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1.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint Dans Anglais | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.11.12.468428

Résumé

We seek to completely revise current models of airborne transmission of respiratory viruses by providing never-before-seen atomic- level views of the SARS-CoV-2 virus within a respiratory aerosol. Our work dramatically extends the capabilities of multiscale computational microscopy to address the significant gaps that exist in current experimental methods, which are limited in their ability to interrogate aerosols at the atomic/molecular level and thus obscure our understanding of airborne transmission. We demonstrate how our integrated data-driven platform provides a new way of exploring the composition, structure, and dynamics of aerosols and aerosolized viruses, while driving simulation method development along several important axes. We present a series of initial scientific discoveries for the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, noting that the full scientific impact of this work has yet to be realized.

2.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint Dans Anglais | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.10.09.463779

Résumé

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication transcription complex (RTC) is a multi-domain protein responsible for replicating and transcribing the viral mRNA inside a human cell. Attacking RTC function with pharmaceutical compounds is a pathway to treating COVID-19. Conventional tools, e.g., cryo-electron microscopy and all-atom molecular dynamics (AAMD), do not provide sufficiently high resolution or timescale to capture important dynamics of this molecular machine. Consequently, we develop an innovative workflow that bridges the gap between these resolutions, using mesoscale fluctuating finite element analysis (FFEA) continuum simulations and a hierarchy of AI-methods that continually learn and infer features for maintaining consistency between AAMD and FFEA simulations. We leverage a multi-site distributed workflow manager to orchestrate AI, FFEA, and AAMD jobs, providing optimal resource utilization across HPC centers. Our study provides unprecedented access to study the SARS-CoV-2 RTC machinery, while providing general capability for AI-enabled multi-resolution simulations at scale.

3.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint Dans Anglais | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.11.19.390187

Résumé

We develop a generalizable AI-driven workflow that leverages heterogeneous HPC resources to explore the time-dependent dynamics of molecular systems. We use this workflow to investigate the mechanisms of infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, the main viral infection machinery. Our workflow enables more efficient investigation of spike dynamics in a variety of complex environments, including within a complete SARS-CoV-2 viral envelope simulation, which contains 305 million atoms and shows strong scaling on ORNL Summit using NAMD. We present several novel scientific discoveries, including the elucidation of the spikes full glycan shield, the role of spike glycans in modulating the infectivity of the virus, and the characterization of the flexible interactions between the spike and the human ACE2 receptor. We also demonstrate how AI can accelerate conformational sampling across different systems and pave the way for the future application of such methods to additional studies in SARS-CoV-2 and other molecular systems. ACM Reference FormatLorenzo Casalino1{dagger}, Abigail Dommer1{dagger}, Zied Gaieb1{dagger}, Emilia P. Barros1, Terra Sztain1, Surl-Hee Ahn1, Anda Trifan2,3, Alexander Brace2, Anthony Bogetti4, Heng Ma2, Hyungro Lee5, Matteo Turilli5, Syma Khalid6, Lillian Chong4, Carlos Simmerling7, David J. Hardy3, Julio D. C. Maia3, James C. Phillips3, Thorsten Kurth8, Abraham Stern8, Lei Huang9, John McCalpin9, Mahidhar Tatineni10, Tom Gibbs8, John E. Stone3, Shantenu Jha5, Arvind Ramanathan2*, Rommie E. Amaro1*. 2020. AI-Driven Multiscale Simulations Illuminate Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Dynamics. In Supercomputing 20: International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage, and Analysis. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 14 pages. https://doi.org/finalDOI

4.
arxiv; 2020.
Preprint Dans Anglais | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2010.06574v1

Résumé

The drug discovery process currently employed in the pharmaceutical industry typically requires about 10 years and $2-3 billion to deliver one new drug. This is both too expensive and too slow, especially in emergencies like the COVID-19 pandemic. In silicomethodologies need to be improved to better select lead compounds that can proceed to later stages of the drug discovery protocol accelerating the entire process. No single methodological approach can achieve the necessary accuracy with required efficiency. Here we describe multiple algorithmic innovations to overcome this fundamental limitation, development and deployment of computational infrastructure at scale integrates multiple artificial intelligence and simulation-based approaches. Three measures of performance are:(i) throughput, the number of ligands per unit time; (ii) scientific performance, the number of effective ligands sampled per unit time and (iii) peak performance, in flop/s. The capabilities outlined here have been used in production for several months as the workhorse of the computational infrastructure to support the capabilities of the US-DOE National Virtual Biotechnology Laboratory in combination with resources from the EU Centre of Excellence in Computational Biomedicine.

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