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2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(11): e0010952, 2022 Nov 28.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36441812

Résumé

BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus has become a leading cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection in endemic regions. As a treatable condition, prompt recognition is vital. However, few studies have focused on describing the symptomology and outcomes of neurological scrub typhus infection. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to report the clinical features and case fatality ratio (CFR) in patients with CNS scrub typhus infection. METHODS: A search and analysis plan was published in PROSPERO [ID 328732]. A systematic search of PubMed and Scopus was performed and studies describing patients with CNS manifestations of proven scrub typhus infection were included. The outcomes studied were weighted pooled prevalence (WPP) of clinical features during illness and weighted CFR. RESULTS: Nineteen studies with 1,221 (656 adults and 565 paediatric) patients were included. The most common clinical features in CNS scrub typhus were those consistent with non-specific acute encephalitis syndromes (AES), such as fever (WPP 100.0% [99.5%-100.0%, I2 = 47.8%]), altered sensorium (67.4% [54.9-78.8%, I2 = 93.3%]), headache (65.0% [51.5-77.6%, I2 = 95.1%]) and neck stiffness 56.6% (29.4-80.4%, I2 = 96.3%). Classical features of scrub typhus were infrequently identified; an eschar was found in only 20.8% (9.8%-34.3%, I2 = 95.4%) and lymphadenopathy in 24.1% (95% CI 11.8% - 38.9%, I2 = 87.8%). The pooled CFR (95% CI) was 3.6% (1.5%- 6.4%, I2 = 67.3%). Paediatric cohorts had a CFR of 6.1% (1.9-12.1%, I2 = 77%) whilst adult cohorts reported 2.6% (0.7-5.3%, I2 = 43%). CONCLUSION: Our meta-analyses illustrate that 3.6% of patients with CNS manifestations of scrub typhus die. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for scrub typhus in patients presenting with AES in endemic regions and consider starting empiric treatment whilst awaiting results of investigations, even in the absence of classical signs such as an eschar or lymphadenopathy.

3.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 412, 2022 Nov 07.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344954

Résumé

BACKGROUND: Seizures can occur unpredictably in patients with acute encephalitis syndrome (AES), and many suffer from poor long-term neurological sequelae. Establishing factors associated with acute seizures risk and poor outcomes could support clinical care. We aimed to conduct regional and volumetric analysis of cerebral oedema on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with AES. We assessed the relationship of brain oedema with acute seizure activity and long-term neurological outcome. METHODS: In a multi-centre cohort study, adults and children presenting with an AES were recruited in the UK. The clinical and brain MRI data were retrospectively reviewed. The outcomes variables were inpatient acute seizure activity and neurological disability at six-months post-discharge. A poor outcome was defined as a Glasgow outcome score (GOS) of 1-3. We quantified regional brain oedema on MRI through stereological examination of T2-weighted images using established methodology by independent and blinded assessors. Clinical and neuroimaging variables were analysed by multivariate logistic regression to assess for correlation with acute seizure activity and outcome. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 69 patients (mean age 31.8 years; 53.6% female), of whom 41 (59.4%) had acute seizures as inpatients. A higher Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score on admission was a negative predictor of seizures (OR 0.61 [0.46-0.83], p = 0.001). Even correcting for GCS on admission, the presence of cortical oedema was a significant risk factor for acute seizure activity (OR 5.48 [1.62-18.51], p = 0.006) and greater volume of cerebral oedema in these cortical structures increased the risk of acute seizures (OR 1.90 [1.12-3.21], p = 0.017). At six-month post-discharge, 21 (30.4%) had a poor neurological outcome. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis was associated with higher risk of poor outcomes in univariate analysis (OR 3.92 [1.08-14.20], p = 0.038). When controlling for aetiology, increased volume of cerebral oedema was an independent risk factor for adverse neurological outcome at 6 months (OR 1.73 [1.06-2.83], p = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Both the presence and degree of cerebral oedema on MRIs of patients with AES may help identify patients at risk of acute seizure activity and subsequent long-term morbidity.


