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1.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22272669

Résumé

The combination of cilgavimab-tixagevimab (Evusheld, Astra Zeneca) became the mainstay for protecting transplant recipients with poor response to vaccination against the omicron variant. Serum neutralizing capacity against SARS-CoV-2 is positively associated with protection against severe forms of Covid-19. Both anti-RBD IgG titers and neutralizing antibody titers against the omicron BA.1 variant were measured in serum samples collected from 63 adult kidney transplant recipients who received prophylactic injections of Evusheld. Patients who received prophylactic Ronapreve (casirivimab-imdevimab, n = 39) and those who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the fifth wave of the pandemic (n = 14) served as negative and positive controls, respectively. After a median interval from injection of 29 days (interquartile range 29-33 days), only 9.5% of patients who received Evusheld were able to neutralize the omicron variant compared to 71% of patients who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and 2.6% of those who received Ronapreve. Interestingly, convalescent patients displayed higher levels of neutralizing antibodies than those who received EvusheldTM (median: 2.3 log IC50, IQR: 1.5-2.7 versus 0.00 log IC50, IQR: 0&[ndash] 0.05; p<0.001). A high interindividual variability in anti-RBD IgG titers was observed after Evusheld (range: 262-7032 BAU/mL). This variability was largely explained by the patientsbody mass index, which showed an inverse correlation with anti-RBD IgG titers. These findings suggest that Evusheld given at a dose of 300 mg is not sufficient to elicit an anti-RDB titer that confers in vivo neutralizing activity and support recent FDA recommendations, derived from in vitro models, regarding the need to increase the dose of Evusheld

2.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22272575

Résumé

While the combination of casirivimab-imdevimab (Ronapreve Roche Regeneron) has been shown to confer satisfactory protection against the delta variant kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with COVID-19, it has limited neutralizing activity against the current variants of concern (Omicron BA.1, BA.1.1 and BA.2). In contrast, cilgavimab-tixagevimab combination (Evusheld, Astra Zeneca) retains a partial neutralizing activity against omicron in vitro. We examined whether preexposure prophylaxis with Evusheld can effectively protect kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) against the Omicron variant. Of the 416 KTRs who received intramuscular prophylactic injections of Evusheld (150 mg tixagevimab and 150 mg cilgavimab), 39 (9.4%) developed COVID-19. With the exception of one patient, all KTRs were symptomatic. Hospitalization and admission to an intensive care unit were required for 14 (35.9%) and three patients, respectively. Two KTRs died of COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 sequencing was carried out in 15 cases (BA.1, n = 5; BA.1.1, n = 9; BA.2, n=1). Viral neutralizing activity of the serum against BA.1 variant was negative in the 12 tested patients, suggesting that this prophylaxis strategy provides insufficient protection against this variant of concern. Preexposure prophylaxis with Evusheld does not adequately protect KTRs against Omicron. Further clarification of the optimal dosing can assist in our understanding of how best to harness its protective potential.

3.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21267794

Résumé

SARS-CoV-2 pandemic evolved in two consecutive waves over 2020 (for France: 1st wave from March 1 to July 31; and 2nd wave from August 1 to December 31). Improvements in the management of COVID-19 led to a reduction of mortality rates in hospitalized patients during the second wave. Whether this progress also benefited to kidney transplant recipients (KTR), a population particularly vulnerable to severe COVID-19, remained unclear. In France, 957 KTR were hospitalized for COVID-19 in 2020 and their data were prospectively collected in the French SOT COVID registry. The presentation, management, and outcomes of the 359 KTR diagnosed during the 1st wave were compared to those of the 598 of the 2nd wave. Baseline comorbidities were largely similar between KTR of the 2 waves. Maintenance immunosuppression was reduced in most patients but withdrawal of antimetabolite (73.7% vs 58.4%, p<0.001) or CNI (32.1% vs 16.6%, p<0.001) was less frequent during the 2nd wave. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin that were commonly used during the 1st wave (21.7% and 30.9%, respectively) were almost abandoned during the 2nd. In contrast, the use of high dose corticosteroids doubled (19.5% vs. 41.6%, p<0.001). Despite these changing trends in COVID-19 management, 60-day mortality was not statistically different between the 2 waves (25.3% vs. 23.9%; Log Rank, p=0.48). We conclude that changing of therapeutic trends during 2020 did not reduce COVID-19 related mortality in KTR. Our data indirectly support the importance of vaccination and monoclonal neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies to protect KTR from severe COVID-19.

