediated protection. Thus, further vaccine boosting or administration of long-acting prophylaxis (e.g., monoclonal antibodies) likely will be required to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in this susceptible population.

4.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21254427

Résumé

The COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by the largest mobilization of therapeutic convalescent plasma (CCP) in over a century. Initial identification of high titer units was based on dose-response data using the Ortho VITROS IgG assay. The proliferation of SARS-CoV-2 serological assays and non-uniform application has led to uncertainty about their interrelationships. The purpose of this study was to establish correlations and analogous cutoffs between commercially available serological tests (Ortho, Abbott, Roche), a spike ELISA, and a virus neutralization assay using convalescent plasma from a cohort of 79 donors from April 2020. Relationships relative to FDA-approved cutoffs under the CCP EUA were identified by linear regression and receiver operator characteristic curves. Relative to the Ortho VITROS assay, the r2 of the Abbott, Roche, the anti-Spike ELISA and the neutralizing assay were 0.58, 0.5, 0.82, and 0.44, respectively. The best correlative index for establishing high-titer units was 3.82 S/C for the Abbott, 10.89 COI for the Roche, 1:1,202 for the anti-Spike ELISA, and 1:200 by the neutralization assay. The overall agreement using derived cutoffs compared to the CCP EUA Ortho VITROS cutoff of 9.5 was 92.4% for Abbott, 84.8% for Roche, 87.3% for the anti-S ELISA and 78.5% for the neutralization assay. Assays based on antibodies against the nucleoprotein (Roche, Abbott) and neutralizing antibody tests were positively associated with the Ortho assay, although their ability to distinguish FDA high-titer specimens was imperfect. The resulting relationships help reconcile results from the large body of serological data generated during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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