Sujets)
Oedème cérébral , Encéphalite à herpès simplex , Enfant , Adulte , Humains , Femelle , Mâle , Oedème cérébral/imagerie diagnostique , Oedème cérébral/épidémiologie , Oedème cérébral/étiologie , Études de cohortes , Études rétrospectives , Post-cure , Sortie du patient , Crises épileptiques/imagerie diagnostique , Crises épileptiques/épidémiologie , Crises épileptiques/étiologie , Imagerie par résonance magnétique , Encéphalite à herpès simplex/complications
5.
BMJ Neurol Open ; 4(2): e000323, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36110928

Résumé

Objective: In patients with encephalitis, the development of acute symptomatic seizures is highly variable, but when present is associated with a worse outcome. We aimed to determine the factors associated with seizures in encephalitis and develop a clinical prediction model. Methods: We analysed 203 patients from 24 English hospitals (2005-2008) (Cohort 1). Outcome measures were seizures prior to and during admission, inpatient seizures and status epilepticus. A binary logistic regression risk model was converted to a clinical score and independently validated on an additional 233 patients from 31 UK hospitals (2013-2016) (Cohort 2). Results: In Cohort 1, 121 (60%) patients had a seizure including 103 (51%) with inpatient seizures. Admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤8/15 was predictive of subsequent inpatient seizures (OR (95% CI) 5.55 (2.10 to 14.64), p<0.001), including in those without a history of prior seizures at presentation (OR 6.57 (95% CI 1.37 to 31.5), p=0.025).A clinical model of overall seizure risk identified admission GCS along with aetiology (autoantibody-associated OR 11.99 (95% CI 2.09 to 68.86) and Herpes simplex virus 3.58 (95% CI 1.06 to 12.12)) (area under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) =0.75 (95% CI 0.701 to 0.848), p<0.001). The same model was externally validated in Cohort 2 (AUROC=0.744 (95% CI 0.677 to 0.811), p<0.001). A clinical scoring system for stratifying inpatient seizure risk by decile demonstrated good discrimination using variables available on admission; age, GCS and fever (AUROC=0.716 (95% CI 0.634 to 0.798), p<0.001) and once probable aetiology established (AUROC=0.761 (95% CI 0.6840.839), p<0.001). Conclusion: Age, GCS, fever and aetiology can effectively stratify acute seizure risk in patients with encephalitis. These findings can support the development of targeted interventions and aid clinical trial design for antiseizure medication prophylaxis.

6.
Brain ; 2022 Sep 10.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087305

Résumé

Different neurological manifestations of COVID-19 in adults and children and their impact have not been well characterized. We aimed to determine the prevalence of neurological manifestations and in-hospital complications among hospitalized COVID-19 patients and ascertain differences between adults and children. We conducted a prospective multicenter observational study using the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium cohort across 1507 sites worldwide from January/30th/2020 to May/25th/2021. Analyses of neurological manifestations and neurological complications considered unadjusted prevalence estimates for predefined patient subgroups, and adjusted estimates as a function of patient age and time of hospitalization using generalized linear models. Overall, 161,239 patients (158,267 adults; 2,972 children) hospitalized with COVID-19 and assessed for neurological manifestations and complications were included. In adults and children, the most frequent neurological manifestations at admission were fatigue (adults: 37.4%; children: 20.4%), altered consciousness (20.9%; 6.8%), myalgia (16.9%; 7.6%), dysgeusia (7.4%; 1.9%), anosmia (6.0%; 2.2%), and seizure (1.1%; 5.2%). In adults, the most frequent in-hospital neurological complications were stroke (1.5%), seizure (1%), and central nervous system (CNS) infection (0.2%). Each occurred more frequently in ICU than in non-ICU patients. In children, seizure was the only neurological complication to occur more frequently in ICU vs. non-ICU (7.1% vs. 2.3%, P < .001). Stroke prevalence increased with increasing age, while CNS infection and seizure steadily decreased with age. There was a dramatic decrease in stroke over time during the pandemic. Hypertension, chronic neurological disease, and the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were associated with increased risk of stroke. Altered consciousness was associated with CNS infection, seizure, and stroke. All in-hospital neurological complications were associated with increased odds of death. The likelihood of death rose with increasing age, especially after 25 years of age. In conclusion, adults and children have different neurological manifestations and in-hospital complications associated with COVID-19. Stroke risk increased with increasing age, while CNS infection and seizure risk decreased with age.