4.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21266704

Résumé

In immunocompetent subjects, the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines against the delta variant appears three- to five-fold lower than that observed against the alpha variant. Additionally, three doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccines might be unable to elicit a sufficient immune response against any variant in immunocompromised kidney transplant recipients. This study describes the kinetics of the neutralizing antibody (NAbs) response against the delta strain before and after a fourth dose of a mRNA vaccine in 67 kidney transplant recipients who had experienced a weak antibody response after three doses. While only 16% of patients harbored NAbs against the delta strain prior to the fourth injection - this percentage raised to 66% afterwards. We also found that, after the fourth dose, the NAbs titer increased significantly (p=0.0001) from <7.5 (IQR : <7.5-15.1) to 47.1 (IQR <7.5-284.2). Collectively, our data indicate that a fourth dose of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in kidney transplant recipients with a weak antibody response after three previous doses improves serum neutralization against the delta variant.

5.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21262691

Résumé

The US FDA has recently authorized immunocompromised people to receive a third dose of mRNA Covid-19 vaccine following the two-doses regimen to further boost protection. Unfortunately, a non-negligible proportion of people treated with immunosuppressive drugs either do not respond or show only a weak response after a third boost and should, therefore, still be considered at risk of severe Covid-19. As of June 2021, we were granted the opportunity to offer a fourth vaccine dose to French solid organ transplant recipients who still showed a weak antibody response after the third dose. In this multicenter study, we demonstrate that that the protection conferred by a fourth dose is adequate for the majority of kidney transplant recipients.

6.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21260852

Résumé

Transplant recipients, which receive therapeutic immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection, are characterized by high COVID-19-related mortality and defective response to vaccines. Having observed that previous infection by SARS-CoV-2 but not the standard "2 doses" scheme of vaccination, provided complete protection against COVID-19 to transplant recipients, we undertook this translational study to compare the cellular and humoral immune responses of these 2 groups of patients. Neutralizing anti-Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) IgG were identified as the critical immune effectors associated with protection. Generation of anti-RBD IgG was dependent upon spike-specific T follicular helper (Tfh) CD4+ T cells, which acted as limiting checkpoint. Tfh generation was impeded by high dose mycophenolate mofetil in non-responders to vaccine but not in infected patients, suggesting that increasing immunogenicity of vaccine could improve response rate to mRNA vaccine. This theory was validated in two independent prospective cohorts, in which administration of a 3rd dose of vaccine resulted in the generation of anti-RBD IgG in half of non-responders to 2 doses. One sentence summaryThe generation of neutralizing IgG, which protects kidney transplant recipients from COVID-19, requires T follicular helper cells.

7.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21252741

Résumé

Data concerning the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response after mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are currently lacking. Here, we sought to examine this issue by analyzing the serological response observed in 241 KTRs after a first vaccine injection. Our results indicate that KTRs have a weak anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response, ultimately resulting in a low seroconversion rate (26/241, 10.8%). This phenomenon likely stems from a high immunosuppression burden in this clinical population.

8.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20132076

Résumé

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread widely, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and significant mortality. However, data on viral loads and antibody kinetics in immunocompromised populations are lacking. We aimed to determine nasopharyngeal and plasma viral loads via RT-PCR and SARS-CoV-2 serology via ELISA and study their association with severe forms of COVID-19 and death in kidney transplant recipients. In this study we examined hospitalized kidney transplant recipients with non-severe (n = 21) and severe (n =19) COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal and plasma viral load and serological response were evaluated based on outcomes and disease severity. Ten recipients (25%) displayed persistent viral shedding 30 days after symptom onset. The SARS-CoV-2 viral load of the upper respiratory tract was not associated with severe COVID-19, whereas the plasma viral load was associated with COVID-19 severity (p=0.0087) and mortality (p=0.024). All patients harbored antibodies the second week after symptom onset that persisted for two months. We conclude that plasma viral load is associated with COVID-19 morbidity and mortality, whereas nasopharyngeal viral load is not. SARS-CoV-2 shedding is prolonged in kidney transplant recipients and the humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 does not show significant impairment in this series of transplant recipients.

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