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1.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.08.18.22278867

Résumé

RATIONALE: The hyperinflammatory immune response of COVID-19, in part orchestrated by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can lead to respiratory failure and death with disparities in outcomes between racial subgroups. In the LIVE-AIR trial, the GM-CSF neutralizing antibody lenzilumab improved survival without mechanical ventilation (SWOV) in COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: An analysis of outcomes was performed to determine differences between Black/African American (B/AA) and White participants in LIVE-AIR. METHODS: LIVE-AIR was a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia were randomized 1:1 to receive lenzilumab (1800 mg total) or placebo in addition to standard of care, including remdesivir and/or corticosteroids. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Lenzilumab, compared to placebo, numerically improved the likelihood of SWOV (primary endpoint) in B/AA (n=71; 86.8% vs 70.9%; HR, 2.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-8.11; p=0.0814) and White (n=343; 85.1% vs 80.8%; HR, 1.41; 95%CI, 0.85-2.35, p=0.182) participants. A statistically significant improvement in SWOV was observed in B/AA (HR: 8.9; 95%CI: 1.08, 73.09; p=0.0418) and White (HR: 2.32; 95%CI: 1.17, 4.61; p=0.0166) participants with baseline CRP<150 mg/L. Lenzilumab numerically, but not statistically, improved secondary endpoints of IMV, ECMO or mortality; ventilator-free days; ICU days and time to recovery in either race while ventilator-free days, ICU days, and time to recovery were statistically improved in B/AA participants with baseline CRP<150 mg/L. Lenzilumab was well tolerated without differences in serious adverse events regardless of race. CONCLUSION: Lenzilumab significantly improved SWOV and some key secondary outcomes in B/AA COVID-19 participants with baseline CRP<150 mg/L. NCT04351152


Sujets)
Insuffisance respiratoire , Pneumopathie infectieuse , Mort , COVID-19
2.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.01.15.22269360

Résumé

Background We estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of mRNA vaccines among US Veterans during periods of Delta and Omicron variant dominance. Patients included in this study were largely 65 years or older (62,834, 55%), male (101,259, 88%), and non-Hispanic white (66,986, 58%). Methods We used SARS-CoV-2 laboratory test results to conduct a matched test-negative case-control study to estimate VE of three and two doses of mRNA vaccines against infection (regardless of symptoms), and a matched case-control study to estimate VE against COVID-19-related hospitalization and death. We estimated VE as (1-odds ratio) x 100%. Severity of disease was measured using hospital length of stay (LOS) and admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). Results Against infection, booster doses had 7-times higher VE - 59% (95% confidence interval [CI], 57 to 61) - than 2-dose VE (7%; 95% CI, 3 to 10) during the Omicron period. For the Delta period, estimated VE against infection was 90% (95% CI, 88 to 92) among boosted vaccinees, 64% higher than VE among 2-dose vaccinees [55% (95% CI, 51 to 58)]. Against hospitalization, booster dose VE was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 91) during Omicron and 95% (95% CI, 91 to 97) during Delta; the 2-dose VE was 44% (95% CI, 26 to 58) during Omicron and 75% (95% CI, 70 to 80) during Delta. Against death, estimated VE with a booster dose was 94% (95% CI, 85 to 98) during Omicron and 96% (95% CI, 88 to 99) during Delta, while the 2-dose VE was 75% (95% CI, 52 to 87) during Omicron and 93% (95% CI, 85 to 97) during Delta. During the Omicron period, average hospital LOS was 4 days shorter [3 days (95%CI, 3 to 4 days)] than during the Delta period. Conclusions A mRNA vaccine booster is more effective against infection, hospitalization, and death than 2-dose vaccination among an older male population with comorbidities.