7.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; : appineuropsych22010002, 2022 Jul 25.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35872617

Résumé

Encephalopathy, a common condition among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, can be a challenge to manage and negatively affect prognosis. While encephalopathy may present clinically as delirium, subsyndromal delirium, or coma and may be a result of systemic causes such as hypoxia, COVID-19 has also been associated with more prolonged encephalopathy due to less common but nevertheless severe complications, such as inflammation of the brain parenchyma (with or without cerebrovascular involvement), demyelination, or seizures, which may be disproportionate to COVID-19 severity and require specific management. Given the large number of patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection, even these relatively unlikely complications are increasingly recognized and are particularly important because they require specific management. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide pragmatic guidance on the management of COVID-19 encephalopathy through consensus agreement of the Global COVID-19 Neuro Research Coalition. A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, medRxiv, and bioRxiv was conducted between January 1, 2020, and June 21, 2021, with additional review of references cited within the identified bibliographies. A modified Delphi approach was then undertaken to develop recommendations, along with a parallel approach to score the strength of both the recommendations and the supporting evidence. This review presents analysis of contemporaneous evidence for the definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of COVID-19 encephalopathy and practical guidance for clinical assessment, investigation, and both acute and long-term management.

8.
BMJ Neurol Open ; 4(2): e000309, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856053

Résumé

Objective: To investigate features of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and evaluate for a causal link between the two. Methods: We captured cases of GBS after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination through a national, open-access, online surveillance system. For each case, the certainty of GBS was graded using the Brighton criteria, and the relationship to the vaccine was examined using modified WHO Causality Assessment criteria. We compared age distribution of cases with that of prepandemic GBS cases and clinical features with the International GBS Outcome Study (IGOS). Results: Between 1 January and 30 June 2021, we received 67 reports of GBS following the ChAdOx1 vaccine (65 first doses) and three reports following the BNT162b2 vaccine (all first doses). The causal association with the vaccine was classified as probable for 56 (80%, all ChAdOx1), possible for 12 (17%, 10 ChAdOx1) and unlikely for two (3%, 1 ChAdOx1). A greater proportion of cases occurred in the 50-59 age group in comparison with prepandemic GBS. Most common clinical variants were sensorimotor GBS (n=55; 79%) and facial diplegia with paraesthesias (n=10; 14%). 10% (n=7/69) of patients reported an antecedent infection, compared with 77% (n=502/652) of the IGOS cohort (p<0.00001). Facial weakness (63% (n=44/70) vs 36% (n=220/620); p<0.00001) and sensory dysfunction (93% (n=63/68) vs 69% (n=408/588); p=0.00005) were more common but disease severity and outcomes were similar to the IGOS study. Interpretation: Most reports of GBS followed the first dose of ChAdOx1 vaccine. While our study cannot confirm or refute causation, this observation, together with the absence of alternative aetiologies, different than expected age distribution and the presence of unusual clinical features support a causal link. Clinicians and surveillance bodies should remain vigilant to the possibility of this very rare adverse event and its atypical variants.

9.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e062698, 2022 07 13.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831140

Résumé

OBJECTIVES: To assess practice in the care of adults with suspected community-acquired bacterial meningitis in the UK and Ireland. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 64 UK and Irish hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 1471 adults with community-acquired meningitis of any aetiology in 2017. RESULTS: None of the audit standards, from the 2016 UK Joint Specialists Societies guideline on diagnosis and management of meningitis, were met in all cases. With respect to 20 of 30 assessed standards, clinical management provided for patients was in line with recommendations in less than 50% of cases. 45% of patients had blood cultures taken within an hour of admission, 0.5% had a lumbar puncture within 1 hour, 26% within 8 hours. 28% had bacterial molecular diagnostic tests on cerebrospinal fluid. Median time to first dose of antibiotics was 3.2 hours (IQR 1.3-9.2). 80% received empirical parenteral cephalosporins. 55% ≥60 years and 31% of immunocompromised patients received anti-Listeria antibiotics. 21% received steroids. Of the 1471 patients, 20% had confirmed bacterial meningitis. Among those with bacterial meningitis, pneumococcal aetiology, admission to intensive care and initial Glasgow Coma Scale Score less than 14 were associated with in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.08, 95% CI 0.96 to 4.48; aOR 4.28, 95% CI 1.81 to 10.1; aOR 2.90, 95% CI 1.26 to 6.71, respectively). Dexamethasone therapy was weakly associated with a reduction in mortality in both those with proven bacterial meningitis (aOR 0.57, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.17) and with pneumococcal meningitis (aOR 0.47, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.10). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that clinical care for patients with meningitis in the UK is not in line with current evidence-based national guidelines. Diagnostics and therapeutics should be targeted for quality improvement strategies. Work should be done to improve the impact of guidelines, understand why they are not followed and, once published, ensure they translate into changed practice.


