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Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21268206

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OBJECTIVESThe relationships between baseline clinical phenotypes and the cytokine milieu of the peak inflammatory phase of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) are not yet well understood. We used Topological Data Analysis (TDA), a dimensionality reduction technique to identify patterns of inflammation associated with COVID-19 severity and clinical characteristics. DESIGNExploratory analysis from a multi-center prospective cohort study. SETTINGEight military hospitals across the United States between April 2020 and January 2021. PATIENTSAdult ([≥]18 years of age) SARS-CoV-2 positive inpatient and outpatient participants were enrolled with plasma samples selected from the putative inflammatory phase of COVID-19, defined as 15-28 days post symptom onset. INTERVENTIONSNone. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTSConcentrations of 12 inflammatory protein biomarkers were measured using a broad dynamic range immunoassay. TDA identified 3 distinct inflammatory protein expression clusters. Peak severity (outpatient, hospitalized, ICU admission or death), Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated with logistic regression for associations with each cluster. The study population (n=129, 33.3% female, median 41.3 years of age) included 77 outpatient, 31 inpatient, 16 ICU-level, and 5 fatal cases. Three distinct clusters were found that differed by peak disease severity (p <0.001), age (p <0.001), BMI (p<0.001), and CCI (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONSExploratory clustering methods can stratify heterogeneous patient populations and identify distinct inflammation patterns associated with comorbid disease, obesity, and severe illness due to COVID-19.

2.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21266969

Résumé

Like other congregate living settings, military basic training has been subject to outbreaks of COVID-19. We sought to identify improved strategies for preventing outbreaks in this setting using an agent-based model of a hypothetical cohort of trainees on a U.S. Army post. Our analysis revealed unique aspects of basic training that require customized approaches to outbreak prevention, which draws attention to the possibility that customized approaches may be necessary in other settings, too. In particular, we showed that introductions by trainers and support staff may be a major vulnerability, given that those individuals remain at risk of community exposure throughout the training period. We also found that increased testing of trainees upon arrival could actually increase the risk of outbreaks, given the potential for false-positive test results to lead to susceptible individuals becoming infected in group isolation and seeding outbreaks in training units upon release. Until an effective transmission-blocking vaccine is adopted at high coverage by individuals involved with basic training, need will persist for non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent outbreaks in military basic training. Ongoing uncertainties about virus variants and breakthrough infections necessitate continued vigilance in this setting, even as vaccination coverage increases. Significance StatementCOVID-19 has presented enormous disruptions to society. Militaries are not immune to these disruptions, with outbreaks in those settings posing threats to national security. We present a simulation model of COVID-19 outbreaks in a U.S. Army basic training setting to inform improved approaches to prevention there. Counterintuitively, we found that outbreak risk is driven more by virus introductions from trainers than the large number of trainees, and that outbreak risk is highly sensitive to false-positive results during entry testing. These findings suggest practical ways to improve prevention of COVID-19 outbreaks in basic training and, as a result, maintain the flow of new soldiers into the military. This work highlights the need for bespoke modeling to inform prevention in diverse institutional settings.

3.
Preprint Dans Anglais | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-434287

Résumé

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic prompts evaluation of recombination in human coronavirus (hCoV) evolution. We undertook recombination analyses of 158,118 public seasonal hCoV, SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV genome sequences using the RDP4 software. We found moderate evidence for 8 SARS-CoV-2 recombination events, two of which involved the spike gene, and low evidence for one SARS-CoV-1 recombination event. Within MERS-CoV, 229E, OC43, NL63 and HKU1 datasets, we noted 7, 1, 9, 14, and 1 high-confidence recombination events, respectively. There was propensity for recombination breakpoints in structural genes, and recombination severely skewed the temporal structure of these data, especially for NL63 and OC43. Bayesian time-scaled analyses on recombinant-free data indicated the sampled diversity of seasonal CoVs emerged in the last 70 years, with 229E displaying continuous lineage replacements. These findings emphasize the importance of genomic based surveillance to detect recombination in SARS-CoV-2, particularly if recombination may lead to immune evasion.

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