Sujets)
COVID-19
3.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.12.30.21267140

Résumé

Objective: The LIVE-AIR trial demonstrated that the anti-GM-CSF monoclonal antibody, lenzilumab improved the likelihood of survival without invasive mechanical ventilation (SWOV) in COVID-19 patients; with greatest effect in those with baseline CRP below the median baseline value of 79 mg/L. Similar to GM-CSF, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are correlated with COVID-19 severity. This current analysis assessed the utility of baseline CRP levels to guide treatment with lenzilumab. Design: LIVE-AIR was a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomized 1:1 and stratified according to age and disease severity, to receive lenzilumab or placebo on Day 0, were followed through Day 28. Setting: Secondary and tertiary care hospitals in the US and Brazil. Participants: 520 hospitalized COVID-19 participants with SpO2[≤]94% on room air or required supplemental oxygen but not invasive mechanical ventilation were included. Interventions: Lenzilumab (1800mg; divided as 3 doses, q8h) or placebo infusion alongside standard treatments including corticosteroids and remdesivir. Main outcome measures: A multi-variate logistic regression analysis assessed key baseline risk factors for progression to IMV or death. The primary endpoint, SWOV, and key secondary endpoints were analyzed according to baseline CRP levels in all participants with CRP values. Results: The multi-variate analysis demonstrated that elevated baseline plasma CRP was the most predictive feature for progression to IMV or death. SWOV was achieved in 152 (90%; 95%CI: 85to 94) lenzilumab and 183 (79%; 72 to 84) placebo participants with baseline CRP<150 mg/L and its likelihood was greater with lenzilumab than placebo (HR: 2.54; 95%CI, 1.46 to 4.41; p=0.0009) but not in participants with CRP[≥]150 mg/L at baseline. CRP as a covariate in the overall analysis demonstrated a statistically significant interaction with lenzilumab treatment (p=0.044). Grade [≥] 3 adverse events in participants with baseline CRP<150 mg/L were reported in 18% and 28% in lenzilumab or placebo, respectively. No treatment-emergent serious adverse events were attributable to lenzilumab. Conclusion: These finding suggest that COVID-19 participants with low baseline CRP levels achieve the greatest clinical benefit from lenzilumab and that baseline CRP levels may be a useful biomarker to guide therapeutic intervention. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04351152


Sujets)
Mort , COVID-19
4.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint Dans Anglais | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.07.06.21259982

Résumé

Objectives: To determine whether early oral or parenteral corticosteroids compared to no corticosteroids are associated with decreased mortality in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who are not on intensive respiratory support (IRS) within 48 hours of admission. Design: Observational cohort study Setting: Nationwide cohort of patients receiving care in the Department of Veterans Affairs, a large integrated US national healthcare system Participants: 9,058 patients admitted to a Veterans Affairs Medical Center between June 7, 2020-December 5, 2020 within 14-days after SARS-CoV-2 positive test; exclusion criteria include less than a 48 hour stay, receipt of prior systemic corticosteroids, and no indication of acute medical care for COVID-19. Main outcome measure: 90-day all-cause mortality Results: Of 9,058 total patients (95% men, median age 71 years, 27% black), 6,825 (75%) were not on IRS within 48 hours. Among the 3,025 patients on no oxygen, 598 (20%) received corticosteroids and 283 (9%) died; of 3,800 patients on low-flow nasal cannula oxygen (NC), 2,808 (74%) received corticosteroids and 514 (13%) died. In stratified, inverse probability weighted Cox proportional hazards models comparing those who did and did not receive corticosteroids, patients on no oxygen experienced an 89% increased risk for 90-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33 to 2.68); there was weak evidence of increased mortality among patients on NC (HR 1.21, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.57). Results were robust in subgroup analyses including restricting corticosteroids to dexamethasone, and in sensitivity analyses employing different modeling approaches. Conclusions: In patients hospitalized with COVID-19, we found no evidence of a mortality benefit associated with early initiation of corticosteroids among those on no oxygen or NC in the first 48 hours, though there was evidence of potential harm. These real-world findings support that clinicians should consider withholding corticosteroids in these populations and further clinical trials may be warranted.


Sujets)
COVID-19
5.
ssrn; 2020.
Preprint Dans Anglais | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.3750253

Résumé

Using administrative data on all veterans who enter Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers throughout the United States, this paper uses machine learning methods to predict mortality rates for COVID-19 patients between March and August 2020. First, using comprehensive data on over 10,000 veterans' medical history, demographics, and lab results, we estimate five AI models. Our XGBoost model performs the best, producing an AUROC and AUPRC of 0.87 and 0.41, respectively. Second, through a unique collaboration with the Washington D.C. VA medical center, we develop a dashboard that incorporates these risk factors and the contributing sources of risk, which we deploy across local VA medical centers.


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COVID-19
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