Sujets)
Méningite bactérienne , Adulte , Antibactériens/usage thérapeutique , Humains , Irlande , Méningite bactérienne/diagnostic , Méningite bactérienne/traitement médicamenteux , Études rétrospectives , Royaume-Uni
10.
Postgrad Med J ; 2022 Jun 23.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738892

Résumé

Encephalitis describes inflammation of the brain parenchyma, typically caused by either an infectious agent or through an autoimmune process which may be postinfectious, paraneoplastic or idiopathic. Patients can present with a combination of fever, alterations in behaviour, personality, cognition and consciousness. They may also exhibit focal neurological deficits, seizures, movement disorders and/or autonomic instability. However, it can sometimes present non-specifically, and this combined with its many causes make it a difficult to manage neurological syndrome. Despite improved treatments in some forms of encephalitides, encephalitis remains a global concern due to its high mortality and morbidity. Prompt diagnosis and administration of specific and supportive management options can lead to better outcomes. Over the last decade, research in encephalitis has led to marked developments in the understanding, diagnosis and management of encephalitis. In parallel, the number of autoimmune encephalitis syndromes has rapidly expanded and clinically characteristic syndromes in association with pathogenic autoantibodies have been defined. By focusing on findings presented at the Encephalitis Society's conference in December 2021, this article reviews the causes, clinical manifestations and management of encephalitis and integrate recent advances and challenges of research into encephalitis.

11.
Vaccine ; 40(32): 4479-4487, 2022 07 30.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715350

Résumé

INTRODUCTION: We investigated the potential association of COVID-19 vaccination with three acute neurological events: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), transverse myelitis and Bell's palsy. METHODS: With the approval of NHS England we analysed primary care data from >17 million patients in England linked to emergency care, hospital admission and mortality records in the OpenSAFELY platform. Separately for each vaccine brand, we used a self-controlled case series design to estimate the incidence rate ratio for each outcome in the period following vaccination (4-42 days for GBS, 4-28 days for transverse myelitis and Bell's palsy) compared to a within-person baseline, using conditional Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among 7,783,441 ChAdOx1 vaccinees, there was an increased rate of GBS (N = 517; incidence rate ratio 2·85; 95% CI2·33-3·47) and Bell's palsy (N = 5,350; 1·39; 1·27-1·53) following a first dose of ChAdOx1 vaccine, corresponding to 11.0 additional cases of GBS and 17.9 cases of Bell's palsy per 1 million vaccinees if causal. For GBS this applied to the first, but not the second, dose. There was no clear evidence of an association of ChAdOx1 vaccination with transverse myelitis (N = 199; 1·51; 0·96-2·37). Among 5,729,152 BNT162b2 vaccinees, there was no evidence of any association with GBS (N = 283; 1·09; 0·75-1·57), transverse myelitis (N = 109; 1·62; 0·86-3·03) or Bell's palsy (N = 3,609; 0·89; 0·76-1·03). Among 255,446 mRNA-1273 vaccine recipients there was no evidence of an association with Bell's palsy (N = 78; 0·88, 0·32-2·42). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccines save lives, but it is important to understand rare adverse events. We observed a short-term increased rate of Guillain-Barré syndrome and Bell's palsy after first dose of ChAdOx1 vaccine. The absolute risk, assuming a causal effect attributable to vaccination, was low.


Sujets)
Paralysie faciale de Bell , , , Paralysie faciale , Syndrome de Guillain-Barré , Myélite transverse , , , Paralysie faciale de Bell/induit chimiquement , Paralysie faciale de Bell/épidémiologie , /prévention et contrôle , /effets indésirables , , Angleterre , Paralysie faciale/induit chimiquement , Paralysie faciale/épidémiologie , Syndrome de Guillain-Barré/induit chimiquement , Syndrome de Guillain-Barré/épidémiologie , Humains , Myélite transverse/complications , Vaccination/effets indésirables
12.
Glob Health Action ; 14(sup1): 2008139, 2021 10 26.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377284

Résumé

Global health research partnerships with institutions from high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries are one of the European Commission's flagship programmes. Here, we report on the ZikaPLAN research consortium funded by the European Commission with the primary goal of addressing the urgent knowledge gaps related to the Zika epidemic and the secondary goal of building up research capacity and establishing a Latin American-European research network for emerging vector-borne diseases. Five years of collaborative research effort have led to a better understanding of the full clinical spectrum of congenital Zika syndrome in children and the neurological complications of Zika virus infections in adults and helped explore the origins and trajectory of Zika virus transmission. Individual-level data from ZikaPLAN`s cohort studies were shared for joint analyses as part of the Zika Brazilian Cohorts Consortium, the European Commission-funded Zika Cohorts Vertical Transmission Study Group, and the World Health Organization-led Zika Virus Individual Participant Data Consortium. Furthermore, the legacy of ZikaPLAN includes new tools for birth defect surveillance and a Latin American birth defect surveillance network, an enhanced Guillain-Barre Syndrome research collaboration, a de-centralized evaluation platform for diagnostic assays, a global vector control hub, and the REDe network with freely available training resources to enhance global research capacity in vector-borne diseases.


Sujets)
Infection par le virus Zika , Virus Zika , Adulte , Brésil , Enfant , Santé mondiale , Humains , Transmission verticale de maladie infectieuse , Infection par le virus Zika/complications , Infection par le virus Zika/épidémiologie , Infection par le virus Zika/prévention et contrôle
13.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 60: 103739, 2022 Apr.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306244

Résumé

BACKGROUND: ChAdOx1-S (Covishield™/Vaxzervria, AstraZeneca) and BBV152 (Covaxin) SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are proven to be safe and effective, but rare complications have been reported. OBJECTIVE: To describe reports of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination following ChAdOx1-S and BBV152 vaccinations. METHODS & RESULTS: We report 29 (17 female; mean 38 years) cases of CNS demyelination; twenty-seven occurred in temporal association with ChAdOx1-S vaccine; two in association with BBV152 vaccine. Eleven patients had presentation with myelitis, six patients developed optic neuritis, five had acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, three presented with brainstem demyelination, and four had multiaxial involvement. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies were positive in ten patients. One patient with ADEM and tumefactive demyelinating lesions died after a prolonged intensive care unit stay and superimposed infection. As compared to the control group (87); the postvaccinial cases were found to have a significantly higher mean age, presence of encephalopathy (p value:0.0007), CSF pleocytosis (p value: 0.0094) and raised CSF protein (p value: 0.0062). CONCLUSIONS: It is difficult to establish a causal relationship between vaccination and neurological adverse events such as demyelination. The temporal association with the vaccination and the presence of MOG antibodies raises the possibility of an immunogenic process triggered by the vaccine in susceptible individuals.


Sujets)
, Maladies démyélinisantes , Autoanticorps , /prévention et contrôle , /effets indésirables , Maladies démyélinisantes/induit chimiquement , Femelle , Humains , Glycoprotéine MOG , SARS-CoV-2
14.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264906, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294450

Résumé

OBJECTIVE: To identify the experiences and concerns of health workers (HWs), and how they changed, throughout the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. METHODS: Longitudinal, qualitative study with HWs involved in patient management or delivery of care related to COVID-19 in general practice, emergency departments and hospitals. Participants were identified through snowballing. Semi-structured telephone or video interviews were conducted between February 2020 and February 2021, audio-recorded, summarised, and transcribed. Data were analysed longitudinally using framework and thematic analysis. RESULTS: We conducted 105 interviews with 14 participants and identified three phases corresponding with shifts in HWs' experiences and concerns. (1) Emergency and mobilisation phase (late winter-spring 2020), with significant rapid shifts in responsibilities, required skills, and training, and challenges in patient care. (2) Consolidation and preparation phase (summer-autumn 2020), involving gradual return to usual care and responsibilities, sense of professional development and improvement in care, and focus on learning and preparing for future. (3) Exhaustion and survival phase (autumn 2020-winter 2021), entailing return of changes in responsibilities, focus on balancing COVID-19 and non-COVID care (until becoming overwhelmed with COVID-19 cases), and concerns about longer-term impacts of unceasing pressure on health services. Participants' perceptions of COVID-19 risk and patient/public attitudes changed throughout the year, and tiredness and weariness turned into exhaustion. CONCLUSIONS: Results showed a long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on UK HWs' experiences and concerns related to changes in their roles, provision of care, and personal wellbeing. Despite mobilisation in the emergency phase, and trying to learn from this, HWs' experiences seemed to be similar or worse in the second wave partly due to many COVID-19 cases. The findings highlight the importance of supporting HWs and strengthening system-level resilience (e.g., with resources, processes) to enable them to respond to current and future demands and emergencies.


Sujets)
/épidémiologie , Prestations des soins de santé/tendances , Personnel de santé/psychologie , /psychologie , Compétence clinique , Prise en charge de la maladie , Hôpitaux , Humains , Études longitudinales , Recherche qualitative , Royaume-Uni/épidémiologie
15.
Lancet Neurol ; 21(4): 314, 2022 04.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202603

Sujets)
Encéphalite , Humains
16.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 22(2): 145-148, 2022 03.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35197253

Résumé

INTRODUCTION: Encephalitis is typically caused by infection or autoimmunity. Most survivors suffer complex neurological and psychiatric sequelae. Standardised outcome measures are needed for accurate interpretation of observational studies and clinical trials. Step one in this process is understanding the strengths and weaknesses of those in use. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review searching six databases. One reviewer screened titles and abstracts, and two reviewers determined if shortlisted full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Key data were extracted from these papers and presented as a narrative summary. RESULTS: Thirty-seven outcome measures were used for 3,133 patients across the 35 included papers, of which, only one was developed for encephalitis. The outcome measures used in most patients were the Glasgow Outcome Score used in 1,436 (46%), Barthel Index used in 1,173 (37%), Euro-QoL-5D used in 1,107 (35%) and modified Rankin Scale used in 1,034 (33%). CONCLUSION: Most of the 37 measures assessed a single category of sequelae using 5-8-point scales and were not validated for use in encephalitis. Research is needed to develop a composite outcome measure for use in clinical practice and a core-outcomes set for use in clinical trials. For now, the Liverpool Outcome Score offers a good choice for clinicians.


Sujets)
Encéphalite , Qualité de vie , Encéphalite/diagnostic , Encéphalite/thérapie , Études de suivi , Humains ,
17.
Qual Health Res ; 32(5): 729-743, 2022 04.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35094621

Résumé

We describe how COVID-19-related policy decisions and guidelines impacted healthcare workers (HCWs) during the UK's first COVID-19 pandemic phase. Guidelines in healthcare aim to streamline processes, improve quality and manage risk. However, we argue that during this time the guidelines we studied often fell short of these goals in practice. We analysed 74 remote interviews with 14 UK HCWs over 6 months (February-August 2020). Reframing guidelines through Mol's lens of 'enactment', we reveal embodied, relational and material impacts that some guidelines had for HCWs. Beyond guideline 'adherence', we show that enacting guidelines is an ongoing, complex process of negotiating and balancing multilevel tensions. Overall, guidelines: (1) were inconsistently communicated; (2) did not sufficiently accommodate contextual considerations; and (3) were at times in tension with HCWs' values. Healthcare policymakers should produce more agile, acceptable guidelines that frontline HCWs can enact in ways which make sense and are effective in their contexts.


Sujets)
, Personnel de santé , Humains , Pandémies , Politique (principe) , SARS-CoV-2 , Royaume-Uni
18.
Br J Nurs ; 31(1): 40-45, 2022 Jan 13.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019745

Résumé

AIM: To explore the experiences of registered nurses providing care to adult patients affected by encephalitis, from admission into hospital through to discharge. STUDY DESIGN: A qualitative phenomenological methodology was used. Sample and setting: Eight registered nurses in a city centre teaching hospital. METHODS: Data collection took place using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed and themes identified using framework analysis. FINDINGS: Three key findings were identified: nurses felt that they lacked knowledge of encephalitis, lacked time to give these patients the care they needed, and they lacked access to rehabilitation for patients with encephalitis. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first evidence on nurses' experiences of providing care to patients affected by encephalitis. It has shown that they often lack the knowledge and time to give adequate support to patients. They also lack access to rehabilitation for these patients.


Sujets)
Encéphalite , Infirmières et infirmiers , Personnel infirmier hospitalier , Adulte , Hôpitaux , Humains , Savoir , Soins aux patients , Recherche qualitative
19.
J Infect ; 84(4): 499-510, 2022 04.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990710

Résumé

OBJECTIVES: Many patients with meningitis have no aetiology identified leading to unnecessary antimicrobials and prolonged hospitalisation. We used viral capture sequencing to identify possible pathogenic viruses in adults with community-acquired meningitis. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 73 patients was tested by VirCapSeq-VERT, a probe set designed to capture viral targets using high throughput sequencing. Patients were categorised as suspected viral meningitis - CSF pleocytosis, no pathogen identified (n = 38), proven viral meningitis - CSF pleocytosis with a pathogen identified (n = 15) or not meningitis - no CSF pleocytosis (n = 20). RESULTS: VirCapSeq-VERT detected virus in the CSF of 16/38 (42%) of those with suspected viral meningitis, including twelve individual viruses. A potentially clinically relevant virus was detected in 9/16 (56%). Unexpectedly Toscana virus, rotavirus and Saffold virus were detected and assessed to be potential causative agents. CONCLUSION: VirCapSeq-VERT increases the probability of detecting a virus. Using this agnostic approach we identified Toscana virus and, for the first time in adults, rotavirus and Saffold virus, as potential causative agents in adult meningitis. Further work is needed to determine the prevalence of atypical viral candidates as well as the clinical impact of using sequencing methods in real time. This knowledge can help to reduce antimicrobial use and hospitalisations leading to both patient and health system benefits.


Sujets)
Méningite virale , Virus , Adulte , Liquide cérébrospinal , Séquençage nucléotidique à haut débit/méthodes , Humains , Hyperleucocytose/liquide cérébrospinal , Méningite virale/diagnostic , Virus/génétique
20.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(12): e0289320, 2021 11 18.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550810

Résumé

Accurate diagnostics underpin effective public health responses to emerging viruses. For viruses, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), where the viremia clears quickly, antibody-based (IgM or IgG) diagnostics are recommended for patients who present 7 days after symptom onset. However, cross-reactive antibody responses can complicate test interpretation among populations where closely related viruses circulate. We examined the accuracy (proportion of samples correctly categorized as Zika positive or negative) for antibody-based diagnostics among Brazilian residents (Rio de Janeiro) during the ZIKV outbreak. Four ZIKV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs; IgM and IgG Euroimmun, IgM Novagnost, and CDC MAC), two dengue ELISAs (IgM and IgG Panbio), and the ZIKV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) were evaluated. Positive samples were ZIKV PCR confirmed clinical cases collected in 2015-2016 (n = 169); negative samples (n = 236) were collected before ZIKV was present in Brazil (≤2013). Among serum samples collected ≥7 days from symptom onset, PRNT exhibited the highest accuracy (93.7%), followed by the Euroimmun IgG ELISA (77.9%). All IgM assays exhibited lower accuracy (<75%). IgG was detected more consistently than IgM among ZIKV cases using Euroimmun ELISAs (68% versus 22%). Anti-dengue virus IgM ELISA was positive in 41.1% of confirmed ZIKV samples tested. The Euroimmun IgG assay, although misdiagnosing 22% of samples, provided the most accurate ELISA. Anti-ZIKV IgG was detected more reliably than IgM among ZIKV patients, suggesting a secondary antibody response to assay antigens following ZIKV infection. Antibody ELISAs need careful evaluation in their target population to optimize use and minimize misdiagnosis, prior to widespread deployment, particularly where related viruses cocirculate.


Sujets)
Infection par le virus Zika , Virus Zika , Anticorps antiviraux , Brésil , Test ELISA , Humains , Immunoglobuline G , Immunoglobuline M , Tests sérologiques , Infection par le virus Zika/diagnostic
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Détails de la recherche